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An adulterant is a substance found within other substances such as food, pharmaceuticals, fuel or other chemicals that compromises the safety or effectiveness of said substance. It will not be present in any specification or declared contents of the substance, may not be allowed; the addition of adulterants is called adulteration. The most common reason for adulteration is the use by manufacturers of undeclared materials that are cheaper than the correct and declared ones; the adulterants may be harmful, or reduce the potency of the product. The term "contamination" is used for the inclusion of unwanted substances due to accident or negligence rather than intent, for the introduction of unwanted substances after the product has been made. Adulteration therefore implies that the adulterant was introduced deliberately in the initial manufacturing process, or sometimes that it was present in the raw materials and should have been removed, but was not. An adulterant is distinct from, for permitted food additives.

There can be a fine line between additive. Chalk was added to bread flour. In wartime adulterants have been added to prevent shortages; the German word ersatz is recognised from such practices during World War II. Such adulteration was sometimes deliberately hidden from the population to prevent loss of morale and propaganda reasons; some goods considered luxurious in the Soviet Bloc such as coffee were adulterated to make them affordable to the general population. Past and present examples of adulterated food, some dangerous, include: Apple jellies, as substitutes for more expensive fruit jellies, with added colorant and sometimes specks of wood that simulate raspberry or strawberry seeds High fructose corn syrup or cane sugar, used to adulterate honey Red ochre–soaked brown bread to give the appearance of beef sausage for sausage roll filling. Roasted chicory roots used as an adulterant for coffee Water, for diluting milk and alcoholic beverages Water or brine injected into chicken, pork, or other meats to increase their weight Urea and other nonprotein nitrogen sources, added to protein products to inflate crude protein content measurements Historically, the use of adulterants has been common.

In the United Kingdom up to the Victorian era, adulterants were common. Similar adulteration issues were seen in industry during the 19th century. There is dispute over whether these practices declined due to government regulation or to increased public awareness and concern over the practices. In the early 21st century, cases of dangerous adulteration occurred in the People's Republic of China. In some African countries, it is not uncommon for thieves to break electric transformers to steal transformer oil, sold to the operators of roadside food stalls to be used for deep frying; when used for frying, it is reported that transformer oil lasts much longer than regular cooking oil. The downside of this misuse of the transformer oil is the threat to the health of the consumers, due to the presence of PCBs. Adulterant use was first investigated in 1820 by the German chemist Frederick Accum, who identified many toxic metal colorings in food and drink, his work antagonized food suppliers, he was discredited by a scandal over his alleged mutilation of books of the Royal Institution library.

The physician Arthur Hill Hassall conducted extensive studies in the early 1850s, which were published in The Lancet and led to the 1860 Food Adulteration Act and other legislation. John Postgate led a further campaign, leading to another Act of 1875, which forms the basis of the modern legislation and a system of public analysts who test for adulteration. At the turn of the 20th century, industrialization in the United States led to a rise in adulteration which inspired some protest. Accounts of adulteration led the New York Evening Post to parody: However in the 18th century, people complained about adulteration in food:"The bread I eat in London is a deleterious paste, mixed up with chalk and bone ashes, insipid to the taste and destructive to the constitution; the good people are not ignorant of this adulteration. Thus they sacrifice their taste and their health... to a most absurd gratification of a misjudged eye. – Tobias Smollett, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker In 1981, denaturated Colza oil was added to Olive oil in Spain and 600 people were killed In 1987, Beech-Nut was fined for violating the US Federal Food and Cosmetic Act by selling flavored sugar water as apple juice.

In 1997, ConAgra Foods illegally sprayed water on stored grain to increase its weight. In 2007, samples of wheat gluten mixed with melamine to produce inflated results from tests for protein content, were discovered in the USA, they were found to have come from China. In 2008, significant portions of China's milk supply were found to have been adulterated with melamine. Infant formula produced from this milk killed at least six children and is believed to have harmed thousands of other

Majid Michel

Majid Michel is a Ghanaian actor. He received nominations for Best Actor in a Leading Role at the Africa Movie Academy Awards in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2017, he won the award in 2012 after three previous consecutive nominations. Michel was born in a suburb of the Ghanaian capital Accra; the son of a Lebanese father and a Ghanaian mother, he grew up in Accra with his nine siblings. He attended St. Theresa's Primary School, the Mfantsipim School, the alma mater of Van Vicker and of former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan. In secondary school, Michel was involved in theatre and was a member of the school's Drama Club; as a member of the drama club, he received a Best Actor Award in one of their performances on Emancipation Day in Cape Coast, Ghana. Michel entered professional acting by auditioning for a modelling agency, he was invited to join the modelling agency, Super Model Agency, on the behest of his next-door neighbour. He starred in the television series Things We Do for Love, acquiring his nickname "Shaker" on the set.

His role in Things We Do for Love was to be played by a Lebanese boy, Michel attributes being given the role due to his Lebanese heritage. In a 2017 interview with Star FM Ghana, Majid explained that he didn't get the role for the first film he auditioned due to poor acting from him, describing his "passion for acting" as what made him to continue to press forward in the film industry. Things We Do For Love propelled him into the mainstream. On the strength of his performance in the series, he was cast in his first movie, Divine Love, as the male lead, alongside Jackie Aygemang as the female lead, with Van Vicker in a supporting role. All three used their roles in the movie to debut their movie careers. Divine Love was a huge success, turning Majid Michel, Jackie Agyemang and Van Vicker into household names across Ghana. In 2008, Michel starred as the lead role in the film Agony of the Christ, which received seven nominations at the Africa Movie Academy Awards in 2009. In October 2017, Majid revealed that he is paid at least $15,000 for a role in a film, he disclosed that he has earned as much as $35,000 to star in a film.

In 2016, Majid explained that despite playing romantic roles in films, he has never had a sexual relationship with an actress. In October 2017, Majid explained on a radio interview that due to his religious beliefs, he will no-longer accept to play character that requires him to kiss on set. Michel is one of the Ghanaian actors who got into the film industry during the period in which Frank Rajah Arase signed a contract with Ghana's Abdul Salam Mumuni of Venus Films; the contract involved introducing Ghanaian actors into the mainstream Nollywood film industry and making them have a star power comparable to Nigerian actors. Films produced under this contract featured Michel include: Crime to Christ, Agony of Christ, Heart of Men, The Game and Who Loves Me? Amongst others. Michel made his Nigerian Nollywood debut in the 2009 romantic drama, playing a leading role alongside Genevieve Nnaji. While Majid's performance was commended, along with his strong on-screen chemistry with Nnaji, the film received mixed to negative reviews.

However, the 2009 film Silent Scandals brought Majid into prominence in Nigeria. Nollywood Forever Comments: "His intensity is concentrated in his eyes and he uses it well so it is understandable that he always gets roles in which love and women and the seduction of them play a large role". Same year, another film featuring Guilty Pleasures was released, he continued this lucrative trend into 2010, where he starred alongside Genevieve Nnaji once more in Bursting Out, a film which got mixed critical reviews. Michel was quite outspoken in the media. In another interview, he stated, he stated in an interview that Genevieve taught him "how to act", implied in another interview that Ghana has no film industry. All of these, along with the explicit roles he played in films made him have controversies always trailing him during his early days. In late 2010, it was reported that the actor is taking a break from Nigeria after receiving death threats from his Nigerian colleagues, who thinks that he is getting too many jobs.

During this time, he went back to act in Ghana, where he featured in films such as 4 Play and its sequel 4 Play Reloaded. In 2012, he starred in the War film Somewhere in Africa. Though the film didn't do well critically, Michel's role delivery got him wide acclaim, he won an Africa Movie Academy Award for the first time; this launched his career once again in Nigeria where he has since established himself as a star and has been featured in mainstream Nigerian films. In 2014, he co-starred in the all-time blockbuster 30 Days in Atlanta for which he got listed by Nigerian Cinema Exhibition Coalition as one of the highest box office grosser of 2014. Other 2014 films featuring Michel include: Forgetting June, met with negative reviews, he however featured in Knocking on Heaven's Door and Being Mrs Elliot, both of which had decent pe

Alvarado I

Alvarado I is a large solar thermal power station in Alvarado, province of Badajoz, in Extremadura, Spain. Construction on the plant commenced in December 2007 and was completed in July 2009, when commercial operations began. Built by the Spanish company Acciona Energy, it has an installed capacity of 50 MWe and lays next to the La Florida solar thermal power station; the facility is built on a 1 km2 site with a solar resource of 2,174 KWh/m2/year, producing an estimated 105,200 MWh of electricity per year. The plant uses parabolic trough technology, is made up of 768 solar thermal collectors, with an output temperature of 393 °C, transferred with Biphenyl and Diphenyl oxide heat transfer agents. A second 50 MWe facility, Alvarado II, is on the proposal stage, it is planned to be constructed in the same area as Alvarado I. List of power stations in Spain List of solar thermal power stations

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights provides the right to freedom of expression and information, subject to certain restrictions that are "in accordance with law" and "necessary in a democratic society". This right includes the freedom to hold opinions, to receive and impart information and ideas. Article 10 – Freedom of expression 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises. 2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

The provision about "licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises", i.e. the state’s right to license the media companies, was included because of the limited number of available frequencies and the fact that, at that time, most European states had a monopoly of broadcasting and television. Court decision held that due to "the technical progress in the last decades, the justification of these restrictions cannot be made by reference to the number of available frequencies and channels." The public monopolies within the audiovisual media were seen by the court as contrary to Article 10 because they cannot provide a plurality of sources of information. The court held that devices for receiving broadcasting information, such as satellite dishes, do not fall under the restriction provided for in the last sentence of the first paragraph. Handyside v United Kingdom Lingens v Austria 8 EHRR 407 Mueller and Others v Switzerland, application number 10737/84 The Observer and The Guardian v United Kingdom 14 EHRR 153, the "Spycatcher" case.

Otto-Preminger-Institut v Austria, see Liebeskonzil Jersild v. Denmark Bowman v United Kingdom ECHR 4, 26 EHRR 1 Appleby v United Kingdom 37 EHRR 38 Steel and Morris v United Kingdom, the ‘McLibel case’ Yildirim v Turkey, 2012 Delfi AS v. Estonia. E. S. v. Austria. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - Article XI states: "The free communication of thoughts and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man: any citizen thus may speak, print except to respond to the abuse of this liberty, in the cases determined by the law." First Amendment to the United States Constitution - government "shall make no law... abridging the freedom of speech" Universal Declaration of Human Rights - Article 19 is nearly identical to Article 10 of the ECHR C Gearty, Civil Liberties

Kevin McCourt

Kevin McCourt was an Irish businessman and Director-General of RTÉ between 1962 and 1968. He served as Managing Director of Irish Distillers and the Dutch firm Hunter Douglas, he was born 14 April 1915 in Tralee, County Kerry, second son among three sons and one daughter of John McCourt of Banbridge, County Down, clerk with the congested districts board at Tralee, a distributor with Argosy Libraries, Mary Christina McCourt of Co. Down, he was educated at the Christian Brothers in Co.. Dublin, Blackrock College, he left school at 16 he joined the Dublin United Tramway Company as a clerk, during which time he continued his education part-time at the Rathmines College of Commerce Dublin Institute of Technology. On qualifying as both a chartered secretary and a certified accountant he became client company secretary with Kennedy, Crowley & Co. chartered accountants becoming secretary and accountant to McAuley & Co. wool merchants. In 1944 he became secretary to the Federation of Irish Manufacturers where he helped to create the public relations committee and came into close contact with the Minister of Industry and Commerce, Seán Lemass.

In 1949 McCourt was appointed a director and founder member of the Industrial Development Authority by Lemass's successor, Daniel Morrissey. After his brief tenure with the IDA he worked for seven years as executive director with P. J. Carroll, tobacco manufacturers, where he learned the problems of production, he helped to modernise the firm's antiquated manufacturing processes and brought Don Carroll into the company. He attempted to persuade the family run company to be more brand aware and to spend more money on advertising. Between 1958-1963 he worked in the Netherlands with international aluminium manufacturers Hunter Douglas NV as joint managing director. Seán Lemass Taoiseach, asked him to return to Ireland to become the second director general of RTÉ. Despite a significant drop in remuneration he took up the post on 1 January 1963; the time was a controversial one with attempts at interference from Archbishop John Charles McQuaid and the views of Lemass, who believed it should be "an instrument of public policy", he insisted that RTÉ remain independent of both church and state.

Shows such as The Late Late Show prospered during this time and had a profound influence on Irish life. Under McCourt the organization developed and covered several notable events in Ireland including John F. Kennedy's visit to Ireland in 1963, Roger Casement's funeral in 1965 and the 50th anniversary of the Easter Rising in 1966, his tenure always caused unrest within sections of the organisation when in 1968 he decided to integrate the 7 Days programme within the RTÉ News division. He stepped down from RTÉ in 1968 and became managing director of the United Distillers of Ireland Ltd.. Throughout his ten years with the group he spearheaded the integration of a company, created from an amalgamation of three competing distilleries and oversaw the modernisation and rationalisation of the firm by moving all whiskey production to a single site in Midleton, Co. Cork, he was instrumental in the purchase of Bushmills Distillery and responsible for creating a partnership with the Canadian firm Seagrams, who purchased 20% of United Distillers.

In 1972 he agreed to write a series of articles for the Sunday Independent, which embroiled him in a controversy between the newspaper and the National Union of Journalists. The NUJ objected to his writing the articles on the basis that it was a threat to the employment of their members; the dispute caused the non-publication of one issue of the Sunday Independent, after which he ended the dispute by withdrawing the articles. During an all-out strike at Irish Distillers Group in 1974, McCourt focused on trade unions saying. We can go a long way towards winning our share in Ireland of this particular war by putting in more than we try to take out, by some reduction in self-interest in favour of the national well-being." By the time he retired from United Distillers the company's profits had risen from £500,000 to £3,500,000. After his retirement he remained on the board until 1983, he was director and chairman of Gorta, the famine relief agency, chairman of Irish Steel. He held a number of other directorships in Foir Teoranta, Jefferson Smurfit Group and Peterson Tennant Group Ltd.

In life he remained involved in business becoming director of Fran Rooney's Baltimore Technologies. He was a benefactor of University College Dublin's Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School with the McCourt University Challenge named after him from 2004, he died 13 May 2000 in Dublin. He married Margaret McMahon of daughter of John McMahon, barrister. In 2009, Eugene McCague published a biography of McCourt entitled My Dear Mr McCourt

Beaky Buzzard

Beaky Buzzard is an animated cartoon character in the Warner Bros. Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons, he is a white tuft around his throat. His neck is thin, bending 90 degrees at an enormous Adam's apple, his neck and head are featherless, his beak is large and yellow or orange, depending on the cartoon. The character is depicted as simpleminded with drawled speech, a perpetual silly grin, partially-closed eyes. Beaky was based on Edgar Bergen's puppet Mortimer Snerd; the character first appeared. The cartoon's plot revolves around the hopeless attempts of the brainless buzzard, here called Killer, to catch Bugs Bunny for his domineering Italian mother back at the nest. Beaky's voice was reminiscent of ventriloquist Edgar Bergen's character Mortimer Snerd; the voice itself was provided by voice actor Kent Rogers. Clampett brought the character back in the 1945 film The Bashful Buzzard, a cartoon that mirrors its predecessor, only this time featuring Beaky's hapless hunting without Bugs as an antagonist.

Rogers reprised his role as the character's voice for the film, but he was killed in a Naval aviation training accident at Pensacola, Florida before finishing all his dialogue, so Stan Freberg was brought in to finish the work. Clampett left the studio in 1946; the character was brought back in the 1950 Friz Freleng film The Lion's Busy, now voiced by Mel Blanc. Freleng made the buzzard smarter. Bob McKimson featured the character in a film that year, Strife with Father. McKimson's Beaky is again back to his idiotic self, this time under the tutelage of his adoptive father, a sparrow, trying to teach Beaky how to survive in the wild. Most Beaky has had minor roles in various Warner Bros. projects, such as Tiny Toon Adventures, where he plays the mentor of the character Concord Condor, the movies Space Jam and 2003's Looney Tunes: Back in Action as an Acme pilot, voiced by Joe Alaskey. Beaky Buzzard appeared in The Sylvester & Tweety Mysteries in the episode "3 Days & 2 Nights of the Condor", where he was voiced by Jeff Bennett.

Beaky's mother, who appeared in many of his original shorts appeared in an episode of the show. Beaky is featured in several issues of Dell Comics' Looney Tunes comic book series paired with another minor player, Henery Hawk, additionally appeared in a print spinoff of Space Jam in 1997; the character was licensed for Looney Tunes merchandise such as a metal coin bank, and, in 1973, a collectible Pepsi bottle. Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid The Bashful Buzzard The Lion's Busy Strife with Father FilmCarrotblanca Space Jam Looney Tunes: Back in Action TelevisionTiny Toon Adventures "3 Days & 2 Nights of the Condor" The Looney Tunes Show Audio recordingsBugs Bunny in Storyland