Frederik Hahn, better known by his stage name Torch, is a German rapper. He is known as DJ Haitian Star, he was among the first German rappers who began rapping in German in the mid-1980s in Heidelberg, laying the foundation for the success of German hip hop music. In 1985, Afrika Bambaataa named him king of the first German chapter of the Zulu Nation and gave him the title: Overlord of Sound & Culture. In 1987, Torch founded the group Advanced Chemistry with Toni L, Gee-One and DJ Mike MD. In 1992, the song Fremd im eigenen Land became the group's first hit. Due to exposure on the cable television network MTV, the song garnered attention outside of Germany's hip hop scene, still quite small at the time. Torch's first solo-album was Blauer Samt, released in 2000, he worked with international artists like Afrika Bambaataa, Grandmaster Caz, Jurassic 5, KRS1, Melle Mel, Missing Linx, Whipper Whip & Virtuoso, Fréro-La Mixture. After his introduction to Bambaataa, Torch was given the task of heading up the first German chapter of the Zulu nation as well as collaborating for the conscious German hip-hop concert,'Rap against the Right'.
Torch was chosen for these tasks because of his social consciousness as pervayed through his music and lyrics. Advanced Chemistry have expressed the desire to remain underground while other German hip hop groups have sought stardom, but a common view shared by these other groups and Torch is their view on "Americanness." Author Timothy Brown cites Torch as stating, "What the American do is exotic for us because we don't live like they do. What they do seems to be more interesting and newer, but not for me. For me it's more exciting to experience my fellow Germans in new contexts... For me it's interesting to see what the kids try to do that's different from what I know." He is travelling the World as DJ Haitian Star where he has performed at the Battle of the Year, Jazz Festival Montreux, Hip Hop Kemp, Zulu Anniversary... He shared the decks with DJs like: Z-Trip, David Rodigan, Grandmaster Flash, Kool Herc, Supreme/Hijack, Stylewarz, Marc Hype. 2000: Gewalt oder Sex 2000: Blauer Samt 2000: Die Welt brennt/Wir waren mal Stars 2001: Die Welt brennt/Wir waren mal Stars 2001: In deinen Armen 2001: Blauer Samt 2005: Move the Crowd 2008: Heidelberg 2009: Mixtape 01 2011: Blauer Samt 2015: Boomshell Bounce EP www.mctorch.de www.360rec.de www.djhaitianstar.com
Toni L is one of the three artists comprising the famous German rap group Advanced Chemistry formed in 1987. Born as Toni Landomini, yet referred to as “der pate” or “the Godfather,” Toni holds German citizenship but has an Italian background, his Italian roots provide him with material for his rap songs, such as in Advanced Chemistry’s hit single “Fremd Im Eigenen Land”, where the group discusses the struggle to be accepted as a German. Toni has produced solo releases, he has founded the German hip-hop label MZEE. 1997 - Der Pate 2000 - Der Funkjoker 2005 - Der Zug rollt 2007 - Funkanimal 1992 - Fremd im eigenen Land 1993 - Welcher Pfad führt zur Geschichte? 1994 - Operation Artikel 3 Dir fehlt der Funk 1995 - Advanced Chemistry 2000 - "Wer ich bin", "Rote Wellen", "Als ich zur Schule ging" by Torch "Zimmer 101" by Peripherique
Marcel Theo Hall, better known by his stage name Biz Markie, is an American rapper, beatboxer, DJ, comedian, television personality and spokesperson. Hall is best known for his 1989 single "Just a Friend", which became a Top 40 hit in several countries. In 2008, "Just a Friend" made #100 on VH1's list of the 100 greatest hip hop songs of all time. Biz Markie lives in Howard County and has helped support County Executive Ken Ulman during his fundraisers. Markie has been called the "Clown Prince of Hip Hop." Markie's career began on Long Island and he graduated from Patchogue-Medford High School in 1982. Biz Markie was interviewed in the 1986 cult documentary Big Fun In The Big Town. Markie released his debut album, Goin' Off, in 1988, which attracted a fair amount of attention due to the lead single, "Make the Music With Your Mouth, Biz"; the album featured the underground hit singles "Nobody Beats The Biz", "Vapors", "Pickin' Boogers". On October 10, 1989, Biz Markie's second studio album, The Biz Never Sleeps, was released on Cold Chillin'/Warner Bros.
Records, produced by Biz, his cousin Cool V and Paul C. The single "Just a Friend", in which he alternates between rap and singing, became Markie's most successful single, reaching #9 on the Billboard charts; the song interpolates the 1968 song "You Got What I Need" by singer/songwriter Freddie Scott, whose basic chord and melody provided the base for the song's chorus. "Just A Friend" was ranked 81st on VH1's 100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders in 2000, as number 100 on VH1's 100 Greatest Songs of Hip Hop in 2008. The music video, directed by Lionel C. Martin, chronicles the rapper's woman problems. Markie's third studio album I Need a Haircut was released on August 27, 1991, on Cold Chillin'/Warner Bros. Records and was produced by Biz Markie and his cousin Cool V. Sales of the album were low when Markie was served a lawsuit by Gilbert O'Sullivan, who claimed that the album's "Alone Again" featured an unauthorized sample from his hit "Alone Again". O'Sullivan's claim was upheld in a landmark ruling, Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc. that altered the landscape of hip-hop, finding that all samples must be cleared with the original artist before being used.
In accordance with the ruling, Warner Bros. the parent company of Cold Chillin', had to pull I Need a Haircut from circulation, all companies had to clear samples with the samples' creators before releasing the records. This development reflected the increasing popularity of hip-hop and the financial stakes over which releases were set. Biz responded in 1993 with the mischievously titled All Samples Cleared!, but his career had been hurt by the publicity emanating from the lawsuit, the record suffered accordingly. Additional bad news came when the video for the track'Toilet Stool Rap' was labeled Worst Video of the Year on the Fromage show from Canada's MuchMusic. For the remainder of the decade, Markie made television appearances, including guest appearances on In Living Color and in a 1996 freestyle rap commercial on MTV2, he made numerous guest appearances with the Beastie Boys on Check Your Head, Ill Communication, Hello Nasty, their anthology The Sounds of Science. He rapped on the song "Schizo Jam", on Don Byron's 1998 release, Nu Blaxploitation and worked with Canibus on the first track on the Office Space soundtrack.
He rapped on the track "So Fresh" alongside Slick Rick on Will Smith's 1999 album Willennium. In 1996, Markie appeared on the Red Hot Organization's compilation CD, America is Dying Slowly, alongside Wu-Tang Clan and Fat Joe, among others; the CD, meant to raise awareness of the AIDS epidemic among African American men, was heralded as a masterpiece by The Source magazine. In 1997, Markie appeared on the Rolling Stones' song "Anybody Seen My Baby?" on their album Bridges to Babylon. His part was shortened on some radio versions. Biz teamed up with Frankie Cutlass on his third single and music video titled "The Cypher Part 3" with some of Marley Marl's Juice Crew veterans. In 1999, Markie appeared on Len's song "Beautiful Day" on their album. In 2002, Markie appeared in Men in Black II, with Will Smith and Tommy Lee Jones playing an alien parody of himself, whose native language sounded like beatboxing. Between 2002 and 2003 he appeared in episode 5 of the TV series Fastlane playing himself as a nightclub DJ.
In 2003 he appeared in the international television series titled Kung Faux performing a series of voice over characters featured in a variety of episodes. In 2004, his song Vapors appeared on the soundtrack of Rockstar's popular videogame Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas which featured an old school hip hop radio station, Playback FM. In 2005, Biz detoured from his recording duties to appear on the first season of the television show Celebrity Fit Club which challenged celebrities to lose weight by a combination of diet and exercise. Biz Markie lost more weight than anybody else in the competition; that year, he was in an episode of The Andy Milonakis Show. Biz Markie was a cast member on Nick Cannon's Wild'n Out, seasons 1 and 3. Biz does the beatboxing segment, Biz's Beat of the Day on the Nick Jr. show Yo Gabba Gabba!. Biz Markie began 2008 opening for Chris Rock's "No Apologies" tour. Biz Markie's act includes spinning records ranging from old school hip hop to Lynyrd Skynyrd and performing "Just a Friend".
Biz Markie's playlist includes the following: "Children's Story" by Slick Rick, "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, "Bill
Culture of Germany
German culture has spanned the entire German-speaking world. From its roots, culture in Germany has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular. Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker. There are a number of public holidays in Germany; the country is known for its traditional Oktoberfest celebrations in Munich, its carnival culture and globally influential Christmas customs known as Weihnachten. 3 October has been the national day of Germany since 1990, celebrated as the German Unity Day. The UNESCO inscribed 38 properties in Germany on the World Heritage List. Germany was the world's second most respected nation among 50 countries in 2013. A global opinion poll for the BBC revealed that Germany is recognized for having the most positive influence in the world in 2011, 2013, 2014. German is the predominant spoken language in Germany, it is one of 23 official languages in the European Union, one of the three working languages of the European Commission, along with English and French.
Recognised native minority languages in Germany are Danish, North Frisian and Saterland Frisian. They are protected by the ECRML; the most used immigrant languages are Turkish, Polish, the Balkan languages, Russian. Standard German is a West Germanic language and is related to and classified alongside English and the Frisian languages. To a lesser extent, it is related to the East and North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family. Significant minorities of words are derived from Latin and Greek, with a smaller amount from French and most English. German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with Umlaut, namely ä, ö, ü, as well as the Eszett or scharfes S, written "ß". German orthography has gone through a series of reforms, the most recent in 1996. German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German. German dialects are traditional local varieties and can be traced back to the different German tribes.
Many of them are not understandable to a speaker of standard German, since they differ in lexicon and syntax. Around the world, German has 100 million native speakers and about 80 million non-native speakers. German is the main language of about 90 million people in the EU. 67% of German citizens claim to be able to communicate in at least one foreign language, 27% in at least two languages other than their first. In the German diaspora, aspects of German culture are passed on to younger generations through naming customs and through the use of spoken and written German; the Goethe Institute seeks the spread the knowledge of German culture worldwide. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages, with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach; the Nibelungenlied, whose author remains unknown, is an important work of the epoch, as is the Thidrekssaga. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world.
Theologian Luther, who translated the Bible into German, is credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Among the most admired German poets and authors are Lessing, Schiller, Hoffmann, Brecht and Schmidt. Nine Germans have won the Nobel Prize in literature: Theodor Mommsen, Paul von Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Hermann Hesse, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Herta Müller; the rise of the modern natural sciences and the related decline of religion raised a series of questions, which recur throughout German philosophy, concerning the relationships between knowledge and faith and emotion, scientific and artistic ways of seeing the world. German philosophers have helped shape western philosophy from as early as the Middle Ages. Leibniz and most Kant played central roles in the history of philosophy. Kantianism inspired the work of Schopenhauer and Nietzsche as well as German idealism defended by Fichte and Hegel. Marx and Engels developed communist theory in the second half of the 19th century while Heidegger and Gadamer pursued the tradition of German philosophy in the 20th century.
A number of German intellectuals were influential in sociology, most notably Adorno, Habermas, Luhmann, Simmel, Tönnies, Weber. The University of Berlin founded in 1810 by linguist and philosopher Wilhelm von Humboldt served as an influential model for a number of modern western universities. In the 21st century Germany has been an important country for the development of contemporary analytic philosophy in continental Europe, along with France, Austria and the Scandinavian countries. In the field of music, Germany claims some of the most renowned classical composers of the world, including Bach and Beethoven, who marked the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in Western classical music. Germans developed many Lutheran chorales and hymns. Other composers of the Austro-German tradition who achieved international fame include Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Wagner, Schubert, Händel, Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Johann Strauss II, Mahler, Richard Strauss, Schoenberg and most Henze and Stockhausen.
Germany is the largest music market in Europe, third largest in the world. It has exerted a strong influence on techno
Big Daddy Kane
Antonio Hardy, better known by his stage name Big Daddy Kane, is a Grammy Award-winning American rapper and actor who started his career in 1986 as a member of the rap collective the Juice Crew. He is considered to be one of the most influential and skilled MCs in hip hop; the name Big Daddy Kane came from a variation on Caine, David Carradine's character from TV show Kung Fu and a character called "Big Daddy" Vincent Price played in the film Beach Party. Rolling Stone magazine ranked his song "Ain't No Half-Steppin'" #25 on its list of The 50 Greatest Hip-Hop Songs of All Time, calling him "a master wordsmith of rap's late-golden age and a huge influence on a generation of MCs." In 1984, Kane became friends with Biz Markie, he would co-write some of Biz's best-known lyrics. Both became important members of the Queens-based Juice Crew, a collective headed by renowned producer Marley Marl. Kane signed with Tyrone Williams’s and Len Fichtelberg’s Cold Chillin' Records label in 1987 and debuted the same year with the 12" single "Raw,", an underground hit.
Kane is known for his ability to syncopate over faster hip hop beats, despite his asthmatic condition he is acknowledged as one of the pioneering masters of fast rhyming. His sense of style is set a number of late-1980s and early-1990s hip hop trends; the backronym King Asiatic Nobody's Equal is applied to his moniker. He released his debut album on Cold Chillin' Records in the early summer of 1988 called Long Live the Kane, which featured the hit "Ain't No Half Steppin'"; the following year Kane released his second album and biggest hit to date It's a Big Daddy Thing, which included 1970s sample throwbacks like "Smooth Operator" and the Teddy Riley-produced track "I Get the Job Done," which hit the R&B top 40 during the closing of the 1980s. He had a memorable verse on the Marley Marl-produced track "The Symphony" released in late 1988, which included Juice Crew members Craig G, Masta Ace, Kool G Rap. Big Daddy Kane appeared on Patti LaBelle's 1991 effort, "Burnin'", he provided the rap chorus to the single "Feels Like Another One".
He appeared on the video release "Live in New York." He contributed the song "Nuff Respect" to the soundtrack of the film Juice, which starred Omar Epps and Tupac Shakur, further demonstrating his fast lyrical delivery. In 1991, Kane won the Grammy Award for Best Rap Performance by a Duo or Group for his performance on the Quincy Jones collaborative track "Back on the Block" off Back on the Block. Regarded as one of the greatest rappers during the "golden age" of hip hop, Kane's experimentation with R&B beats and his alignment to the Five Percent Nation drew criticism. Albums, such as Looks Like a Job For…, were acclaimed, but he was never able to return to the commercial and artistic success of It's a Big Daddy Thing. However, he still tours extensively; as an actor, he debuted in Mario Van Peebles' 1993 western and appeared in Robert Townsend's 1993 film The Meteor Man. Big Daddy Kane posed for Playgirl and Madonna's Sex book during the 1990s. In 1996, he collaborated with 2Pac on his song "Where Ever U R".
During the early 1990s, Jay-Z toured with Kane, Kane helped him early on in his career - Ice-T says, "I met Jay-Z with Kane. Kane brought Jay-Z over to my house." Kane himself says that Jay-Z wasn’t technically his hypeman in the true sense of the term—"he wasn’t a hypeman, he made cameo appearances on stage. When I would leave the stage to go change outfits, I would bring out Jay-Z and Positive K and let them freestyle until I came back to the stage." Jay-Z was featured on Big Daddy Kane’s track ‘Show & Prove’ from Daddy’s Home, as well as in the video. In 1995, Kane recorded with MC Hammer and Tupac Shakur on the rap song "Too Late Playa", he was mentioned to signing with Death Row East in 1996. In 1997, Kane team up with Frankie Cutlass on his third single title "The Cypher Part 3" and some of Marley Marl Juice Crew veterans. In 1998, he released his final solo album "Veteran'z Day", it did not sell well. However, Kane made many appearances in the 2000s. In 2000, Big Daddy Kane appeared on Tony Touch's "The Piece Maker" mixtape alongside Kool G Rap and KRS-One.
A rejuvenated Big Daddy Kane collaborated with a variety of hip-hop artists, including A Tribe Called Quest, Jurassic 5, Little Brother, DJ Babu of the Beat Junkies. He released two singles, the Alchemist-produced "The Man, The Icon", the DJ Premier-produced "Any Type of Way" and the erosion of the middle class. Big Daddy Kane appeared on the trip hop group Morcheeba's 2003 single "What's Your Name". In 2004, "Warm It Up, Kane" appeared on popular video game Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas, playing on classic hip hop radio station Playback FM, the name Kane was used to refer to the name of the leader of a rival gang in the game. In 2005, Big Daddy Kane was honored during the VH1 Hip-Hop Honors. After a medley of hits performed by T. I. Black Thought, Common, he came out to perform "Warm It Up, Kane" with his old dancers and Scrap. Kane and Kool G Rap can both be seen in Dave Chappelle's Block Party documentary. In 2006, he appeared as a guest MC on the track "Get Wild Off This", produced by The Stanton Warriors for their Stanton Sessions Vol. 2 breaks mix.
He appeared alongside the Wu-Tang Clan and his longtime friends Busta Rhymes and Q-Tip in a segment of the 2006 Summer Jam concert, as part of an initiative by Busta Rhymes to honor the legacy
MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Heidelberg is a university town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, with a quarter of its population being students. Located about 78 km south of Frankfurt, Heidelberg is the fifth-largest city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. Founded in 1386, Heidelberg University is Germany's oldest and one of Europe's most reputable universities. A scientific hub in Germany, the city of Heidelberg is home to several internationally renowned research facilities adjacent to its university, including four Max Planck Institutes. A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle, the Philosophers' Walk, the baroque style Old Town. Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.
It is bordered by the Gaisberg mountains. The Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain rises to a height of 445 meters; the Neckar flows into the Rhine 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century stretch from the Neckar Valley along the Bergstraße, a road running along the Odenwald hills. Heidelberg is on European walking route E1. Since Heidelberg is among the warmest regions of Germany, plants atypical of the central-European climate flourish there, including almond and fig trees. Alongside the Philosophenweg on the opposite side of the Old Town, winegrowing was restarted in 2000. There is a wild population of African rose-ringed parakeets, a wild population of Siberian swan geese, which can be seen on the islands in the Neckar near the district of Bergheim. Heidelberg is a unitary authority within the Regierungsbezirk Karlsruhe; the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis rural district surrounds it and has its seat in the town, although the town is not a part of the district.
Heidelberg is a part of the Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region referred to as the Rhein-Neckar Triangle. This region consists of the southern part of the State of Hessen, the southern part of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the administrative districts of Mannheim and Heidelberg, the southern municipalities of the Rhein-Neckar-Kreis; the Rhein-Neckar Triangle became a European metropolitan area in 2005. Heidelberg consists of 15 districts distributed in six sectors of the town. In the central area are Altstadt and Weststadt; the new district will have 5,000–6,000 residents and employment for 7,000. Further new residential space for 10,000-15,000 residents was made available in Patrick Henry Village following the departure of the US Armed Forces; the following towns and communes border the city of Heidelberg, beginning in the west and in a clockwise direction: Edingen-Neckarhausen, Schriesheim, Schönau, Neckargemünd, Gaiberg, Sandhausen, Plankstadt and Mannheim. Heidelberg has an oceanic climate, defined by the protected valley between the Pfälzerwald and the Odenwald.
Year-round, the mild temperatures are determined by maritime air masses coming from the west. In contrast to the nearby Upper Rhine Plain, Heidelberg's position in the valley leads to more frequent easterly winds than average; the hillsides of the Odenwald favour precipitation. The warmest month is July, the coldest is January. Temperatures rise beyond 30 °C in midsummer. According to the German Meteorological Service, Heidelberg was the warmest place in Germany in 2009. Between 600,000 and 200,000 years ago, "Heidelberg Man" died at nearby Mauer, his jaw bone was discovered in 1907. Scientific dating determined his remains as the earliest evidence of human life in Europe. In the 5th century BC, a Celtic fortress of refuge and place of worship were built on the Heiligenberg, or "Mountain of Saints". Both places can still be identified. In 40 AD, a fort occupied by the 24th Roman cohort and the 2nd Cyrenaican cohort; the early Byzantine/late Roman Emperor Valentinian I, in 369 AD, built new and maintained older castra and a signal tower on the bank of the Neckar.
They built a wooden bridge based on stone pillars across it. The camp protected the first civilian settlements; the Romans remained until 260 AD. The local administrative center in Roman times was the nearby city of Lopodunum. Modern Heidelberg can trace its beginnings to the fifth century; the village Bergheim is first mentioned for that period in documents dated to 769 AD. Bergheim now lies in the middle of modern Heidelberg; the people converted to Christianity. In 863 AD, the monastery of St. Michael was founded on the Heiligenberg inside the double rampart of the Celtic fortress. Around 1130, the Neuburg Monastery was founded in the Neckar valley. At the same time, the bishopric of Worms extended its influence into the valley, founding Schönau Abbey in 1142. Modern He