click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Advanced Power Management

Advanced power management is an API developed by Intel and Microsoft and released in 1992 which enables an operating system running an IBM-compatible personal computer to work with the BIOS to achieve power management. Revision 1.2 was the last version of the APM specification, released in 1996. ACPI is intended as the successor to APM. Microsoft dropped support for APM in Windows Vista; the Linux kernel still supports APM, with the last functional APM support shipping in 3.3. APM uses a layered approach to manage devices. APM-aware applications talk to an OS-specific APM driver; this driver communicates to the APM-aware BIOS. There is the ability to opt out of APM control on a device-by-device basis, which can be used if a driver wants to communicate directly with a hardware device. Communication occurs both ways. In this way the APM driver is an intermediary between the operating system. Power management happens in two ways. There are 12 power events, plus OEM-defined events, that can be sent from the APM BIOS to the operating system.

The APM driver polls for event change notifications. Power Management Events: Power management functions: There are 21 APM function calls defined that the APM driver can use to query power management statuses, or request power state transitions. Example function calls include letting the BIOS know about current CPU usage, retrieving the current power state of a device, or requesting a power state change; the APM specification defines system power states and device power states. APM defines five power states for the computer system: Full On: The computer is powered on, no devices are in a power saving mode. APM Enabled: The computer is powered on, APM is controlling device power management as needed. APM Standby: Most devices are in their low-power state, the CPU is slowed or stopped, the system state is saved; the computer can be returned to its former state quickly. APM Suspend: Most devices are powered off, but the system state is saved; the computer can be returned to its former state, but takes a long time..

Off: The computer is turned off. APM defines power states that APM-aware hardware can implement. There is no requirement; the four states are: Device On: The device is in full power mode. Device Power Managed: The device is still powered on, but some functions may not be available, or may have reduced performance. Device Low Power: The device is not working. Power is maintained so that the device may be'woken up'. Device Off: The device is powered off; the CPU core is treated specially in APM, as it is the last device to be powered down, the first device to be powered back up. The CPU core is always controlled through the APM BIOS. Drivers can use APM function calls to notify the BIOS about CPU usage, but it is up to the BIOS to act on this information; the ATA specification defines APM provisions for hard drives via the subcommand 0x05, which specifies a trade-off between spin-down frequency and always-on performance. Unlike the BIOS-side APM, the ATA APM has never been deprecated. Active State Power Management - hardware power management protocol for PCI Express Advanced Configuration and Power Interface - successor to APM Green computing Power management BatteryMAX APM V1.2 Specification.

This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later

Mark Fallon

Mark Fallon is a counter-terrorism expert from the United States. He was the director of the Criminal Investigative Task Force at the US Military's Guantanamo detention camp, for two and half years, where his organization conducted a parallel and independent series interrogations and intelligence analysis from that conducted by Joint Task Force Guantanamo, the CIA and the FBI. Fallon tried to use his influence to prevent torture from being employed at Guantanamo. According to Ben Taub, writing in the New Yorker magazine, by August 2002 "Fallon’s élite interagency criminal-investigation task force had been sidelined."Following his time in Government service Fallon became a vocal critic of the US Intelligence Establishment's counter-terrorism efforts. On 2008 Fallon joined The Soufan Group, a security firm founded by Ali Soufan, a former FBI counter-terrorism expert who became a critic of the narrative common from members of the US Intelligence Establishment. In 2017 Fallon published "Unjustifiable Means: The Inside Story of How the CIA, US Government Conspired to Torture."

Department of Defense spokesman Darrell Walker disputed claims the Government was trying to suppress publication of his book. Rather, he said, the Government imposed delays were due to his book requiring review from ten different Government agencies; the American Civil Liberties Union mounted a defense of Fallon's First Amendment right to free speech, contacted several members of Congress

American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen

The American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen was an American society of designers and decorative artists, active from 1928 until the early 1930s. The group aimed to bring modern principles of design, such as those promoted in Europe by the Wiener Werkstätte and the Bauhaus, to decorative arts in the United States; the modernist furniture designer Paul T. Frankl immigrated from Vienna to New York in 1914, he worked to establish Europe's flourishing principles of contemporary design in the United States by writing books such as New Dimensions: The Decorative Arts of Today and by establishing a collective of fellow designers called the American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen in 1928. Early members included designers who exhibited at the American Designers' Gallery, which showed interiors and furnishings designed by contemporary New York designers, such as Donald Deskey and Ilonka Karasz. AUDAC was modeled on European decorative arts societies such as the Société des Artistes Décorateurs in France.

They published books on the new American design such as Modern American Design and Annual of American Design and put together influential exhibitions of their members' work, including one at the Brooklyn Museum in 1931 which showed work by Russel Wright, Ruth Reeves, Rockwell Kent among many others. The group was well known by the early 1930s when Radio City Music Hall commissioned Donald Deskey and other AUDAC members to design the fabrics and furnishings for the interior. Many members went on to long careers and well-known places in the history of twentieth-century design. However, due to the 1930s economic depression, the formal association was defunct by 1934. AUDAC placed an ad in a supplement for the magazine Creative Art in March 1930 which listed contact information for many of its members and described the mission of the American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen thus: AUDAC stands convinced that contemporary life demands an appropriate setting and that it is the work of the artist of all ages to mould the external world to suit the life of his time.

AUDAC realizes that the cultural contribution of an era is as reflected in the decorative as in the other arts. AUDAC was founded to give these convictions organized voice. AUDAC stands for: The advancement of the new tendencies in the decorative and applied arts; the elevation of standards in contemporary design. The development of STYLE rather than styles. Founded by Paul T. Frankl in 1928. Members included: Media related to American Union of Decorative Artists and Craftsmen at Wikimedia Commons

European bullhead

The European bullhead is a freshwater fish, distributed in Europe in rivers. It is a member of a type of sculpin, it is known as the miller's thumb, freshwater sculpin, common bullhead. The European bullhead is a small demersal fish that lives both in cold, fast-flowing small streams and in middle-sized rivers, it occurs on gravelly shores of cold lakes. Further, it thrives in diluted brackish water of the Northern Baltic Sea; the bullhead has large fins and a rounded tail. The eyes are located near the top of the head. To the distinction from the other freshwater sculpin species found in Northern Europe, it can be told from the alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus by the fact that the rays of its pelvic fins are of similar lengths while the first and last rays are longer in the alpine bullhead, it can be distinguished from the fourhorn sculpin by the fact that the dorsal and anal fins terminate close to the tail giving a short caudal peduncle. When it rests on the bottom, the pectoral fins flare out resembling wings.

The bullhead is about 6 to 8 cm long and is light brown mottled with darker colour. The pelvic fins lack the stripes of the alpine bullhead. Food items eaten by the bullhead include benthic insects and other invertebrates, it breeds in the spring. The male digs a shallow hollow, he guards the nest for the month or so that it takes for the eggs to hatch. The European bullhead, as treated above, is widespread over most of the subcontinent and in England, but absent from the southern peninsulae and from Northern Scandinavia, it is not a single uniform taxon, but composed of morphologically and genetically differentiated subunits. Some of those have been distinguished long time ago as separate subspecies or species with their own names, while in practice they have still been treated under the concept of Cottus gobio. In 2005, Freyhof et al. suggested subdivision of the European Cottus gobio into fourteen distinct species, of which six had been described earlier and eight were newly described and named.

Cottus aturi - France Cottus duranii - France Cottus gobio sensu stricto - Germany, Central Europe Cottus haemusi - Bulgaria Cottus hispaniolensis - France, Spain Cottus koshewnikowi - Northeast Europe Cottus metae - Danube drainage Cottus microstomus - East Central Europe: Poland, Ukraine etc

Shining-blue kingfisher

The shining-blue kingfisher is a species of bird in the family Alcedinidae. It is found in Equatorial Africa; the shining-blue kingfisher was described of by the French ornithologist Charles Lucian Bonaparte in 1850 and given its current binomial name Alcedo quadribrachys. The name Alcedo is the Latin word for a "kingfisher"; the specific epithet quadribrachys is from the Latin quadri- for "four" and brachium meaning "arms" or in this case "toes". The shining-blue kingfisher is one of seven species in the genus Alcedo and is most related to the half-collared kingfisher. There are two subspecies: A. q. quadribrachys Bonaparte, 1850 – Senegal and Gambia to west central Nigeria A. q. guentheri Sharpe, 1892 – southern Nigeria to Kenya, northwest Zambia and north Angola

Pekalongan Batik Museum

Pekalongan Batik Museum is a batik museum located in Pekalongan, Central Java, Indonesia. The building of the museum was the City Hall of Pekalongan, located in the city center along with other important colonial buildings such as the church and the post office; the museum was established by the Ministry of Education and Culture of Central Java on July 12, 1972. The Museum has a collection of wide range of Batik motive and design of Pekalongan and the surrounding area, as well as information on the development of batik starting from the Dutch era to the influence of Japan in the periode of Second World War with its Hokokai Javanese motives; the museum contains an office space, a batik shop, a library, seminar rooms. There is a workshop to learn about batik-making process. List of museums and cultural institutions in Indonesia