John Reid, Baron Reid of Cardowan
John Reid, Baron Reid of Cardowan PC is a British Labour Party politician. He was a Member of Parliament from 1987 to 2010, served in the Cabinet under Prime Minister Tony Blair in a number of positions, he was Health Secretary from 2003 to 2005, Defence Secretary from 2005 to 2006, Home Secretary from 2006 to 2007. Born in Bellshill to working-class, Roman Catholic parents, Reid first became involved in politics when he joined the Young Communist League in 1972, he joined the Labour Party, working for them as a senior researcher before being elected to the House of Commons in 1987 as the MP for Motherwell North. He retired from frontline politics in 2007 following Gordon Brown's appointment as Prime Minister, taking on a role as the Chairman of Celtic Football Club, he stepped down as an MP in 2010, was elevated to the House of Lords. Reid took a leading role in the campaign for a "No" vote in the 2011 AV referendum, appearing alongside Conservative Prime Minister, David Cameron, took a leading role in the campaign opposing Scottish independence.
Reid was born in Scotland, to working-class Roman Catholic parents. His grandfather was "a staunch Church of Scotland Presbyterian and his grandmother a poor and illiterate Irish peasant." His mother, was a factory worker and his father, was a postman. Reid attended Coatbridge; the adolescent Reid showed an early talent for organisation and political activism by leading a student strike in protest at a school rule. Reid decided not to go to university but instead took a series of jobs, including construction work on an oil pipeline and another in insurance. Soon after this experience, he joined the Labour Party, it was around this time that Reid's lifelong passion for history was kindled when his girlfriend, Cathie McGowan, bought him a copy of The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by William L. Shirer. Reid was spellbound. Following this he attended the Open University in his mid-twenties to study a Foundation Course and later attended the University of Stirling, becoming rector of the Students' Union and gaining a BA in history and a PhD in economic history, with a thesis on the slave trade written as a critique of the Marxist model of historical change, entitled Warrior Aristocrats in Crisis: the political effects of the transition from the slave trade to palm oil commerce in the nineteenth century Kingdom of Dahomey.
From 1979-83, Reid was a research officer for the Labour Party in Scotland, from 1983-85, was a political adviser to Labour leader Neil Kinnock. From 1986-87, he was Scottish Organiser of Trade Unionists for Labour, he entered parliament at the 1987 general election as MP for the Motherwell North constituency. After boundary changes, he was returned at the 1997 election for the new constituency of Hamilton North and Bellshill. Reid was married to Cathie McGowan from 1969 until her sudden death from a heart attack in 1998. In 2002, he married film director Carine Adler. According to The Guardian, in 1991, Reid arrived at the House of Commons "drunk one day and tried to force his way on to the floor to vote; when an attendant stepped forward to stop him, Reid threw a punch". Reid stopped drinking in 1994 and gave up his 60-a-day cigarette habit in 2003. At university, for a time, Reid became a member of the Communist Party of Great Britain. On securing the support of the Communists and Labour students, Reid was able to run for president of the students' union and win the election.
He moved on from Leninism after leaving university with his doctorate, became a researcher for Scottish Labour party. Reid believes that any socialist, or indeed any rational person, should be a revisionist on principle; as an advisor to Neil Kinnock, Reid was one of the earliest advocates for reforms to the Labour Party. In 1983, after the Labour Party's worst electoral defeat in sixty-five years, he had, at Kinnock's request, put on a single sheet of paper what he held had been making Labour so unelectable for the past few years. "Leaderless, dominated by demagogues, policies fifteen years out of date", Reid had written. Elected to Parliament in 1987 as the Member of Parliament for Motherwell North, within two years he was appointed to the Shadow Front Bench as spokesperson for Children. In 1990, Reid was appointed as Defence spokesperson; when the former Yugoslavia was breaking up in the 1990s, Reid was in dialogue with the Bosnian Serbs. During the Bosnian War, Reid struck up a friendship with Radovan Karadžić to be indicted as a war criminal.
Reid admitted he spent three days at a luxury Geneva lakeside hotel as a guest of Karadžić in 1993. When Labour came to power in 1997 Reid served as Minister of State for Defence, he became Minister of State for Transport in 1998. Reid held seven Cabinet posts in seven years while Tony Blair was Prime Minister: After the 1997 election, Reid was the obvious choice to become the Armed Forces Minister, where he played a key role in the Defence Secretary George Robertson's Strategic Defence Review. Reid gained considerable praise for the review. In 1998 Reid moved from Defence to become the Minister of Transport; the Prime Minister Tony Blair sent
University of Birmingham
The University of Birmingham is a public research university located in Edgbaston, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1900 as a successor to Queen's College and Mason Science College, making it the first English civic or'red brick' university to receive its own royal charter, it is a founding member of both the Russell Group of British research universities and the international network of research universities, Universitas 21. The university was ranked 14th in the UK and 79th in the world in the QS World University Rankings for 2019. In 2013, Birmingham was named'University of the Year 2014' in the Times Higher Education awards; the 2017 Global Employability University Ranking places Birmingham at 142nd worldwide and 10th in the UK. Birmingham is ranked 5th in the UK for Graduate Prospects in The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2018; the student population includes 22,440 undergraduate and 12,395 postgraduate students, the fourth largest in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £673.8 million of which £134.2 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £663.2 million.
The university is home to the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, housing works by Van Gogh and Monet. Academics and alumni of the university include former British Prime Ministers Neville Chamberlain and Stanley Baldwin, the British composer Sir Edward Elgar and eleven Nobel laureates. Although the earliest beginnings of the university were traced back to the Queen's College, linked to William Sands Cox in his aim of creating a medical school along Christian lines, unlike the London medical schools, further research has now revealed the roots of the Birmingham Medical School in the medical education seminars of Mr John Tomlinson, the first surgeon to the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary, to the General Hospital; these classes were the first held outside London or south of the Scottish border in the winter of 1767–68. The first clinical teaching was undertaken by medical and surgical apprentices at the General Hospital, opened in 1779; the medical school which grew out of the Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary was founded in 1828 but Cox began teaching in December 1825.
Queen Victoria granted her patronage to the Clinical Hospital in Birmingham and allowed it to be styled "The Queen's Hospital". It was the first provincial teaching hospital in England. In 1843, the medical college became known as Queen's College. In 1870, Sir Josiah Mason, the Birmingham industrialist and philanthropist, who made his fortune in making key rings, pen nibs and electroplating, drew up the Foundation Deed for Mason Science College; the college was founded in 1875. It was this institution that would form the nucleus of the University of Birmingham. In 1882, the Departments of Chemistry and Physiology were transferred to Mason Science College, soon followed by the Departments of Physics and Comparative Anatomy; the transfer of the Medical School to Mason Science College gave considerable impetus to the growing importance of that college and in 1896 a move to incorporate it as a university college was made. As the result of the Mason University College Act 1897 it became incorporated as Mason University College on 1 January 1898, with Joseph Chamberlain becoming the President of its Court of Governors.
It was due to Chamberlain's enthusiasm that the university was granted a royal charter by Queen Victoria on 24 March 1900. The Calthorpe family offered twenty-five acres of land on the Bournbrook side of their estate in July; the Court of Governors received the Birmingham University Act 1900, which put the royal charter into effect on 31 May. Birmingham was therefore arguably the first so-called red brick university, although several other universities claim this title; the transfer of Mason University College to the new University of Birmingham, with Chamberlain as its first chancellor and Sir Oliver Lodge as the first principal, was complete. All that remained of Josiah Mason's legacy was his Mermaid in the sinister chief of the university shield and of his college, the double-headed lion in the dexter, it became the first civic and campus university in England. The University Charter of 1900 included provision for a commerce faculty, as was appropriate for a university itself founded by industrialists and based in a city with enormous business wealth, in effect creating the first Business School in England.
The faculty, the first of its kind in Britain, was founded by Sir William Ashley in 1901, who from 1902 until 1923 served as first Professor of Commerce and Dean of the Faculty. From 1905 to 1908, Edward Elgar held the position of Peyton Professor of Music at the university, he was succeeded by his friend Granville Bantock. The university's own heritage archives are accessible for research through the university's Cadbury Research Library, open to all interested researchers; the Great Hall in the Aston Webb Building was converted into the 1st Southern General Hospital during World War I, with 520 beds and treated 125,000 injured servicemen. In 1939, the Barber Institute of Fine Arts, designed by Robert Atkinson, was opened. In 1956, the first MSc programme in Geotechnical Engineering commenced under the title of "Foundation Engineering", has been run annually at the university since, it was the
Newcastle University is a public research university in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. The university can trace its origins to a School of Medicine and Surgery, established in 1834, to the College of Physical Science, founded in 1871; these two colleges came to form one division of the federal University of Durham, with the Durham Colleges forming the other. The Newcastle colleges merged to form King's College in 1937. In 1963, following an Act of Parliament, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Newcastle University is a red brick university and is a member of the Russell Group, an association of prestigious research-intensive UK universities; the university has one of the largest EU research portfolios in the UK. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £495.7 million of which £109.4 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £483.3 million. Teaching and research are delivered in 24 academic schools and 40 research institutes and research centres, spread across three Faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences.
The university offers around 175 full-time undergraduate degree programmes in a wide range of subject areas spanning arts, sciences and medicine, together with 340 postgraduate taught and research programmes across a range of disciplines. The university has its origins in the School of Medicine and Surgery, established in Newcastle upon Tyne in October 1834, when it provided basic lectures and practical demonstrations to around 26 students. In June 1851, following a dispute among the teaching staff, the School split into two rival institutions; the majority formed the Newcastle College of Medicine, the others established themselves as the Newcastle upon Tyne College of Medicine and Practical Science. By 1852, the majority college was formally linked to the University of Durham, it awarded its first'Licence in Medicine' in 1856, its teaching certificates were recognised by the University of London for graduation in medicine. The two colleges amalgamated in 1857 and were renamed the University of Durham College of Medicine in 1870.
Attempts to realise a place for the teaching of sciences in the city were met with the foundation of the College of Physical Science in 1871. The college offered instruction in mathematics, physics and geology to meet the growing needs of the mining industry, becoming the Durham College of Physical Science in 1883 and renamed after William George Armstrong as Armstrong College in 1904. Both these separate and independent institutions became part of the University of Durham, whose 1908 Act formally recognised that the university consisted of two Divisions and Newcastle, on two different sites. By 1908, the Newcastle Division was teaching a full range of subjects in the Faculties of Medicine and Science, which included agriculture and engineering. Throughout the early 20th century, the medical and science colleges vastly outpaced the growth of their Durham counterparts and a Royal Commission in 1934 recommended the merger of the two colleges to form King's College, Durham. Growth of the Newcastle Division of the federal Durham University led to tensions within the structure and on 1 August 1963 an Act of Parliament separated the two, creating the University of Newcastle upon Tyne.
As the successor of King's College, the university at its founding in 1963, adopted the coat of arms granted to the Council of King's College in 1937. In the Letters Patent authorising the transfer, the arms are blazoned Azure, a Cross of St Cuthbert Argent and in chief of the last a lion passant guardant Gules. Above the portico of the Students' Union building are bas-relief carvings of the arms and mottoes of the University of Durham, Armstrong College and Durham University College of Medicine, the predecessor parts of Newcastle University. While a Latin motto, "mens agitat molem" appears in the Students' Union building, the university itself does not have an official motto; the university occupies a campus site close to Haymarket in central Newcastle upon Tyne. It is located to the northwest of the city centre between the open spaces of Leazes Park and the Town Moor; the Armstrong building is the oldest building on the campus and is the site of the original Armstrong College. The building was constructed in three stages.
The south-east wing, which includes the Jubilee Tower, south-west wings were opened in 1894. The Jubilee Tower was built with surplus funds raised from an Exhibition to mark Queen Victoria's Jubilee in 1887; the north-west front, forming the main entrance, was completed in 1906 and features two stone figures to represent science and the arts. Much of the construction work was financed by Sir Isaac Lowthian Bell, the metallurgist and former Lord Mayor of Newcastle, after whom the main tower is named. In 1906 it was opened by King Edward VII; the building contains the King's Hall, which serves as the university's chief hall for ceremonial purposes where Congregation ceremonies are held. It can contain 500 seats. King Edward VII gave permission to call King's Hall; the building was used as a hospital during the First World War. Graduation photographs are taken in the University Quadrangle, next to the Armstrong building
Greek government-debt crisis
The Greek government-debt crisis is the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Known in the country as The Crisis, it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression; as a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country. The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone,and revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits had been underreported by the Greek government; this led to a crisis of confidence, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and rising cost of risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to the other Eurozone countries Germany.
The government enacted 12 rounds of tax increases, spending cuts, reforms from 2010 to 2016, which at times triggered local riots and nationwide protests. Despite these efforts, the country required bailout loans in 2010, 2012, 2015 from the International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank, negotiated a 50% "haircut" on debt owed to private banks in 2011, which amounted to a €100bn debt relief. After a popular referendum which rejected further austerity measures required for the third bailout, after closure of banks across the country, on June 30, 2015, Greece became the first developed country to fail to make an IMF loan repayment on time. At that time, debt levels had reached some € 30,000 per capita. Between 2009 and 2017 the Greek government debt rose from €300 bn to €318 bn, i.e. by only about 6%. Greece, like other European nations, had faced debt crises in the 19th century, as well as a similar crisis in 1932 during the Great Depression. In general, during the 20th century it enjoyed one of the highest GDP growth rates in the world.
Average Greek government debt-to-GDP for the entire century before the crisis was lower than that for the UK, Canada or France, while for the 30-year period until its entrance into the European Economic Community, the Greek government debt-to-GDP ratio averaged only 19.8%. Between 1981 and 1993 it rose, surpassing the average of what is today the Eurozone in the mid-1980s. For the next 15 years, from 1993 to 2007, Greece's government debt-to-GDP ratio remained unchanged, averaging 102% – a value lower than that for Italy and Belgium during the same 15-year period, comparable to that for the U. S. or the OECD average in 2017. During the latter period, the country's annual budget deficit exceeded 3% of GDP, but its effect on the debt-to GDP ratio was counterbalanced by high GDP growth rates; the debt-to GDP values for 2006 and 2007 were established after audits resulted in corrections according to Eurostat methodology, of up to 10 percentage points for the particular years. These corrections, although altering the debt level by a maximum of about 10%, resulted in a popular notion that "Greece was hiding its debt".
The 2001 introduction of the euro reduced trade costs between Eurozone countries, increasing overall trade volume. Labour costs increased more in peripheral countries such as Greece relative to core countries such as Germany without compensating rise in productivity, eroding Greece's competitive edge; as a result, Greece's current account deficit rose significantly. A trade deficit means that a country is consuming more than it produces, which requires borrowing/direct investment from other countries. Both the Greek trade deficit and budget deficit rose from below 5% of GDP in 1999 to peak around 15% of GDP in the 2008–2009 periods. One driver of the investment inflow was Greece's membership in the Eurozone. Greece was perceived as a higher credit risk alone than it was as a member of the Eurozone, which implied that investors felt the EU would bring discipline to its finances and support Greece in the event of problems; as the Great Recession spread to Europe, the amount of funds lent from the European core countries to the peripheral countries such as Greece began to decline.
Reports in 2009 of Greek fiscal mismanagement and deception increased borrowing costs. A country facing
Northumbria University, is a university located in Newcastle upon Tyne in the North East of England. A former polytechnic, it was established as one of the new universities in 1992. Northumbria University has its origins in three Newcastle colleges: Rutherford College of Technology, established by John Hunter Rutherford in 1880 and opened formally in 1894 by the Duke of York, the College of Art & Industrial Design and the Municipal College of Commerce. In 1969, the three colleges were amalgamated to form Newcastle Polytechnic; the Polytechnic became the major regional centre for the training of teachers with the creation of the City College of Education in 1974 and the Northern Counties College of Education in 1976. In 1992, Newcastle Polytechnic was reconstituted as the new University of Northumbria, as part of a nationwide process in which polytechnics became new universities, it was styled, its official name still is, the University of Northumbria at Newcastle but the trading name was simplified to Northumbria University in 2002.
In 1995, it was awarded responsibility for the education of healthcare professionals, transferred from the National Health Service. The university has two large campuses situated in one in London. City Campus, located in the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, is divided into City Campus East and City Campus West by the city's central motorway and linked by a £4 million bridge which in 2008 was opened by the former Minister of State for Trade and Investment, Lord Digby Jones. City Campus East is home to the Schools of Law and the Newcastle Business School. NBS and Law are housed in one building, the School of Design is across a courtyard. City Campus East, designed by Atkins, opened in September 2007, winning awards from The Journal newspaper and the Low Carbon New Build Project of the Year accolade. City Campus West is home to the Schools of Arts & Social Sciences, Built & Natural Environment, Engineering & Information Sciences and Life Sciences. Located on this campus is the University Library, Students' Union building and Sport Central, a £31m sports facility for students and the community which opened in 2010.
The Sutherland Building the Medical School of Durham University, a naval warehouse during World War II, the Dental School of Durham University is the home of Administrative Departments including Finance & Planning and Human Resources, using the space vacated when the School of Law moved to City Campus East. The Students' Union building, at City Campus West, underwent a multimillion-pound makeover with new lobby and recreational facilities, a refurbished bar and cafe space, in summer 2010. In September 2016 the Sandyford Building was acquired from Newcastle College. A second campus is located 2.6 miles outside of Newcastle, on Coach Lane, is known as the Coach Lane Campus at Cochrane Park near the A188. It round the corner from Tyneview Park; the Coach Lane Campus is home to School of Health and Education Studies. Coach Lane Campus has library services. A free shuttle bus scheme runs between the two campuses; the London Campus offers full-time or part-time programmes, from a range of Business, Cyber, Project Management and Technology focused programmes.
Ideally situated just minutes away from Liverpool Street station, students can benefit from studying in a location where the financial district meets the heart of London’s digital and technology sector. This Campus offers an excellent base from which to take full advantage of all that studying in one of the world’s leading cities has to offer, including work experience and networking opportunities. Northumbria describes itself as a comprehensive university, offering 30 of Britain's 32 most chosen academic disciplines, it specialises in law and business and design, environmental science, built environment, applied healthcare, sports science and psychology, teacher education. Northumbria offers'clinical' courses in law accredited by the Law Society and Bar Council; these allow graduates direct entry to the profession. The institution's Student Law Office is a clinical legal education enterprise, where law students participate in a legal advice and representation scheme on behalf of real clients, under the supervision of practising lawyers.
Northumbria University employs more than 3,200 people and offers 500 study programmes through four Faculties: Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences Faculty of Business and Law Faculty of Engineering and Environment Faculty of Health and Life SciencesNorthumbria University Press is the university press, established in 2002. It is based in Newcastle upon Tyne and publishes a diverse range of books, including publications on language, biography and music. In the Research Assessment Exercise 2008 a small amount of research in nine of twelve areas submitted was described as "world leading". Under Vice Chancellor Andrew Wathey, Northumbria University has remained ranked between 48 and 60 for the past ten years in the Guardian University League Tables; the Times Higher Education Supplement's World University Ranking places Northumbria University in the 401-500 range. In the 2014 REF, along with Allied Health Professions, Dentistry and Pharmacy, humanities and arts subjects were
Secretary General of NATO
The Secretary General of NATO is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Secretary General is responsible for coordinating the workings of the alliance, leading NATO's international staff, chairing the meetings of the North Atlantic Council and most major committees of the alliance, with the notable exception of the NATO Military Committee, acting as NATO's spokesperson. However, the Secretary General does not have any military command role, political and strategic decisions rest with the member states. Together with the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee and the Supreme Allied Commander the Secretary General is one of the foremost officials of NATO; the current Secretary General is Jens Stoltenberg, the former Prime Minister of Norway, who took office on 1 October 2014. The mission of Jens Stoltenberg as secretary general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was extended for another two years. Stoltenberg has been responsible for the past five years ago and is set to lead NATO by 2022.
Article 9 of the North Atlantic Treaty requires NATO members to "establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented." Accordingly, the North Atlantic Council was formed. The Council consisted of NATO members' foreign ministers and met annually. In May 1950, the desire for closer coordination on a day-to-day basis led to the appointment of Council deputies, permanently based in London and overseeing the workings of the organization. Deputies were given full decision-making authority within the North Atlantic Council, but their work was supplemented by occasional meetings of the NATO foreign ministers; the Chairman of the deputies was given responsibility "for directing the organization and its work," including all of its civilian agencies. The Council deputies met for the first time on July 25, 1950, selected Charles Spofford, the United States deputy, as their chairman. Several important organisational changes followed the establishment of Council deputies, most notably the establishment of a unified military command under a single Supreme Allied Commander.
This unification and the growing challenges facing NATO led to rapid growth in the institutions of the organisation and in 1951, NATO was reorganized to streamline and centralize its bureaucracy. As part of the organization, the Council deputies were delegated with the authority to represent their governments in all matters, including those related to defense and finance, not just foreign affairs increasing their power and importance; as the authority of the deputies increased, the size of the organization grew, NATO established the Temporary Council Committee, chaired by W. Averell Harriman; this group established an official secretariat in Paris to command NATO's bureaucracy. The committee recommended that "the agencies of NATO needed to be strengthened and co-ordinate", emphasized the need for someone other than the Chairman of the North Atlantic Council to become the senior leader of the alliance. In February 1952, North Atlantic Council accordingly established the position of Secretary General to manage all civilian agencies of the organization, control its civilian staff, serve the North Atlantic Council.
After the Lisbon Conference, the NATO states began looking for a person who could fill the role of Secretary General. The position was first offered to Oliver Franks, the British Ambassador to the United States, but he declined. On March 12, 1952, the North Atlantic Council selected Hastings Ismay, a general from World War II, Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations in the British cabinet as Secretary General. Unlike Secretaries General who served as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Ismay was made the Vice Chairman of the Council, with Spofford continuing to serve as chairman. Ismay was selected because of his high rank in the war, his role "at the side of Churchill... in the highest Allied Councils." As both a soldier and a diplomat, he was considered uniquely qualified for the position, enjoyed the full support of all the NATO states. Several months after Spofford retired from the NATO, the structure of the North Atlantic Council was changed slightly. One member of the Council was selected annually as the President of the North Atlantic Council, the Secretary General became the Deputy President of the Council, as well as the chair of its meetings.
Ismay served as Secretary General until retiring in May, 1957. After Ismay, Paul-Henri Spaak, an international diplomat and former Prime Minister of Belgium was selected as the second Secretary General. Unlike Ismay, Spaak had no military experience, so his appointment represented a "deemphasis of the military side of the Atlantic Alliance." When confirming Spaak's appointment in December 1956 during a session of the NATO foreign ministers, the North Atlantic Council expanded the role of the Secretary General in the organization. As a result of the Suez Crisis, which had strained intra-alliance relations, the Council issued a resolution to allow the Secretary General "to offer his good officers informally at any time to member governments involved in a dispute and with their consent to initiate or facilitate procedures of inquiry, conciliation, or arbitration." The NATO countries selected the first Secretary General on April 4, 1952. Since that time, twelve different diplomats have served as Secretary General.
Eight countries have been represented, with three Secretaries General hailing from the United Kingdom, three from the Netherlands, two from Belgium, one from Italy, one from Germany, one from Spain, one from Denmark, one from Norway. The position has been occupied temporari
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar