Penang Island, the most populous island city in Malaysia, is situated in the state of Penang. With a population of 738,500, it is the second largest city in Malaysia by population, while Greater Penang and its capital, George Town, is one of the oldest cities in Malaysia and has been inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2008. Founded by Captain Francis Light of the British East India Company in 1786, Penang Island, together with Singapore and Malacca, the island was governed under the Straits Settlements, which became a British crown colony in 1867. The island was subjugated by the Empire of Japan during World War II, shortly before Malaya gained independence from the British in 1957, George Town was declared a city by Queen Elizabeth II, the first in the countrys modern history. Penang Island has developed into the Silicon Valley of the East since the 1970s, under British rule, Penang Island had grown into an entrepôt and a centre of spice production in Southeast Asia. In addition, George Town was ranked as Malaysias most liveable city, Penang Island is the financial centre of northern Malaysia, with numerous international banks based in George Town.
The Penang International Airport is one of the busiest in Malaysia, with links to regional cities such as Kuala Lumpur, Bangkok, Taipei. The Port of Penang still serves as the harbour within the north of Malaysia. Penang Island is connected to the rest of Peninsular Malaysia by the Penang Bridge, the Second Penang Bridge, the state of Penang is named after Penang Island, which was, in turn, named after the areca nut palm, known as pinang in Malay. To this day, the island has known as the Pearl of the Orient. The early Malays called the island Pulau Ka-Satu because it was the largest island encountered on the trading sea-route between Lingga and Kedah, the Siamese, the overlord of the Kedah Sultanate, referred to the island as Koh Maak, meaning areca nut palm island. In the 15th century, the island was referred to as Bīnláng Yù in the drawings used by Admiral Zheng He of Ming China. The 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Eredia referred to the island as Pulo Pinaom, Penang Island was discovered as early as the 15th century, when Chinese sailors under Admiral Zheng He mapped the island as Bīnláng Yù in the Nautical Charts of Zheng He.
At the time, Ming China was launching naval expeditions that would eventually sail all the way to Africa, the first Englishman to reach Penang Island was actually Sir James Lancaster, a navigator and privateer who commanded the Edward Bonadventure. He landed at Batu Ferringhi in June 1592 and remained on the island until September and he only sailed home to England in May 1594. In the early 18th century, ethnic Minangkabaus from Sumatra opened up a settlement on Penang Island, Haji Muhammad Salleh, known as Nakhoda Intan, anchored at Batu Uban and built a mosque for his seaside settlement in 1734. Later, the Arabs arrived and settled mainly at Jelutong, intermarriages between the Arabs and the Minangkabau gave rise to Arab-Minangkabau admixture who are described as Malay as they have assimilated into the local Malay community. However, it is Captain Francis Light who is honoured as the father of Penang
President Dwight D. Eisenhower established NASA in 1958 with a distinctly civilian orientation encouraging peaceful applications in space science. The National Aeronautics and Space Act was passed on July 29,1958, disestablishing NASAs predecessor, the new agency became operational on October 1,1958. Since that time, most US space exploration efforts have led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station. Currently, NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA shares data with various national and international such as from the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite. Since 2011, NASA has been criticized for low cost efficiency, from 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch a satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard, after the Soviet launch of the worlds first artificial satellite on October 4,1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts. This led to an agreement that a new federal agency based on NACA was needed to conduct all non-military activity in space. The Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop technology for military application. On July 29,1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, a NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA, earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPAs early space programs were transferred to NASA. In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, NASA has conducted many manned and unmanned spaceflight programs throughout its history.
Some missions include both manned and unmanned aspects, such as the Galileo probe, which was deployed by astronauts in Earth orbit before being sent unmanned to Jupiter, the experimental rocket-powered aircraft programs started by NACA were extended by NASA as support for manned spaceflight. This was followed by a space capsule program, and in turn by a two-man capsule program. This goal was met in 1969 by the Apollo program, reduction of the perceived threat and changing political priorities almost immediately caused the termination of most of these plans. NASA turned its attention to an Apollo-derived temporary space laboratory, to date, NASA has launched a total of 166 manned space missions on rockets, and thirteen X-15 rocket flights above the USAF definition of spaceflight altitude,260,000 feet. The X-15 was an NACA experimental rocket-powered hypersonic research aircraft, developed in conjunction with the US Air Force, the design featured a slender fuselage with fairings along the side containing fuel and early computerized control systems
Terra is a multi-national NASA scientific research satellite in a Sun-synchronous orbit around the Earth. It is the flagship of the Earth Observing System, the name Terra comes from the Latin word for Earth. The satellite was launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on December 18,1999, aboard an Atlas IIAS vehicle and it was placed into a near-polar, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705km, with a 10, 30am descending node. Studies have used instruments on Terra to examine trends in global carbon monoxide, the data collected by Terra will ultimately become a new, 15-year global data set. In June and October 2008 the spacecraft was targeted by hackers who gained unauthorized access to its command and control systems, aqua Aura Man-made structures visible from space NASA Terra site
Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy. It is the fraction of incident electromagnetic power that is reflected at an interface, the reflectance spectrum or spectral reflectance curve is the plot of the reflectance as a function of wavelength. Hemispherical reflectance of a surface, denoted R, is defined as R = Φ e r Φ e i, where Φer is the radiant flux reflected by that surface, Φei is the radiant flux received by that surface. Directional reflectance of a surface, denoted RΩ, is defined as R Ω = L e, Ω r L e, Ω i, for homogeneous and semi-infinite materials, reflectivity is the same as reflectance. For layered and finite media, according to the CIE, reflectivity is distinguished from reflectance by the fact that reflectivity is a value that applies to thick reflecting objects. When reflection occurs from thin layers of material, internal reflection effects can cause the reflectance to vary with surface thickness, such surfaces are said to be Lambertian.
Most real objects have some mixture of diffuse and specular reflective properties, reflection occurs when light moves from a medium with one index of refraction into a second medium with a different index of refraction. Specular reflection from a body of water is calculated by the Fresnel equations, Fresnel reflection is directional and therefore does not contribute significantly to albedo which is primarily diffuse reflection. A real water surface may be wavy, Reflectance assuming a flat surface as given by the Fresnel equations can be adjusted to account for waviness. The generalization of reflectance to a diffraction grating, which disperses light by wavelength, is called diffraction efficiency, Reflectance is an important concept in the fields of optics, solar thermal energy, telecommunication and radar. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function Emissivity Lamberts cosine law Transmittance Sun path Light Reflectance Value Albedo Reflectivity of metals
Image resolution is the detail an image holds. The term applies to digital images, film images. Higher resolution means more image detail, image resolution can be measured in various ways. Resolution quantifies how close lines can be to other and still be visibly resolved. Resolution units can be tied to physical sizes, to the size of a picture. Line pairs are used instead of lines, a line pair comprises a dark line. A line is either a line or a light line. A resolution of 10 lines per millimeter means 5 dark lines alternating with 5 light lines, photographic lens and film resolution are most often quoted in line pairs per millimeter. The resolution of digital cameras can be described in different ways. Resolution is the capability of the sensor to observe or measure the smallest object clearly with distinct boundaries, there is a difference between the resolution and a pixel. A pixel is actually a unit of the digital Resolution depends upon the size of the pixel, with any given lens setting, the smaller the size of the pixel, the higher the resolution will be and the clearer the object in the image will be.
Images having smaller pixel sizes might consist of more pixels, the number of pixels correlates to the amount of information within the image. An image of N pixels height by M pixels wide can have any less than N lines per picture height. Other conventions include describing pixels per unit or pixels per area unit. None of these pixel resolutions are true resolutions, but they are referred to as such. Below is an illustration of how the image might appear at different pixel resolutions. An image that is 2048 pixels in width and 1536 pixels in height has a total of 2048×1536 =3,145,728 pixels or 3.1 megapixels, one could refer to it as 2048 by 1536 or a 3. 1-megapixel image. Or, you can think of it as a low quality image if printed at about 28.5 inches wide
The visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has wavelengths between approximately 400 and 1400 nanometers. It combines the full visible spectrum with an adjacent portion of the infrared spectrum up to the absorption band between 1400 and 1500 nm. Some definitions include the short-wavelength infrared band from 1400 nm up to the absorption band at 2500 nm. VNIR multi-spectral image cameras have wide applications in sensing and imaging spectroscopy. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Airborne Real-time Cueing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Near infrared spectroscopy
A reconnaissance satellite is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications. The first generation type took photographs, ejected canisters of photographic film which would descend to earth, corona capsules were retrieved in mid-air as they floated down on parachutes. Later, spacecraft had digital imaging systems and downloaded the images via encrypted radio links, in the United States, most information available is on programs that existed up to 1972, as this information has been declassified due to its age. Some information about prior to that time is still classified. A few up-to-date reconnaissance satellite images have been declassified on occasion, or leaked, there are several major types of reconnaissance satellite. Missile Early warning Provides warning of an attack by detecting ballistic missile launches, earliest known are Missile Defense Alarm System. Nuclear explosion detection Identifies and characterizes nuclear explosions in space, photo surveillance Provides imaging of earth from space.
Images can be a survey or close-look telephoto, electronic-reconnaissance Signals intelligence, intercepts stray radio waves. Radar imaging Most space-based radars use synthetic aperture radar, can be used at night or through cloud cover. On 17 February 2014, a Russian Kosmos-1220 originally launched in 1980 and used for naval missile targeting until 1982, reconnaissance satellites have been used to enforce human rights, through the Satellite Sentinel Project, which monitors atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan. Additionally, companies such as GeoEye and DigitalGlobe have provided commercial satellite imagery in support of disaster response. During the 1950s, a Soviet hoax had led to American fears of a bomber gap, president Lyndon B. Johnson told a gathering in 1967, I wouldnt want to be quoted on this. Weve spent $35 or $40 billion on the space program, and if nothing else had come out of it except the knowledge that we gained from space photography, it would be worth ten times what the whole program has cost.
Because tonight we know how many missiles the enemy has and, it turned out and we were doing things we didnt need to do. We were building things we didnt need to build and we were harboring fears we didnt need to harbor. Spy satellites are commonly seen in spy fiction and military fiction, americas Secret Eyes in Space, the U. S. Spies in the Sky, Surveillance Satellites in War and Peace, New York, Chichester, UK, In association with Praxis Publishing
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting the Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites. In 1997 NASA estimated there were approximately 2,465 artificial satellite orbiting the Earth and 6,216 pieces of space debris as tracked by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Over 16,291 previously launched objects have decayed into the Earths atmosphere, altitude as used here, the height of an object above the average surface of the Earths oceans. Analemma a term in astronomy used to describe the plot of the positions of the Sun on the celestial sphere throughout one year, apogee is the farthest point that a satellite or celestial body can go from Earth, at which the orbital velocity will be at its minimum. Eccentricity a measure of how much an orbit deviates from a perfect circle, eccentricity is strictly defined for all circular and elliptical orbits, and parabolic and hyperbolic trajectories. Equatorial plane as used here, an imaginary plane extending from the equator on the Earth to the celestial sphere, escape velocity as used here, the minimum velocity an object without propulsion needs to have to move away indefinitely from the Earth.
An object at this velocity will enter a parabolic trajectory, above this velocity it will enter a hyperbolic trajectory, impulse the integral of a force over the time during which it acts. Inclination the angle between a plane and another plane or axis. In the sense discussed here the reference plane is the Earths equatorial plane, orbital characteristics the six parameters of the Keplerian elements needed to specify that orbit uniquely. Orbital period as defined here, time it takes a satellite to make one orbit around the Earth. Perigee is the nearest approach point of a satellite or celestial body from Earth, sidereal day the time it takes for a celestial object to rotate 360°. For the Earth this is,23 hours,56 minutes,4.091 seconds, solar time as used here, the local time as measured by a sundial. Velocity an objects speed in a particular direction, since velocity is defined as a vector, both speed and direction are required to define it. The following is a list of different geocentric orbit classifications, Low Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits ranging in altitude from 160 kilometers to 2,000 kilometres above mean sea level.
At 160 km, one revolution takes approximately 90 minutes, medium Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits with altitudes at apogee ranging between 2,000 kilometres and that of the geosynchronous orbit at 35,786 kilometres. Geosynchronous orbit - Geocentric circular orbit with an altitude of 35,786 kilometres, the period of the orbit equals one sidereal day, coinciding with the rotation period of the Earth. The speed is approximately 3,000 metres per second, high Earth orbit - Geocentric orbits with altitudes at apogee higher than that of the geosynchronous orbit. A special case of high Earth orbit is the elliptical orbit
Mount Etna is an active stratovolcano on the east coast of Sicily, Italy, in the Metropolitan City of Catania, between the cities of Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate and it is the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently 3,329 m high, though this varies with summit eruptions. It is the highest peak in Italy south of the Alps, Etna covers an area of 1,190 km2 with a basal circumference of 140 km. This makes it by far the largest of the three volcanoes in Italy, being about two and a half times the height of the next largest, Mount Vesuvius. Only Mount Teide in Tenerife surpasses it in the whole of the European–North-African region, Mount Etna is one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is in an almost constant state of activity. The fertile volcanic soils support extensive agriculture, with vineyards and orchards spread across the slopes of the mountain. Due to its history of recent activity and nearby population, Mount Etna has been designated a Decade Volcano by the United Nations, in June 2013, it was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
According to Adrian Room’s book Place-names of the World, the name Etna originated from the Phoenician word attuna meaning furnace or chimney and he dismisses the hypothesis that Etna is from the Greek αἴθω, meaning I burn, through an iotacist pronunciation. In Classical Greek, it is called Αἴτνη, a name to Catania and the city originally known as Inessa. In Arabic, it was called جبل النار Jabal al-Nār and it is known as Mungibeddu in Sicilian and Mongibello or Montebello in Italian. The term is not in use today, although some older people still call it this. According to another hypothesis the term Mongibello comes from the Latin Mulciber, the people of the Etna sometimes use the jargon term a muntagna, simply the mountain par excellence. Nowadays, the term Mongibello indicates the top area of the two central craters encompassing the craters in the southeast and the northeast of the volcanic cone. Volcanic activity first took place at Etna about 500,000 years ago, about 300,000 years ago, volcanism began occurring to the southwest of the summit then, before activity moved towards the present centre 170,000 years ago.
Eruptions at this time built up the first major volcanic edifice, the growth of the mountain was occasionally interrupted by major eruptions, leading to the collapse of the summit to form calderas. From about 35,000 to 15,000 years ago, Etna experienced some highly explosive eruptions, generating pyroclastic flows. Ash from these eruptions has been found as far away as south of Romes border,800 km to the north, the landslide left a large depression in the side of the volcano, known as Valle del Bove. Research published in 2006 suggested this occurred around 8000 years ago, and caused a huge tsunami and it may have been the reason the settlement of Atlit Yam, now below sea level, was suddenly abandoned around that time
Imagery intelligence is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography. As a means of collecting intelligence, IMINT is a subset of intelligence collection management, IMINT is especially complemented by non-imaging MASINT electro-optical and radar sensors. Although aerial photography was first used extensively in the First World War, high quality images were made possible with a series of innovations in the decade leading up to the war. In 1928, the RAF developed a heating system for the aerial camera. This allowed reconnaissance aircraft to take pictures from very high altitudes without the camera parts freezing and they proposed the use of Spitfires with their armament and radios removed and replaced with extra fuel and cameras. This led to the development of the Spitfire PR variants and these planes had a maximum speed of 396 mph at 30,000 feet with their armaments removed, and were used for photo-reconnaissance missions. The aircraft were fitted with five cameras which were heated to ensure good results, the systematic collection and interpretation of the huge amounts of aerial reconnaissance intelligence data soon became imperative.
Beginning in 1941, RAF Medmenham was the interpretation centre for photographic reconnaissance operations in the European and Mediterranean theatres. During 1942 and 1943, the CIU gradually expanded and was involved in the stages of practically every operation of the war. In 1945, daily intake of material averaged 25,000 negatives and 60,000 prints, thirty-six million prints were made during the war. By VE-day, the print library, which documented and stored worldwide cover, american personnel had for some time formed an increasing part of the CIU and on 1 May 1944 this was finally recognised by changing the title of the unit to the Allied Central Interpretation Unit. There were over 1,700 personnel on the units strength, a large number of photographic interpreters were recruited from the Hollywood Film Studios including Xavier Atencio. Sidney Cottons aerial photographs were far ahead of their time, cotton worked on ideas such as a prototype specialist reconnaissance aircraft and further refinements of photographic equipment.
At its peak, British reconnaissance flights yielded 50,000 images per day to interpret, of particular significance in the success of the work of Medmenham was the use of stereoscopic images, using a between plate overlap of exactly 60%. Later offensives were made against potential launch sites at Wizernes and 96 other launch sites in northern France and it is claimed that Medmanhams greatest operational success was Operation Crossbow which, from 23 December 1943, destroyed the V-1 infrastructure in northern France. Jones, photographs were used to establish the size and the characteristic launching mechanisms for both the V-1 flying bomb and the V-2 rocket. Highly specialized and secretive strategic reconnaissance aircraft, or spy planes, such as the Lockheed U-2 and its successor, the SR-71 Blackbird were developed by the United States. Flying these aircraft became a demanding task, as much because of the aircrafts extreme speed