Nurse education consists of the theoretical and practical training provided to nurses with the purpose to prepare them for their duties as nursing care professionals. This education is provided to nursing students by experienced nurses and other medical professionals who have qualified or experienced for educational tasks. Most countries offer nurse education courses that can be relevant to general nursing or to specialized areas including mental health nursing, pediatric nursing and post-operatory nursing. Courses leading to autonomous registration as a nurse last four years. Nurse education provides post-qualification courses in specialist subjects within nursing. During past decades, the changes in education have replaced the more focused, but ritualistic, training structure of conventional preparation. Nurse education integrates today a broader awareness of other disciplines allied to medicine involving inter-professional education, the utilization of research when making clinical and managerial decisions.
Orthodox training can be argued to have offered a more intense practical skills base, but emphasized the handmaiden relationship with the physician. This is now outmoded, the impact of nurse education is to develop a confident, inquiring graduate who contributes to the care team as an equal. In some countries, not all qualification courses have graduate status. Traditionally, from the times prior to Florence Nightingale, nursing was seen as an apprenticeship undertaken in religious institutes such as convents by young women, although there has always been a proportion of male nurses in mental health services. In 1860 Nightingale set up the first nurse training school at London. Nightingale's curriculum was base around nursing practice, with instruction focused upon the need for hygiene and task competence, her methods are reflected in her Notes on Nursing. Some other nurses at that time, notably Ethel Gordon Fenwick, were in favor of formalized nursing registration and curricula that were formally based in higher education and not within the confines of hospitals.
Nurse education in the United States is conducted within university schools, although it is unclear who offered the first degree level program. So far as known Yale School of Nursing became the first autonomous school of nursing in the United States in 1923. In November 1955, a World Health Organization study group on the education of nurses met in Brussels and made several recommendations, including that "At least one experimental school of nursing be set up in each country." In the UK, the first department of Nursing Studies at the University of Edinburgh was established in 1956, with a five-year integrated degree programme introduced in 1960. Several other universities across the UK during the 1960s. In 1974 La Trobe University commenced the first nursing course in Australia. There are multiple entry levels into nursing; this has led to confusion for the public, as well as other healthcare professionals. The earliest schools of nursing offered a Diploma in not an actual academic degree. Community colleges began offering an Associate of Science in Nursing degree, some diploma programs switched to this model.
Universities began to offer Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Bachelor of Nursing degrees, followed by Master of Science in Nursing degrees, Doctor of Nursing Practice degrees. Pre-registration nurse training and education in the UK is now via a bachelor's degree following the phasing-out of the Diploma of Higher Education in Nursing, offered at universities and colleges. To become a student nurse, individuals must apply through the University and Colleges Admissions Service to their nursing degree choices, choosing from one of the four nursing fields: Adult, Mental Health and Learning Disabilities. Requirements for entry to a pre-reg nursing degree are five GCSEs at Grade C or above, along with three A-Level subjects at Grade C or above, although the majority of universities will seek higher grades due to the competition for places. Key Skills courses are no-longer accepted as an alternative to GCSEs, however science or healthcare-based BTEC Level 3 Extended Diplomas and Access courses are most oftem accepted in lieu of A-Level qualifications.
If successful following interview, the student will study a "core" first year, learning basic nursing competencies essential to all four of the above fields. It is from second year and onwards that the degree will begin to focus on the student's chosen field. Following completion of the degree, the applicant will be registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council as a Registered Nurse in their field of practice, using the post-nominal RNA, RNC, RNMH or RNLD as appropriate to their degree qualification. There are two specific pathways individuals can take if they wish to become a nurse in Western Australia, they can decide to study at university to become a registered nurse, alternatively they can study at Technical and Further Education to become an enrolled nurse. Both pathways require a variety of entry requirements whether it be passing year 12 Maths and Human Biology along with receiving a specific Australian Tertiary Admission Rank known as a score for university or providing prior learning experiences and legal clearances for TAFE.
Either way individuals need to be aware these requirements can vary year to year and, why they are recommended to contact each university or institute to find out entry requirement
Correctional nursing, sometimes called forensic nursing, is a specialized field of nursing that involves caring for the medical and mental health needs of detainees and inmates. These nurses work in a variety of settings such as jails and juvenile detention centers. In these correctional settings, nurses are the primary healthcare providers; because of the varying size of correctional facilities, there is a wide range of roles correctional nurses fill.. Some facilities are as large as small cities and include an in-house hospital with inpatient and emergency facilities. Most correctional nurses fall into four categories: Reception Screening, Chronic Care Clinicians, Medication Administration, Ambulatory Care. Intake Screening is called, "R&R Screening" for, "Reception and Release"; this is the process where nurses screen inmates entering the facility for a variety of immediate medical and mental health needs such as alcohol or drug withdrawal, suicide potential, infectious diseases, necessity for chronic medications.
Custody uses this information in order to decide which part of the facility is appropriate for housing, sometimes initiating movement to another facility if the inmate's needs cannot be met at the initial placement. The nurse performing intake screening schedules the inmate for an appointment with a healthcare provider for a detailed history and physical depending on the inmate's needs and presence of chronic diseases. Inmates with chronic health care concerns have scheduled appointments in chronic care clinics. Overseen by a physician or other mid level provider such as a nurse practitioner. Nurses here provide patient assessments and education about chronic health concerns. Medications over-the-counter ones, can be misused in a correctional environment. Most medications are be administered to patients via a medication pass or pill line process. At scheduled times during the day, inmates requiring medication either report to a nurse located centrally in a medical unit or receive their doses in a housing unit.
Inmates requiring episodic health care follow a process called Sick Call. Inmates request treatment by completing a form and are seen by a nurse. Most facilities have standardized protocols which allow administration of over-the-counter medications for simple conditions like headache, athlete’s foot, constipation without the need for communication with a medical provider. An assessment of a more serious condition, or one that falls outside the protocols, would be referred to a provider for further evaluation
Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life. Nurses may be differentiated from other health care providers by their approach to patient care and scope of practice. Nurses practice in many specialties with differing levels of prescription authority. Many nurses provide care within the ordering scope of physicians, this traditional role has shaped the public image of nurses as care providers. However, nurse practitioners are permitted by most jurisdictions to practice independently in a variety of settings. In the postwar period, nurse education has undergone a process of diversification towards advanced and specialized credentials, many of the traditional regulations and provider roles are changing. Nurses develop a plan of care, working collaboratively with physicians, the patient, the patient's family and other team members, that focuses on treating illness to improve quality of life.
In the United States and the United Kingdom, advanced practice nurses, such as clinical nurse specialists and nurse practitioners, diagnose health problems and prescribe medications and other therapies, depending on individual state regulations. Nurses may help coordinate the patient care performed by other members of a multidisciplinary health care team such as therapists, medical practitioners and dietitians. Nurses provide care both interdependently, for example, with physicians, independently as nursing professionals. Nursing historians face the challenge of determining whether care provided to the sick or injured in antiquity was nursing care. In the fifth century BC, for example, the Hippocratic Collection in places describes skilled care and observation of patients by male "attendants," who may have been early nurses. Around 600 BC in India, it is recorded in Sushruta Samhita, Book 3, Chapter V about the role of the nurse as "the different parts or members of the body as mentioned before including the skin, cannot be described by one, not well versed in anatomy.
Hence, any one desirous of acquiring a thorough knowledge of anatomy should prepare a dead body and observe, by dissecting it, examine its different parts." Before the foundation of modern nursing, members of religious orders such as nuns and monks provided nursing-like care. Examples exist in Christian and Buddhist traditions amongst others. Phoebe, mentioned in Romans 16 has been described in many sources as "the first visiting nurse"; these traditions were influential in the development of the ethos of modern nursing. The religious roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries. One example in the United Kingdom is the use of the historical title "sister" to refer to a senior nurse in the past. During the Reformation of the 16th century, Protestant reformers shut down the monasteries and convents, allowing a few hundred municipal hospices to remain in operation in northern Europe; those nuns, serving as nurses were given pensions or told to get married and stay home. Nursing care went to the inexperienced as traditional caretakers, rooted in the Roman Catholic Church, were removed from their positions.
The nursing profession suffered a major setback for 200 years. Florence Nightingale laid the foundations of professional nursing after the Crimean War, her Notes on Nursing became popular. The Nightingale model of professional education, having set up the first school of nursing, connected to a continuously operating hospital and medical school, spread in Europe and North America after 1870. Nightingale was a pioneer of the graphical presentation of statistical data. Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Agnes Hunt from Shropshire was the first orthopedic nurse and was pivotal in the emergence of the orthopedic hospital The Robert Jones & Agnes Hunt Hospital in Oswestry, Shropshire. Agnes Jones, who established a nurse training regime at the Brownlow Hill infirmary, Liverpool, in 1865. Linda Richards, who established quality nursing schools in the United States and Japan, was the first professionally trained nurse in the US, graduating in 1873 from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.
Clarissa Harlowe "Clara" Barton, a pioneer American teacher, patent clerk and humanitarian, the founder of the American Red Cross. Saint Marianne Cope, a Sister of St. Francis who opened and operated some of the first general hospitals in the United States, instituting cleanliness standards which influenced the development of America's modern hospital system. Catholic orders such as Little Sisters of the Poor, Sisters of Mercy, Sisters of St. Mary, St. Francis Health Services, Inc. and Sisters of Charity built hospitals and provided nursing services during this period. In turn, the modern deaconess movement began in Germany in 1836. Within a half century, there were over 5,000 deaconesses in Europe. Formal use of nurses in the modern military began in the latter half of the nineteenth century. Nurses saw active duty in the First Boer War, the Egyptian Campaign, the Sudan Campaign. Hospital-based training came to the fore in the early 1900s, with an emphasis on practical experience; the Nightingale-style school began to disappear.
Hospitals and physicians saw women in nursing as a source of inexpensive labor. Exploitation of nurses was not uncommon by employers and educational providers. Many nurses saw active duty in World War I, but the profession was transformed during the second World War. British nurses of the Army Nursing Service were part of every overseas campaign. More nurses volunteered for service in the US Army and Navy than any other occupat
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
The Nightingale Pledge, named in honour of Florence Nightingale, is a modified version of the Hippocratic Oath. Lystra Gretter and a Committee for the Farrand Training School for Nurses in Detroit, created the pledge in 1893. Gretter, inspired by the work of Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing, credited the pledge to the work of her committee, but was herself considered "the moving spirit behind the idea" for the pledge; the Nightingale Pledge is a statement of the ethics and principles of the nursing profession in the United States, it is not used outside of the US. It included a vow to "abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous" and to "zealously seek to nurse those who are ill wherever they may be and whenever they are in need." In a 1935 revision to the pledge, Gretter widened the role of the nurse by including an oath to become a "missioner of health" dedicated to the advancement of "human welfare"—an expansion of nurses' bedside focus to an approach that encompassed public health.
US nurses have recited the pledge at pinning ceremonies for decades. In recent years, many US nursing schools have made changes to the original or 1935 versions removing the "loyalty to physicians" phrasing to promote a more independent nursing profession, with its own particular ethical standards. Original "Florence Nightingale Pledge" I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly to pass my life in purity and to practise my profession faithfully. I shall abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, shall not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I shall do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. I shall be devoted towards the welfare of those committed to my care. 1935 revised version I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly to pass my life in purity and to practise my profession faithfully.
I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I aid the physician in his work, as a missioner of health, I will dedicate myself to devoted service for human welfare. "Practical Nurse Pledge", a modern version based on the "Nightingale Pledge" Before God and those assembled here, I solemnly pledge. I will not reveal any confidential information that may come to my knowledge in the course of my work, and I pledge myself to do all in my power to raise the standards and prestige of the practical nursing. Veterinarian's Oath