The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The remit of the Home Office was reduced in 2007 when, after Home Secretary John Reid had declared the Home Office "not fit for purpose", the Prime Minister Tony Blair separated a new Ministry of Justice from the reduced Home Office, its culpability in the Windrush scandal involving the illegal deportation and harassment of legal British residents is an example of a more recent failure. The Home Office continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department.
The Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the Permanent Secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board In October 2012, a number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office ahead of the future abolition of the agency.
These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.
Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government‟s approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.
On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that follo
The Apprentice (U.S. TV series)
The Apprentice is an American reality television program that judges the business skills of a group of contestants. It has run in various formats across fifteen seasons since January 2004 on NBC; the Apprentice was created by British-born American television producer Mark Burnett. Billed as "The Ultimate Job Interview," the show features fourteen to eighteen business people who compete over the course of a season, with one contestant eliminated per episode. Contestants are split into two "corporations", with one member from each volunteering as a project manager on each new task; the corporations complete business-related tasks such as selling products, raising money for charity, or creating an advertising campaign, with one corporation selected as the winner based on objective measures and subjective opinions of the host and his advisors who monitor the teams' performance on tasks. The losing corporation attends a boardroom meeting with the show's host and their advisors to break down why they lost and determine who contributed the least to the team.
Episodes ended with the host eliminating one contestant from the competition, with the words "You're fired!" Seven of the show's seasons featured aspiring, but otherwise unknown, businesspersons who would vie for the show's prize, a one-year $250,000 starting contract to promote one of Donald Trump's properties. There have been eight seasons of The Celebrity Apprentice since 2008. In this format, several celebrities would participate to win money for their chosen charities, with the final prize being a large donation to the celebrity's charity and the title of "Apprentice". A reboot of this format, The New Celebrity Apprentice, aired in January 2017; the U. S. series originated a franchise of international television shows collectively known as The Apprentice, which has had over 20 local versions. Real estate tycoon Donald Trump was the show's host for the first fourteen seasons. After he declared his candidacy for the presidency, NBC announced that actor and former California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger would become the new host of The Celebrity Apprentice, starting January 2017.
Lifestyle mogul Martha Stewart hosted the one-season spin-off The Apprentice: Martha Stewart in 2005. The Apprentice is a game show featuring season-long competitions; each season begins with a new group of contestants vying to earn a place in one of the organizations run by the host. The contestants have come from business backgrounds in various enterprises, the backgrounds including real estate, restaurant management, management consulting and marketing. During the show, the contestants live in a "penthouse suite", in New York City; the candidates are divided into two teams, treated as "corporations" within the show. These corporations select a name; each week, the teams are assigned a task and required to select one of their members to lead the team as "project manager", to take responsibility for organizing the team and making executive decisions. Tasks are business oriented and tend to highlight one of several business skills. Tasks most revolve around sales and marketing. During the tasks, the teams are visited by one of the host's "advisors" for that week.
Tasks lasted for one or two days. After the completion of the task, the teams meet with the host and his two advisers in "the boardroom". Boardroom meetings proceed in three stages. In the preliminary stage, all of the remaining candidates on both teams gather in the boardroom to be briefed on the task by the host and his advisors. Team members are asked about whether there were any strong or weak players. Teams are sometimes asked to comment on products produced by the opposing team. At the end of this stage, the host or his advisors reveal the results of the task and announce which team was the winner; the winning team wins a reward and are excused from the boardroom while the losing team returns to the boardroom for an elimination. In seasons, winning teams have been permitted to view the next stage of the boardroom on the TV in their suite; the entire losing team are confronted with their loss. They are interrogated as to the reasons for their loss and which players contributed to it or failed at the task.
For the final stage of the boardroom meeting, the project manager is asked to select a certain number of teammates to bring back into the final-stage boardroom meeting. The remaining teammates return to the suite while the project manager and the selected teammates step out of the boardroom momentarily so the host can consult with his advisors. Upon returning to the boardroom for the final stage, the host and his advisors continue interrogating the remaining players about their loss; the project manager is sometimes further interrogated about his or her choice of teammates to bring back into the boardroom. At least one project manager and/or remaining teammate is "fired" at the host's discretion, leaves the show; the host has broad discretion to fire candidates outside of this usual process, including firing multiple candidates at a time. The eliminated contestants are shown leaving the boardroom with their luggage and entering a taxi cab, during which they are given time to recount on their elimination, shown over the episode's credits.
When only three or four candidates (depending o
Procter & Gamble
The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multi-national consumer goods corporation headquartered in downtown Cincinnati, founded in 1837 by English American William Procter and Irish American James Gamble. It specializes in a wide range of personal health/consumer health, personal care and hygiene products. Before the sale of Pringles to the Kellogg Company, its product portfolio included foods and beverages. In 2014, P&G recorded $83.1 billion in sales. On August 1, 2014, P&G announced it was streamlining the company and selling off around 100 brands from its product portfolio in order to focus on the remaining 65 brands, which produced 95% of the company's profits. A. G. Lafley—the company's chairman, CEO until October 31, 2015—said the future P&G would be "a much simpler, much less complex company of leading brands that's easier to manage and operate". David Taylor is the current CEO of Procter & Gamble. Candlemaker William Procter, born in England, soapmaker James Gamble, born in Ireland, both emigrated from the United Kingdom.
They settled in Cincinnati and met when they married sisters Olivia and Elizabeth Norris. Alexander Norris, their father-in-law, called a meeting in which he persuaded his new sons-in-law to become business partners. On October 31, 1837, as a result of the suggestion, Procter & Gamble was created. In 1858–1859, sales reached $1 million. By that point, about 80 employees worked for Gamble. During the American Civil War, the company won contracts to supply the Union Army with soap and candles. In addition to the increased profits experienced during the war, the military contracts introduced soldiers from all over the country to Procter & Gamble's products. In the 1880s, Procter & Gamble began to market a new product, an inexpensive soap that floats in water; the company called the soap Ivory. William Arnett Procter, William Procter's grandson, began a profit-sharing program for the company's workforce in 1887. By giving the workers a stake in the company, he assumed that they would be less to go on strike.
The company began to build factories in other locations in the United States because the demand for products had outgrown the capacity of the Cincinnati facilities. The company's leaders began to diversify its products, as well, in 1911, began producing Crisco, a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats; as radio became more popular in the 1920s and 1930s, the company sponsored a number of radio programs. As a result, these shows became known as "soap operas"; the company moved into other countries, both in terms of manufacturing and product sales, becoming an international corporation with its 1930 acquisition of the Thomas Hedley Co. based in Newcastle upon Tyne, England. After this acquisition, Procter & Gamble had their UK Headquarters at'Hedley House' in Newcastle upon Tyne, until quite recently. Numerous new products and brand names were introduced over time, Procter & Gamble began branching out into new areas; the company introduced Tide laundry detergent in 1946 and Prell shampoo in 1947.
In 1955, Procter & Gamble began selling the first toothpaste to contain fluoride, known as Crest. Branching out once again in 1957, the company purchased Charmin paper mills and began manufacturing toilet paper and other tissue paper products. Once again focusing on laundry, Procter & Gamble began making Downy fabric softener in 1960 and Bounce fabric softener sheets in 1972. One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company's disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders. Prior to this point, disposable diapers were not popular, although Johnson & Johnson had developed a product called Chux. Babies always wore cloth diapers, which were labor-intensive to wash. Pampers provided a convenient alternative, albeit at the environmental cost of more waste requiring landfilling. Amid the recent concerns parents have voiced on the ingredients in diapers, Pampers launch Pampers Pure collection in 2018, a "natural" diaper alternative.
Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and increased profits. These acquisitions included Folgers Coffee, Norwich Eaton Pharmaceuticals, Richardson-Vicks, Shulton's Old Spice, Max Factor, the Iams Company, Pantene, among others. In 1994, the company made headlines for big losses resulting from levered positions in interest rate derivatives, subsequently sued Bankers Trust for fraud. In 1996, P&G again made headlines when the Food and Drug Administration approved a new product developed by the company, Olestra. Known by its brand name'Olean', Olestra is a lower-calorie substitute for fat in cooking potato chips and other snacks. In January 2005, P&G announced the acquisition of Gillette, forming the largest consumer goods company and placing Unilever into second place; this added brands such as Gillette razors, Duracell and Oral-B to their stable. The acquisition was approved by the European Union and the Federal Trade Commission, with conditions to a spinoff of certain overlapping brands.
P&G agreed to sell its SpinBrush battery-operated electric toothbrush business to Church & Dwight, Gillette's Rembrandt toothpaste line to Johnson & Johnson. The deodorant brands Right Guard and Dri, Dry Idea were sold to Dial Corporation; the compa
Channel 4 is a British public-service free-to-air television network that began transmission on 2 November 1982. Although commercially-self-funded, it is publicly-owned. With the conversion of the Wenvoe transmitter group in Wales to digital terrestrial broadcasting on 31 March 2010, Channel 4 became a UK-wide TV channel for the first time; the channel was established to provide a fourth television service to the United Kingdom in addition to the licence-funded BBC One and BBC Two, the single commercial broadcasting network ITV. Before Channel 4 and S4C, Britain had three terrestrial television services: BBC1, BBC2, ITV; the Broadcasting Act 1980 began the process of adding a fourth, Channel 4, along with its Welsh counterpart, was formally created by an Act of Parliament in 1982. After some months of test broadcasts, it began scheduled transmissions on 2 November 1982; the notion of a second commercial broadcaster in the United Kingdom had been around since the inception of ITV in 1954 and its subsequent launch in 1955.
Indeed, television sets sold throughout the 1970s and early 1980s had a spare tuning button labelled "ITV/IBA 2". Throughout ITV's history and until Channel 4 became a reality, a perennial dialogue existed between the GPO, the government, the ITV companies and other interested parties, concerning the form such an expansion of commercial broadcasting would take, it was most politics which had the biggest impact in leading to a delay of three decades before the second commercial channel became a reality. One clear benefit of the "late arrival" of the channel was that its frequency allocations at each transmitter had been arranged in the early 1960s, when the launch of an ITV2 was anticipated; this led to good coverage across most of the country and few problems of interference with other UK-based transmissions. At the time the fourth service was being considered, a movement in Wales lobbied for the creation of dedicated service that would air Welsh-language programmes only catered for at "off peak" times on BBC Wales and HTV.
The campaign was taken so by Gwynfor Evans, former president of Plaid Cymru, that he threatened the government with a hunger strike were it not to honour the plans. The result was that Channel 4 as seen by the rest of the United Kingdom would be replaced in Wales by Sianel Pedwar Cymru. Operated by a specially created authority, S4C would air programmes in Welsh made by HTV, the BBC and independent companies. Limited frequency space meant that Channel 4 could not be broadcast alongside S4C, though some Channel 4 programmes would be aired at less popular times on the Welsh variant, a practice that carried on up until the closure of S4C's analogue transmissions in 2010 when S4C became a Welsh channel. Since carriage on digital cable and digital terrestrial has introduced Channel 4 to Welsh homes where it is now universally available; the first voice heard on Channel 4's opening day of Tuesday 2 November 1982 was that of continuity announcer Paul Coia who said: Good afternoon. It's a pleasure to be able to say to you, welcome to Channel Four.
Following the announcement, the channel headed into a montage of clips from its programmes set to the station's signature tune, "Fourscore", written by David Dundas, which would form the basis of the station's jingles for its first decade. The first programme to air on the channel was the teatime game show Countdown, at 16:45 produced by Yorkshire Television; the first person to be seen on Channel 4 was Richard Whiteley with Ted Moult being the second. The first woman on the channel, contrary to popular belief, was not Whiteley's Countdown co-host Carol Vorderman but a lexicographer only identified as Mary. Whiteley opened the show with the words: As the countdown to a brand new channel ends, a brand new countdown begins. On its first day, Channel 4 broadcast controversial soap opera Brookside, which ran until 2003. On its launch, Channel 4 committed itself to providing an alternative to the existing channels, an agenda in part set out by its remit which required the provision of programming to minority groups.
In step with its remit, the channel became well received both by minority groups and the arts and cultural worlds during this period under founding chief executive Jeremy Isaacs, where the channel gained a reputation for programmes on the contemporary arts. Channel 4 co-commissioned Robert Ashley's ground-breaking television opera Perfect Lives, which it premiered over several episodes in 1984; the channel did not receive mass audiences for much of this period, however, as might be expected for a station focusing on minority interest. Channel 4 began the funding of independent films, such as the Merchant-Ivory docudrama The Courtesans of Bombay, during this time. In 1992, Channel 4 faced its first libel case by Jani Allan, a South African journalist, who objected to her representation in Nick Broomfield's documentary The Leader, His Driver and the Driver's Wife. In September 1993, the channel broadcast the direct-to-TV documentary film Beyond Citizen Kane, in which it displayed the dominant position of the Rede Globo television network, discussed its influence and political connections in Brazil.
After control of the station passed from the Channel Four Television Co
Product placement known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent. While references to brands may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism and/or be a subject of commentary, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include automobiles and consumer electronics. Works produced by vertically integrated companies may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy. During the 21st century, the use of product placement on television grew to combat the wider use of digital video recorders that can skip traditional commercial breaks, as well as to engage with younger demographics.
Digital editing technology is being used to tailor product placement to specific demographics or markets, in some cases, add placements to works that did not have embedded advertising, or update existing placements. Product placement began in the 19th century. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days, his fame had led transport and shipping companies to lobby to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was paid to do so, remains unknown. A painting by Eduoard Manet shows a bar at the Folies Bergere with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter; the beer bottle is recognisable as Bass beer. Manet's motivations for including branded products in his painting are unknown. Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu suggests that films produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1876 were made at the request of a representative of Lever Brothers in France; the films feature Sunlight soap, which may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film.
This led to cinema becoming one of the earliest channels used for product placement. With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper's reputation by placing an actual copy of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example, the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, holds a copy of the magazine in her hands. Product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions from the first ten years of cinema history. During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports cited cases of on-screen brand-name products. Harrison condemned the practice as harmful to movie theatres, his editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice over Red Crown gasoline's appearance in The Garage. Another editorial criticised the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in several films in the mid-1920s including The Lost World.
Recognisable brand names appeared in movies from cinema's earliest history. Before films were narrative forms in the sense that they are recognized today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning described as "cinematic attractions", short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film audiences attended films as "fairground attractions" interesting for their then-amazing visual effects; this format was better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Gurevitch argued that early cinematic attractions have more in common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggested that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined, suggesting that cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic advantage that it provided early film makers. Segrave detailed the industries. A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers attracts marketers.
In many cases no payment is made for product exposure and no promise of marketing support is made when consumer brands appear in movies. Film productions need props for scenes, so each movie's property master, responsible for gathering props film, contacts product placement middlemen agencies or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product/service supplier might provide a production with large quantities of complementary products or services. Tapping product placement channels can be valuable for movies when a vintage product is required—such as a sign or bottle—that is not available. Although there is no definitive proof that product placement for Red Crown gasoline in The Garage, Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse the Gambler contained a prominent title card in the opening credits reading "The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner." Among notable silent films to feature product placement was Wings, the first to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Fritz Lang's film M shows a banner display for Wrigley's PK Chewing Gum, for 20–30 seconds. Another early example occurs in Horse Feathers, where The
The American Express Company known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Three World Financial Center in New York City. The company is one of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average; the company is best known for its charge card, credit card, traveler's cheque businesses. In 2016, credit cards using the American Express network accounted for 22.9% of the total dollar volume of credit card transactions in the US. As of December 31, 2017, the company had 112.8 million cards in force, including 50 million cards in force in the United States, each with an average annual spending of $18,519. In 2017, Forbes named American Express as the 23rd most valuable brand in the world, estimating the brand to be worth US$24.5 billion. In 2018, Fortune ranked American Express as the 14th most admired company worldwide, the 23rd best company to work for; the company's logo, adopted in 1958, is a gladiator or centurion whose image appears on the company's traveler's cheques, charge cards and credit cards.
In 1850, American Express was started as an express mail business in New York. It was founded as a joint stock corporation by the merger of the express companies owned by Henry Wells, William G. Fargo, John Warren Butterfield. Wells and Fargo started Wells Fargo & Co. in 1852 when Butterfield and other directors objected to the proposal that American Express extend its operations to California. American Express established its headquarters in a building at the intersection of Jay Street and Hudson Street in what was called the Tribeca section of Manhattan. For years it enjoyed a virtual monopoly on the movement of express shipments throughout New York State. In 1874, American Express moved its headquarters to 65 Broadway in what was becoming the Financial District of Manhattan, a location it was to retain through two buildings. In 1854, the American Express Co. purchased a lot on Vesey Street in New York City as the site for its stables. The company's first New York headquarters was an 1858 marble Italianate palazzo at 55–61 Hudson Street, which had a busy freight depot on the ground story with a spur line from the Hudson River Railroad.
A stable was constructed in 1867, five blocks north at 4–8 Hubert Street. The company prospered sufficiently that headquarters were moved in 1874 from the wholesale shipping district to the budding Financial District, into rented offices in two five-story brownstone commercial buildings at 63 and 65 Broadway that were owned by the Harmony family. In 1880, American Express built a new warehouse behind the Broadway Building at 46 Trinity Place; the designer is unknown, but it has a façade of brick arches that are reminiscent of pre-skyscraper New York. American Express has long been out of this building, but it still bears a terracotta seal with the American Express Eagle. In 1890–91 the company constructed a new ten-story building by Edward H. Kendall on the site of its former headquarters on Hudson Street. By 1903, the company had assets of some $28 million, second only to the National City Bank of New York among financial institutions in the city. To reflect this, the company purchased the Broadway buildings and site.
At the end of the Wells-Fargo reign in 1914, an aggressive new president, George Chadbourne Taylor, who had worked his way up through the company over the previous thirty years, decided to build a new headquarters. The old buildings, dubbed by the New York Times as "among the ancient landmarks" of lower Broadway, were inadequate for such a expanding concern. After some delays due to the First World War, the 21-story neo-classical American Express Co. Building was constructed in 1916–17 to the design of James L. Aspinwall, of the firm of Renwick, Aspinwall & Tucker, the successor to the architectural practice of the eminent James Renwick, Jr.. The building consolidated the two lots of the former buildings with a single address: 65 Broadway; this building was part of the "Express Row" section of lower Broadway at the time. The building completed the continuous masonry wall of its block-front and assisted in transforming Broadway into the "canyon" of neo-classical masonry office towers familiar to this dayAmerican Express sold this building in 1975, but retained travel services there.
The building was the headquarters over the years of other prominent firms, including investment bankers J.& W. Seligman & Co. the American Bureau of Shipping, a maritime concern, J. J. Kenny, Standard & Poor's, who has renamed the building for itself. American Express extended its reach nationwide by arranging affiliations with other express companies and steamship companies. In 1857, American Express started its expansion in the area of financial services by launching a money order business to compete with the United States Post Office's money orders. Sometime between 1888 and 1890, J. C. Fargo returned frustrated and infuriated. Despite the fact that he was president of American Express and that he carried with him traditional letters of credit, he found it difficult to obtain cash anywhere except in major cities. Fargo went to Marcellus Flemming Berry and asked him to create a better solution than the letter of credit. Berry introduced the American Express Traveler's Cheque, launched in 1891 in denominations of $10, $20, $50, $100.
Traveler's cheques established American Express as a international compa