A computer virus is a type of malicious software that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are said to be "infected" with a computer virus. Virus writers use social engineering deceptions and exploit detailed knowledge of security vulnerabilities to infect systems and to spread the virus; the vast majority of viruses target systems running Microsoft Windows, employing a variety of mechanisms to infect new hosts, using complex anti-detection/stealth strategies to evade antivirus software. Motives for creating viruses can include seeking profit, desire to send a political message, personal amusement, to demonstrate that a vulnerability exists in software, for sabotage and denial of service, or because they wish to explore cybersecurity issues, artificial life and evolutionary algorithms. Computer viruses cause billions of dollars' worth of economic damage each year, due to causing system failure, wasting computer resources, corrupting data, increasing maintenance costs, etc.
In response, open-source antivirus tools have been developed, an industry of antivirus software has cropped up, selling or distributing virus protection to users of various operating systems. As of 2005 though no existing antivirus software was able to uncover all computer viruses, computer security researchers are searching for new ways to enable antivirus solutions to more detect emerging viruses, before they have become distributed; the term "virus" is misused by extension to refer to other types of malware. "Malware" encompasses computer viruses along with many other forms of malicious software, such as computer "worms", spyware, trojan horses, rootkits, malicious Browser Helper Object, other malicious software. The majority of active malware threats are trojan horse programs or computer worms rather than computer viruses; the term computer virus, coined by Fred Cohen in 1985, is a misnomer. Viruses perform some type of harmful activity on infected host computers, such as acquisition of hard disk space or central processing unit time, accessing private information, corrupting data, displaying political or humorous messages on the user's screen, spamming their e-mail contacts, logging their keystrokes, or rendering the computer useless.
However, not all viruses carry a destructive "payload" and attempt to hide themselves—the defining characteristic of viruses is that they are self-replicating computer programs which modify other software without user consent. The first academic work on the theory of self-replicating computer programs was done in 1949 by John von Neumann who gave lectures at the University of Illinois about the "Theory and Organization of Complicated Automata"; the work of von Neumann was published as the "Theory of self-reproducing automata". In his essay von Neumann described. Von Neumann's design for a self-reproducing computer program is considered the world's first computer virus, he is considered to be the theoretical "father" of computer virology. In 1972, Veith Risak directly building on von Neumann's work on self-replication, published his article "Selbstreproduzierende Automaten mit minimaler Informationsübertragung"; the article describes a functional virus written in assembler programming language for a SIEMENS 4004/35 computer system.
In 1980 Jürgen Kraus wrote his diplom thesis "Selbstreproduktion bei Programmen" at the University of Dortmund. In his work Kraus postulated that computer programs can behave in a way similar to biological viruses; the first known description of a self-reproducing program in a short story occurs in a 1970 story by Gregory Benford which describes a computer program called VIRUS which, when installed on a computer with telephone modem dialling capability, randomly dials phone numbers until it hit a modem, answered by another computer. It attempts to program the answering computer with its own program, so that the second computer will begin dialling random numbers, in search of yet another computer to program; the program spreads exponentially through susceptible computers and can only be countered by a second program called VACCINE. The idea was explored further in two 1972 novels, When HARLIE Was One by David Gerrold and The Terminal Man by Michael Crichton, became a major theme of the 1975 novel The Shockwave Rider by John Brunner.
The 1973 Michael Crichton sci-fi movie Westworld made an early mention of the concept of a computer virus, being a central plot theme that causes androids to run amok. Alan Oppenheimer's character summarizes the problem by stating that "...there's a clear pattern here which suggests an analogy to an infectious disease process, spreading from one...area to the next." To which the replies are stated: "Perhaps there are superficial similarities to disease" and, "I must confess I find it difficult to believe in a disease of machinery." The Creeper virus was first detected on the forerunner of the Internet, in the early 1970s. Creeper was an experimental self-replicating program written by Bob Thomas at BBN Technologies in 1971. Creeper used the ARPANET to infect DEC PDP-10 computers running the TENEX operating system. Creeper gained access via the ARPANET and copied itself to the remote system where the message, "I'm the creeper, catch me if you can!" was displayed. The Reaper program was created to delete Creeper.
In 1982, a program called "Elk Cloner" was
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube systems which were replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, network streaming. Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Video was exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape.
Video recorders were sold for US $50,000 in 1956, videotapes cost US $300 per one-hour reel. However, prices dropped over the years; the use of digital techniques in video created digital video, which allows higher quality and much lower cost than earlier analog technology. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in computer technology allows inexpensive personal computers and smartphones to capture, store and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of video production, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production; the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. As of 2015, with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamuts, high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth, modern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.
Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video; the minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of a moving image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be progressive. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence; when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early mechanical and CRT video displays without increasing the number of complete frames per second. Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower bandwidth compared to progressive scanning.
In interlaced video, the horizontal scan lines of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, captured as two fields: an odd field consisting of the odd-numbered lines and an field consisting of the even-numbered lines. Analog display devices reproduce each frame doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned; when the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is described as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing, 50 indicates 50 fields per second; when displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple line doubling—artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them.
A procedure known as deinterlacing can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an LCD television, digital video projector or plasma panel. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality, equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectangular, so can be described by a ratio between width and height; the ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375:1. Pixels on computer monitors are square, but pixels used in digital video have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
PC Tools (company)
PC Tools known as WinGuides.com, was a software company acquired by Symantec in 2008. Company headquarters were in Australia, with offices in Luxembourg, the United States, United Kingdom and Ukraine; the company had developed and distributed security and optimization software for the Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows platforms. By 29 November 2006 software owned by PC Tools had been downloaded over 125 million times. PC Tools Browser Defender called Browser Defender for short, is a browser toolbar for Internet Explorer and Mozilla Firefox browsers on Windows based computers. Browser Defender allows for safe web surfing. IAntivirus was rebranded under Symantec's Norton brand. PC Tools iAntiVirus is free antivirus software for Intel based Apple Macintosh computers running Mac OS 10.5 and Mac OS 10.6 released in June 2008, used to detect and remove malware and malicious exploits, using both signature-based and heuristic detection. IAntiVirus was criticized because it only scans for Macintosh viruses, ignoring Windows and Linux viruses.
It was praised for its speed and low usage of system resources. PC Tools Internet Security, was the combination of the Spyware Doctor product the Firewall product and the Anti Spam product, it provided the functionality of all three stand alone products into a single seamless product. Symantec is no longer offering this product as of 18 May 2013, it was payware designed for Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista and Windows XP. PC Tools Registry Mechanic, the first software PC Tools released, scanned the Windows registry to find errors. Version 11, released on 31 October 2011, is the last one. PC Tools Spyware Doctor, is anti-malware software. Spyware Doctor detects malware based on indicators of compromise using its spider technology; the most recent version of Spyware Doctor is 9, released on 31 October 2011. Symantec is no longer offering this product as of 18 May 2013. PC Tools Spyware Doctor with AntiVirus has the same features as Spyware Doctor, with added anti-virus capabilities. Symantec has not sold this since 2013.
The ThreatExpert Web site says that it is an advanced automated threat analysis system built to analyze and report the actions of malware in a automated mode. As of March 2015 the latest version was beta version 188.8.131.52 of 1 March 2008. There have been no updates since March 2008, the Web site seems inactive. On 18 August 2008, Symantec announced the signing of an agreement to acquire PC Tools such that PC Tools would maintain separate operations; the financial terms of the acquisition were not disclosed. Symantec acquired PC Tools for US$262,000,000 on 6 October 2008. Symantec withdrew the entire PC Tools security portfolio, comprising PC Tools Internet Security, Spyware Doctor and Spyware Doctor with Antivirus, on 18 May 2013. Symantec said. Spyware Doctor received the PC World Best Buy award in the October 2007 issue of the magazine saying "PC Tools' Spyware Doctor 5.0 was the winner, outperforming the competition at detecting and removing our test set of adware and spyware samples."Spyware Doctor has received several Editors' Choice awards from PC Magazine, including one for Spyware Doctor with AntiVirus 5.5 in 2008.
The product has received numerous other awards from around the globe. Not all reviews have been positive and early versions of Spyware Doctor 5.0, which the company rewrote from scratch, received some negative commentary. CNET's Download.com reviews, justifies the 3-star rating by saying, "in our trial scans, Spyware Doctor flagged several dozen harmless cookies as potential threats, more than any other antispyware product we tested. We were unable to learn more about each threat or why Spyware Doctor flagged each." Symantec was unsuccessfully sued by a Washington resident for running fake scans to get people to pay for subscriptions to PC Tools's Registry Mechanic, Performance Toolkit, Norton Utilities The lawsuit claims the company intentionally ran the fake scans and the results were not real. A new wrinkle is Adware. Official website ThreatExpert iAntiVirus Browser Defender
Allwinner Technology is a fabless semiconductor company that designs mixed-signal systems on a chip. The company is headquartered in Zhuhai, China, it has a sales and technical support office in Shenzhen and logistics operations in Hong Kong. Since its founding in 2007, Allwinner has released over fifteen SoC processors for use in Android-based tablets, as well as in smartphones, over-the-air OTT boxes, video camera systems, car DVRs, car media players. In 2012 and 2013, Allwinner was the number one supplier in terms of unit shipments of application processors for Android tablets worldwide. According to DigiTimes, in Q4 2013 Allwinner lost its number one position in terms of unit shipments to the Chinese market to Rockchip. For Q2 2014, Allwinner was reported by DigiTimes to be the third largest supplier to the Chinese market after Rockchip and MediaTek. DigiTimes has projected that Allwinner will fall to the number four position in Q4 2014, being passed by Intel, as Allwinner's unit shipments continue to decline.
A series processors are used for mobile applications referring to tablet application. In 2011, the company became an ARM processor licensee, subsequently announced a series of ARM Cortex-A8 powered mobile application processors, including A10, A13, A10s and A12, which were used in numerous tablets, in PC-on-a-stick and media center devices, they have been adopted in free hardware projects like the Cubieboard development board. In December 2012, Allwinner announced the availability of two ARM Cortex-A7 MPCore powered products, the dual-core Allwinner A20 and quad-core Allwinner A31. Production of the A31 started in September 2012 and end products high-end tablets from Chinese manufacturers, appeared on the market in early 2013, including the Onda V972. Allwinner was the first to make this ARM processor core available in mass production. In March 2013, Allwinner launched its quad-core Phablet processor A31s. Based on quad-core cortex-A7 CPU architecture, this processor allows 3G, 2G, LTE, WIFI, BT, FM, GPS, AGPS and NFC using a minimum of external components.
In October, 2013, Allwinner released its second dual-core A23, touted to be "The most efficient dual core processor" for tablets. The A23's CPU frequency was intended to run up to 1.5 GHz. In June, 2014, Allwinner announced the A33 quad-core SoC, pin compatible with Allwinner's A23; the new SoC features four Cortex-A7 cores with 256 KB L1 cache, 512 KB L2 cache and a Mali-400 MP2 GPU. A new feature is the support of the OpenMAX API. Allwinner has positioned the A33 for entry-level tablets, targeting quad-core tablets priced from $30 to $60, in July 2014 announced that it has started mass production of the chip, which will sell for as low as $4 per unit. In October 2013, Allwinner disclosed its upcoming octa-core A80 SoC, featuring four high-performance ARM Cortex-A15 and four efficient ARM Cortex-A7 CPU cores in a big. LITTLE configuration. On June 30, 2014, Chinese brand Onda released its octa-core Onda V989 tablet, based on Allwinner A80; this is the first Allwinner A80-based tablet, available to consumers, priced at CNY 1099.
In September 2014, Allwinner announced the Allwinner A83T, an octa-core tablet processor that packs eight energy-efficient Cortex-A7 cores that can run at up to around 2.0 GHz. It includes a PowerVR GPU; the first tablet with the chip was expected to hit the market in Q4 2014. F series are processors based on Allwinner’s melis OS used in smart video radios, video MP5, etcFrom 2007 to 2011, Allwinner introduced its F-series processors, including the F10, F13, F18, F20, F1E200, F1C100, F20; this series runs Allwinner's in-house operating system Melis2.0, now used in vehicle multimedia systems, E-ink readers, video intercom systems, so on. The H-series, introduced in 2014, are integrated application processors targeted at OTT set-top box applications eg HDMI mini PCs, gaming boxes, etc; the R Series Chip is designed for low power applications where timing is critical and must be done at the edge rather than in the fog or cloud. The chip has built in redundancies to meet industrial and automotive standards for processing.
The R Series Chip has been applicable to a number of different industries including Industrial Automation, Safe PLCs, Power Generation and Distribution and Automotive Technology. The technology the R16 Chip, has been utilised for robotic vacuums and smart speakers resulting from a longterm partnership with the Cogobuy Group’s subsidiary IngDan. Cogobuy’s preparatory K-system was used as the basis to add integrated SLAM modules with Allwinner chip’s; the technical advantages and patents Cogobuy held allowed for chip localisation of edge computing required for the AI room mapping and cleaning. The R40 and R16 technology has been implemented on a number of Banana Pi models; the R8 Chip was used for “The World’s First Nine Dollar Computer” Kickstarter project in 2015. The V-Series are video encoding processor targeting applications such as smart DVR, IP camera and smart home applications, it is similar to the A series SoC, but adds support for functions such as digital watermarking, motion detection and video scaling, as well as a CBR/VBR bit rate control mode.
In July 2014, Allwinner announced. The Allwinner SoC family includes A-series, intended for Android OS, F-series, intended for the company's self
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-readers designed and marketed by Amazon. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy and read e-books, newspapers and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store; the hardware platform, developed by Amazon subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device in 2007 and now comprises a range of devices, including e-readers with E Ink electronic paper displays and Kindle applications on all major computing platforms. All Kindle devices integrate with Kindle Store content, as of March 2018, the store has over six million e-books available in the United States. In 2004, Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos instructed the company's employees to build the world's best e-reader before Amazon's competitors could. Amazon used the codename Fiona for this e-reader; the Kindle name was devised by branding consultants Michael Karin Hibma. Lab126 asked them to name the product, so Cronan and Hibma suggested Kindle, meaning to light a fire, they felt. Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and the Kindle DX introduced in 2009.
The range includes devices with a keyboard, devices with touch-sensitive, lighted high-resolution screens, a tablet computer with the Kindle app, low-priced devices with a touch-sensitive screen. However, the Kindle e-reader has always been a single-purpose device for reading – rather than being multipurpose hardware that might create distractions while reading. Amazon has introduced Kindle apps for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, BlackBerry 10 and Windows Phone. Amazon has a cloud reader to allow users to read e-books using modern web browsers; this article focuses on Amazon's E Ink e-readers. Amazon released the Kindle, its first e-reader, on November 19, 2007, for US$399, it sold out in five and a half hours. The device remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008; the device features a 6-inch 4-level grayscale E Ink display, with 250 MB of internal storage, which can hold 200 non-illustrated titles. It has a speaker and a headphone jack that allows the user to listen to audio files on Kindle.
It is the only Kindle via an SD card slot. The device's Whispernet feature was co-designed with Qualcomm, Kindle was the first device to include free U. S.-wide 3G data access to browse and download e-books from Amazon's Kindle Store. Amazon did not sell the first generation Kindle outside the U. S. On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the second generation Kindle, it became available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, 2 GB of internal memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates, the Kindle 2 can hold about 1,500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the first generation Kindle, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory cards, it was slimmer than the original Kindle. The Kindle 2 features a Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory, 2 GB flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium polymer battery. To promote the Kindle 2, in February 2009 author Stephen King released Ur, his then-new novella, available through the Kindle Store.
On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from $359 to $299 in October 2009, Amazon further reduced the price to $259. The Kindle 2 had a manufacturing materials cost estimated at $185.49, in 2009 by iSuppli. On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 and sold the Kindle 2 international version worldwide. On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the Kindle 2 that increased battery life by 85% and introduced native PDF file support for the device. On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download e-books wirelessly in over 100 countries, it became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically the same as the U. S.-only Kindle 2. The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000 for use on the Sprint network; the international version used standard GSM and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U. S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries. The international version of the Kindle 2 is believed to have a higher display contrast, although Amazon did not advertise this.
A review by Gadget lab disputes that the contrast was higher and states that the font appears to be fuzzier than that of the first Kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to read the smaller font sizes that most books use; some writers discuss. Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009; this device supports PDF files. It is marketed as more suitable for displaying textbook content, it has an accelerometer, which enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side and it includes built-in speakers. The device can only connect to Whispernet in the U. S. On January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX international version was released in over 100 countries; the Kindle DX international version is the same as the Kindle DX except for having support for international 3G data. On July 1, 2010, Amazon released the Kindle DX Graphite globally; the DXG has an E Ink display with 50% better contrast ratio due to