Bavarian Order of Merit
The Bavarian Order of Merit is the Order of Merit of the Free State of Bavaria. It is awarded by the Minister-President of Bavaria as a "recognition of outstanding contributions to the Free State of Bavaria and the Bavarian people"; the order was instituted by law on 11 June 1957. The Prime Minister and the Cabinet can nominate awardees. Hemmerle, a German jewellery house based in Munich founded in 1893, is the exclusive maker of the Bavarian Order of Merit since it was instituted in 1957. Konrad Adenauer King Baudouin of Belgium Gloria, Princess of Thurn and Taxis Prince Johann Georg of Hohenzollern Franz-Ludwig Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg Maria Probst Mgr Georg Gänswein Archduke Otto of Austria Bastian Schweinsteiger Queen Silvia of Sweden Searchable database with all recipients
Maria Furtwängler-Burda is a German physician and television actress. Maria Furtwängler-Burda is a daughter of architect Bernhard Furtwängler and actress Kathrin Ackermann, great-niece and step-granddaughter of conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler, granddaughter of politician Katharina von Kardorff-Oheimb, she has two older brothers and Felix. She was given her first movie role, for which she earned a bike, at the age of seven in Zum Abschied Chrysanthemen, produced by her uncle Florian Furtwängler, her mother taught her acting and she took acting classes in Germany and other countries. After leaving secondary school, Furtwängler studied medicine at the University of Montpellier and graduated from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich in Germany. Afterwards she worked as a medical doctor. In addition to her native German, she is fluent in French and Italian. On 8 November 1991 Maria married billionaire publisher Hubert Burda, the youngest son of publishers Franz Burda and Aenne Burda, CEO of Hubert Burda Media, an international media group, which publishes more than 180 magazine titles, including many fashion magazines.
They have two children and Elisabeth. In the mid-1990s Furtwängler decided to pursue her television career. For more nearly twenty years she has been acting in German television series and productions such as the Tatort series, as a Hanover-based police detective Charlotte Lindholm since 2002, the successful television movies Die Flucht, Die Schicksalsjahre and cinema production The weather inside – Das Wetter in geschlossenen Räumen. For her work in Tatort and Die Flucht Furtwängler was honored with Germany’s most important award in the field of acting. With the movie The weather inside she was honored with the award for best actress at the 2morrow festival in Moscow and is nominated in the preselection of Deutscher Filmpreis; the film had his grand opening on 7 April 2016 at the German film festival in New York City. Furtwängler is planning to become more active as a film producer. Since its inception in 2005, Furtwängler has been involved in the Burda-sponsored Digital Life Design conference series.
She annually hosts a joint Burda/DLD networking reception at the World Economic Forum meeting in Davos. In 2010 Furtwängler founded the MALISAhome in the Philippines. For the ONE Campaign, she became a goodwill ambassador for Women and Child Health. In 2015 Furtwängler signed an open letter, which the ONE Campaign had been collecting signatures for. In 2015, she interviewed Merkel on development policy issues for the Chancellor’s weekly podcast. In November 2013, Furtwängler met Eve Ensler in Berlin and got inspired by her to get more involved in ending violence against women and girls in Germany, she is interested in the role of the media in perpetuating harmful gender stereotypes. She has been inspired by the Geena Davis Institute and by the Women’s Media Center in the US. On International Women’s Day 2016, Furtwängler supported the call of UN Women's German National Committee for a reform of the German legislation on sexual violence. On International Women’s Day 2016, she co-authored an op-ed with the German Minister for family, older people and youth, Manuela Schwesig, highlighting the need for a stronger sexual violence law and for an end to stereotyping of women and men in the media.
Celesio, Member of the Advisory Board on Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Dominik Brunner Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees Felix Burda Foundation, Member of the Council German Doctors for Developing Countries, Chairwoman of the Board of Trustees Hubert Burda Foundation, Member of the Board of Trustees MaLisa Foundation, Co-Founder and Member of the Board Stiftung Lesen, Ambassador 2016 12. Festival des deutschen Films for Dramatic Art for The weather inside 2016 2morrow-Award 2013 Jupiter Award for Best TV Actress for Tatort: Wegwerfmädchen 2010 Karl-Valentin-Orden 2010 Bavarian constitutional medal in silver 2009 Romy for Most Popular Cast in a Series 2008 DIVA-Award in the category “Best Leading Actress” for Die Flucht 2008 Jupiter Award for Best TV Actress in Die Flucht 2008 Goldene Kamera for Best Female TV Inspector 2007 Bavarian Order of Merit 2007 Goldene Henne in the category “Television – Drama” 2007 German Television Award for Best Actress in Tatort episodes Pauline and Das namenlose Mädchen 2005 Siegfried-Lowitz-Preis for Dramatic Art 2003 Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany for her commitment in the aid organization “German Doctors" 2015 Das Wetter in geschlossenen Räumen 2015 Tatort – Spielverderber 2014 Tatort– Der sanfte Tod 2012 Tatort Doppelfolge – Wegwerfmädchen/ Das goldene Band 2010 Schicksalsjahre 2008 Tatort: Salzleiche 2007 Tatort: Wem Ehre gebührt 2007 Räuber Kneißl 2007 Tatort: Das namenlose Mädchen 2006 Die Flucht, or March of Millions 2005 Tatort: Pauline 2005 Tatort: Schwarzes Herz 2005 Tatort: Atemnot 2004 Tatort: Märchenwald (Director: Chr
Frieder Burda is a German art collector and Honorary Citizen of Baden-Baden. Burda was the second son of his wife Aenne Burda. Together with his older brother Franz and his younger brother Hubert, Burda grew up in Offenburg. After finishing school in Offenburg and Switzerland, he completed a print and a publishing qualification. Burda was trained in his father's business group, he lived in France and became a magazine publisher. He spent several years in the United States before becoming a printer in Darmstadt, he developed his company into one of the leading commercial print foundries in Europe. A major art collector, Burda bought his first work, a slashed red painting by Lucio Fontana, at Kassel’s Documenta 4 in 1968. In building his collection, he took advice from art-historian friends, including Werner Spies, Götz Adriani and Jean-Louis Prat. Burda planned to build a museum near Mougins, where he had a house. In 2004, he opened Museum Frieder Burda in Baden-Baden, in a €20 million building designed by architect Richard Meier.
The collection includes more than 700 works, including several late masterpieces by Picasso and major holdings of Germany's important postwar artists, such as Gerhard Richter and Sigmar Polke, plus a few pieces from his father's collection. The focus in on German painting, from artists ranging from Max Beckmann, Eugen Schönebeck, Georg Baselitz to Corinne Wasmuht. Following its opening in October 2004, the museum drew 40,000 visitors in its first two months. Only a sampling of the permanent collection can be displayed at one time; the two-story glass and aluminum building itself is set on the edge of the main park in the town connected by a glass-sheathed bridge to the existing small Baden-Baden art museum, the Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden. A stand of enormous trees, including historic oaks and a blood beech, tower over the buildings. Meier's building won the American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Architecture in 2006. Museum Frieder Burda website
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The term Wirtschaftswunder known as the Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II. The expression referring to this phenomenon was first used by The Times in 1950. Beginning with the replacement of the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark in 1948 as legal tender, a lasting period of low inflation and rapid industrial growth was overseen by the government led by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and his Minister of Economics, Ludwig Erhard, who went down in history as the "father of the German economic miracle." In Austria, efficient labor practices led to a similar period of economic growth. The era of economic growth raised West Germany and Austria from total wartime devastation to developed nations in modern Europe. At the founding of the European Common Market in 1957 West Germany's economic growth stood in contrast to the struggling conditions at the time in the United Kingdom; the fundamental reason for the quick economic recovery of West Germany can be found in the ordoliberal growth model.
West Germany had a skilled workforce and a high technological level in 1946, but its capital stock had been destroyed during and after the war. This small capital stock was compounded by the difficulty in converting the German economy to the production of civilian goods, as well as rampant monetary and regulatory problems, leading to an unusually low economic output during the first post-war years; these initial problems were overcome by the time of the currency reform of 1948, which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation. This act to strengthen the West German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years that JCS 1067 was in effect. JCS 1067 had directed the U. S. forces of occupation in West Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany". At the same time, the government, following Erhard's advice, cut taxes on moderate incomes. Walter Heller, a young economist with the U. S. occupation forces, to become chairman of President Kennedy's Council of Economic Advisers, wrote in 1949 that to "remove the repressive effect of high rates, Military Government Law No. 64 cut a wide swath across the German tax system at the time of the currency reform."
Individual income tax rates, in particular, fell dramatically. The tax rate on any income over 6,000 Deutschmark had been 95 percent. After tax reform, this 95 percent rate applied only to annual incomes above 250,000 Deutschmark. For the West German with an annual income of about 2,400 Deutschmark in 1950, the marginal tax rate fell from 85 percent to 18 percent; the Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industries decided at the Potsdam Conference was completed by 1950. Although the industrially important Saarland with its rich coal fields was returned to West Germany in 1957, it remained economically integrated in a customs union with France until 1959 and France extracted coal from the area until 1981. West Germany proceeded after 1948 to rebuild its capital stock and thus to increase its economic output at stunning rates; the high capital investment rate thanks to low consumption and a small need for replacement capital investments drove this recovery during the 1950s. Living standards rose with the purchasing power of wages increasing by 73% from 1950 to 1960.
As noted by the British journalist Terence Prittie in the early Sixties: Today the German working-man leads a comfortable life and wears a well-filled waistcoat. He eats well, his food – although German cooking lacks the elegance of French – is wholesome and appetizing, he buys good clothes, he dresses his wife and children well. He has money to spare for television sets, week-end excursions and football matches, and he is not afraid of celebrating on a grander scale. Productivity growth in West Germany enabled most workers to obtain significant improvements in their living standards and'security of life.' In addition, as noted by David Eversley, As real incomes rose, so public authorities were enabled to raise funds, both from taxation and through borrowing, to accelerate the rate of investment and current spending in projects which are immediately productive conducive to the creation of the good life, as seen in Germany... Any superficial examination of the German townscape, let alone perusal of the statistics, shows that Germany has spent sums on hospitals, theatres, parks, railway-stations, socially-aided housing, underground railways, museums, so on which are not to be compared with British efforts in this direction.
In addition to the physical barriers that had to be overcome for the West German economic recovery, there were intellectual challenges. The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. After the German surrender and for the next two years, the U. S. pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany. John Gimbel's book "Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany" concludes the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U. S. and the UK amounted to clos
Franz Burda was a German publisher and Nazi Party member. He inherited his father's publishing business, which he developed into what is now the Hubert Burda Media conglomerate. Burda received his doctorate in 1927, at the University of Erlangen with an economic history of the development work of the Baden-products markets, he married Aenne Lemminger on July 9, 1931 and was the father of three sons, the art collector Frieder Burda, Hubert. From 1934 to 1937 Burda was a member of the paramilitary National Socialist Motor Corps, he joined the Nazi Party in 1938, was a member of other Nazi organisations. His biographer has characterised his involvement with Nazism as commercial and pragmatic, rather than ideological. In 1933 he stated publicly that his business did not have any Jewish employees or co-owners, although he would have known that statement to be untrue, having intervened on behalf of the Jewish wife of one of his employees, he developed his family's small printing business into a large media conglomerate.
He benefited from "Aryanization" of Jewish property by the Nazi government when in 1938 Burda and partners acquired Großdruckerei, Papiergroßhandlung und Papierwarenwerk Akademiestraße Gebrüder Bauer in Mannheim. Its owner Berthold Reiss and fellow shareholders were Jews, so they were forced to sell the business under Nazi "Aryanization" laws. After the acquisition, Burda invited Reiss to stay on at the company to help manage the transition. Reiss’s son Hans would write that the pair established a good working relationship, despite the circumstances of the acquisition. Burda interjected on Reiss' behalf; the Burda and Reiss families developed a friendship after 1945. Burda avoided military service himself by obtaining a contract printing maps for the military and using his connections, his antisemitic views were evident in the 1950s. After 1945, Burda was allowed to publish again. For the French occupation authorities, he printed stamps and school books. In 1948, against the will of many French officers, he managed to bring on the market the magazine Das Ufer, the forerunner of the popular magazine called Bunte.
It helped him that he was friends with a particular officer, Raymond Schmittlein, the press chief of the zone, who arranged for the license to be issued in the name of a female friend of Schmittlein's – a'straw woman,' as it were. Burda died at the age of 83 after relinquishing control of Hubert Burda Media to his three sons. Burda