SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aeroscope

Aeroscope was a type of compressed air camera for making films, constructed by Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński in 1909 and built in England since 1911, at first by Newman & Sinclair, from 1912 by Cherry Kearton Limited. Patented in England in 1910 by the Polish inventor Kazimierz Prószyński, Aeroscope was the first successful hand-held operated film camera, it has been powered by compressed air pumped before filming into the camera with a simple hand pump, similar to the one we still use to pump bicycle tires. Filming with Aeroscope, a cameraman did not have to turn the crank to advance the material filming, as in all cameras of that time, so he could operate the camera with both hands, holding the camera and controlling the focus; this made it possible to film with the Aeroscope hand-held in most difficult circumstances, as well as made possible to film from the airplanes for the military purposes. Camera carried 400 feet of 35mm film and, once pressurised, could work with no further pumping for up to 10 minutes.

The Aeroscope was known for its reliability. Hundreds of light and compact Aeroscope cameras were used by the British War Office for the combat cameramen on the battlefields of World War I, by all newsreel cameramen all over world, until the late 1920s. Aeroscope has been used among others by Arthur Herbert Malins recognized by Kelly as “the most famous of the war cinematographers” who used it at the battle of the Somme; as several of the cameramen died filming from the firing lines Aeroscope got a name of camera of death. In 1928 Prószyński built an improved version of his camera, with an air pressure meter, but the more practical spring cameras like Eyemo and Bolex took over; however by the beginning of World War II, some of the improved Aeroscope cameras were in use by the British combat cameramen. Eyemo Konvas Filmo Debrie Parvo Photograph of the Aeroscope camera by National Media Museum, United Kingdom Profile of Kazimierz Prószyński at "Who is Who of Victorian Cinema" "The Cameraman Who Filmed The Western Front", by Dr George Bailey, 2006, Published in Mars & Clio, the Bulletin of the British Commission for Military History, Summer 2006.

"Waging The Movie Battle on the European Powers" by Ernest A. Dench, The Macmillan Company, New York 1915

Jemappes

Jemappes is a Walloon town in south-western Belgium, province Hainaut. Since 1973, it is part of the city Mons. Jemappes is known for the Battle of Jemappes between the French and Austrian armies in 1792. During the French occupation of Belgium, there was a département named after the Battle of Jemappes, Jemmape. Jemappes was a battleground in the First World War. Georges Emile Lebacq, painter born on 26 September 1876 Jean-Marie Buchet, author-filmmaker born on 24 February 1938. Salvatore Adamo, lived here 1948 -? Gérard Roland, noted Economist, born in 1954

Get Out and Push Railroad

The Get Out and Push Railroad was a 19th-century street railway, connecting Wilmington, California, to the Willmore area of Long Beach, which requested its patrons to assist trains over the steeper parts of the route. The line was built by Robert M. Widney to convey potential buyers to a new tract of land which he and W. E. Willmore were developing, at first called Willmore City but renamed Long Beach. A horse-drawn car, on the first day of service the vehicle broke its wooden rails, forcing the men passengers to push it to a sound section of track, after which the line was popularly known as the G. O. P. Railroad. In 1883 floods washed the line out twice. Few lots were sold, in 1884 the land scheme was abandoned. Instead, an extensive advertising campaign was undertaken promoting Long Beach as a summertime resort, the line was extended to the newly-built five-story Bay View Hotel, located just south of what is now Lincoln Park. In 1885 a route was surveyed for a steam railway. On initial test runs, the small steam engine was unable to move the car coupled to it until "a man boosted them with a pinch bar.

When the railroad is completed, some of the citizens suggest that the horse rail-way be continued in operation for the benefit of those who may be in a hurry."The steam line was completed in 1886 and renamed the Wilmington & Long Beach Rapid Transit Railroad. But it inherited its predecessor's "Get Out and Push" nickname because the little engine was a primitive affair, it was so constructed that it had to be started with a metal bar, was covered with a wooden jacket which used to catch fire when the boiler was hot enough to make a good steam. Since the water in the boiler had to be used to extinguish the fire, the steam would go down and the engine refuse to run... It ran well on level ground, but on a rise it was apt to stop till the male passengers got out and applied the iron bar with considerable force; the Los Angeles Times published a song to the tune of "Paddy Duffey's Cart": In 1887 the line was taken over by the Southern Pacific Railroad