Lucera is an Italian city of 34,243 inhabitants in the province of Foggia in the region of Apulia, and the seat of the Diocese of Lucera-Troia. Situated at the confluence of the valleys of Molise and Campania in the Tavoliere delle Puglie, Lucera was the capital of Capitanata, the winds are quite frequent and, although sometimes quite strong, are usually moderate. The average annual temperature is around 15 °C, and rainfall amounts to a value of 497 millimetres. Lucera is located in the territory of the Dauni ancient tribe, archeological excavations show the presence of a bronze age village inside the city boundaries. Lucera was probably named after either Lucius, a mythical Dauno king, a third possibility is that the city was founded and named by the Etruscans, in which case the name probably means Holy Wood. In 321 BC, the Roman army was deceived into thinking Lucera was under siege by the Samnites, hurrying to relieve their allies the army walked into an ambush and were defeated at the famous Battle of the Caudine Forks.
The Samnites occupied Lucera but were out after a revolt. The city sought Roman protection and in 320 BC was granted the status of Colonia Togata, in order to strengthen the ties between the two cities,2,500 Romans moved to Lucera. From on, Lucera was known as a steadfast supporter of Rome, during the civil wars of the late Republic, Pompey set up his headquarters in Lucera, but abandoned the city when Julius Caesar approached. Lucera quickly switched its allegiance and Caesars clemency spared it from harm, in the next civil war between Octavian and Mark Anthony the city did not escape as lightly. After the war, Octavian settled many veteran soldiers on the lands of the ruined city and this helped Lucera recover quickly and marked an era of renewed prosperity. Many of the surviving Roman landmarks hail from this Augustan period, with the fall of the Western Roman Empire the city of Lucera entered into a state of decline. In 663 AD, it was captured from the Lombards and destroyed by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constans II.
In 1224, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, responding to religious uprisings in Sicily, expelled all Muslims from the island, in this controlled environment, they could not challenge royal authority and they benefited the crown in taxes and military service. Their numbers eventually reached between 15,000 and 20,000, leading Lucera to be called Lucaera Saracenorum because it represented the last stronghold of Islamic presence in Italy, during peacetime, Muslims in Lucera were predominantly farmers. They grew durum wheat, legumes and other fruits, Muslims kept bees for honey. The colony thrived for 75 years until it was sacked in 1300 by Christian forces under the command of Charles II of Naples. The majority of the citys Muslim inhabitants were slaughtered or – as happened to almost 10,000 of them – sold into slavery, or exiled, with many finding asylum in Albania across the Adriatic Sea
Minerva was the Roman goddess of wisdom and sponsor of arts and strategy. She was born with weapons from the head of Jupiter, after impregnating the titaness Metis, Jupiter recalled a prophecy that his own child would overthrow him. Fearing that their child would grow stronger than he and rule the Heavens in his place, the titaness forged weapons and armor for her child while within the father-god, and the constant pounding and ringing gave him a headache. To relieve the pain, Vulcan used a hammer to split Jupiters head and, from the cleft, Minerva emerged, adult, from the 2nd century BC onwards, the Romans equated her with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the goddess of music, medicine, commerce, weaving. She is often depicted with her sacred creature, an owl usually named as the owl of Minerva, stemming from an Italic moon goddess *Meneswā, the Etruscans adopted the inherited Old Latin name, *Menerwā, thereby calling her Menrva. It is assumed that her Roman name, Minerva, is based on this Etruscan mythology, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, art and commerce.
She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena, like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter. The word mens is built from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- mind, the Etruscan Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter, as Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Lucera in Apulia where votive gifts, in Fasti III, Ovid called her the goddess of a thousand works. Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, and when she eventually became equated with the Greek goddess Athena, unlike Mars, god of war, she was sometimes portrayed with sword lowered, in sympathy for the recent dead, rather than raised in triumph. In Rome her bellicose nature was emphasized less than elsewhere and her worship was spread throughout the empire—in Britain, for example, she was syncretized with the local goddess Sulis, who was often invoked for restitution for theft.
The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the plural, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth. A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, in 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine Hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus, the Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic. When it was founded, the emperor himself was present and was believed to be of divine nature as a result of its construction, Minerva is featured on the coinage of different Roman Emperors. She is often represented on the side of a coin holding an owl
Ascoli Satriano is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. Ascoli was a city of the Dauni and it was the site of two early Roman battles. Later Sulla established a colony there. In the mid-9th century the Saracens razed the city, in 1040 it rebelled against the Byzantines and, the following year, a decisive battle was fought nearby which granted the Normans control over southern Italy. The Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral Church of St. John the Baptist Church of the Incoronata Biagio Ciotto served as a senator from Connecticut from 1995 to 2007. Ascoli Satriano it, Marmi di Ascoli Satriano For further reading see Daniel R. Curtis, Is there an ‘agro-town’ model for Southern Italy
Luceria is an ancient city in the northern Apennines, located in the comune of Canossa in the Province of Reggio Emilia, on the right bank of the river Enza. The name might derive from lucus, which means sacred grove and it is not clear if this was the proper name of the city or if it was called Nuceria. The little stream which separates Canossa from San Polo dEnza is still called the Rio Luceria today, the name of this stream is fairly old as it appears in the 1364 property records of Azzo da Correggio as Rivum Luxerae. However, Luceria is the best-attested and most used name, even in official documents, Luceria probably arose as a mercantile centre in the 4th century BC. The first inhabitants of the place were the Ligurians, probably the Friniati and they took advantage of the strategic position of their settlement to trade with settlements which were further afield too. In the second century BC, the Roman Republic colonisted the Po Valley, the customs and traditions of the Ligurians did not disappear and the Romans did not impose their own culture.
Instead, Roman culture merged with the native one slowly, probably accompanied by cross-cultural marriages, the Romanisation of Luceria dates to the Republican era, but the city actually became important on, in the first and second centuries AD, under the Roman Empire. At this time there were small neighbouring villages south of the rio Vico, traces of a vast fire which destroyed all the wooden structures in the city date to this period. They were replaced with buildings on strong stone foundations. Luceria is mentioned in a written by the Emperor Valentinian I to his prefect Rufinus about grazing rights. Subsequently, the city of Luceria was suddenly abandoned for unknown reasons, but it cannot be ruled out that the settlement was attacked by soldiers or deserters in search of food. A catastrophic natural disaster has found more support and this is deduced from the many coins which have been found through excavation and random finds during tillage over the centuries. A particularly strong earthquake or flood could have caused the inhabitants to flee, abandoning all their possessions, after such disastrous events it was very easy for the survivors to move back and reconstruct what had been destroyed.
Apparently economic activity had declined and commercial traffic probably declined ever more, after Luceria was abandoned, it was repeatedly spoliated, as common in the Middle Ages, for valuable building materials to be reused in new constructions. ). Thus the settlement disappeared from view and, in time, from local memory too, interest in this lost city revived during the Renaissance when the work of Ptolemy was rediscovered and published. Archaeological research was undertaken at Luceria in a very fragmentary way from the half of the eighteenth century. The first excavations of the site began on 21 May 1776 and were continued after a gap in 1785. At this time Canossa belonged to the Duchy of Parma and the excavations were carried out by the abbot Angelo Schenoni, today archaeology is viewed as a science for reconstructing the past, but in the eighteenth century it was understood as a method of recovering antiquities
The semis literally meaning half was a small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic, the semis was distinguished by an S or 6 dots, some of the coins featured a bust of Saturn on the obverse, and the prow of a ship on the reverse. Initially a cast coin, like the rest of Roman Republican bronzes, the coin was issued infrequently during the Roman Empire, and ceased to be issued by the time of Hadrian 117-138 AD. Roman currency
Rome is a special comune and the capital of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region, with 2,873,598 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the countrys largest and most populated comune and fourth-most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the center of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents, the city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber. Romes history spans more than 2,500 years, while Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at only around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe. The citys early population originated from a mix of Latins, Etruscans and it was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, and the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the Caput Mundi, due to that, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, and the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism.
Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, in 1871 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, and in 1946 that of the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city, Rome ranked in 2014 as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, and the most popular tourist attraction in Italy. Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and museums such as the Vatican Museums and the Colosseum are among the worlds most visited tourist destinations with both locations receiving millions of tourists a year. Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is the seat of United Nations Food, however, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself. As early as the 4th century, there have been alternate theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. There is archaeological evidence of occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago. Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence, several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum.
Between the end of the age and the beginning of the Iron age. However, none of them had yet an urban quality, there is a wide consensus that the city was gradually born through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine. All these happenings, which according to the excavations took place more or less around the mid of the 8th century BC. Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome has been indeed founded with an act of will as the legend suggests in the middle of the 8th century BC remains a fringe hypothesis. Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans themselves explain the earliest history of their city in terms of legend and myth
Fermo listen is a town and comune of the Marche, Italy, in the Province of Fermo. Fermo is on a hill, the Sabulo, elevation 319 metres, the oldest human remains from the area are funerary remains from the 9th–8th centuries BC, belonging to the Villanovan culture or the proto-Etruscan civilization. It was originally governed by five quaestors and it was made a colony with full rights after the battle of Philippi, the 4th Legion being settled there. It lay at the junction of roads to Pausulae, Urbs Salvia, with the Pentapolis, in the 8th century it passed under the authority of the Holy See was thenceforth subject to the vicissitudes of the March of Ancona. In the 10th century it became the capital of the Marchia Firmana, under the predecessors of Honorius III the bishops of city became prince-bishops, first with the secular rights of counts, and as princes of Fermo. In 1199 it became a city, and remained independent until 1550. After this it was governed by different lords, who ruled as more or less legitimate vassals of the Holy See, the Roman theater, scant traces of an amphitheater exist.
Remains of the city wall, of blocks of hard limestone, may be seen just outside the Porta S. Francesco. The medieval embattled walls superposed on it are picturesque, the cisterns of Fermo are an archaeological site situated on top of the hill, at 310 metres above sea level. Fermo boasts one of the most gigantic and well-preserved example of Roman cisterns in Italy and they were built around 1st century a. C. The structure is a construction of about 30 by 70 metres consisting of 30 underground rooms. The underground pipe network above the cisterns was connected to a canal around the external walls, from the canal, small pipes brought water into the cisterns, water inlets are still visible inside the rooms. The cisterns are made of Opus caementicium which is the waterproofing old Roman concrete, the level of the water inside the rooms was about 70 centimetres and the total amount of water inside was about 3000 mq. The Palazzo dei Priori, restored in 1446, with a statue of Pope Sixtus V in front of it, the Biblioteca Comunale contains a collection of inscriptions and antiquities.
Fermo Cathedral, Excavations undertaken in 1934–35 under the churchs pavement brought to light remains from the age of Antoninus Pius and this had three naves divided into four bays, with a raised presbytery. Of its mosaic decorations today only those in the apse are visible, after the destruction of this church by Christian of Mainz in 1176 by order of Frederick Barbarossa, the church reconstructed in 1227 by Giorgio da Como. It has a Gothic facade made of Istrian stone, divided by pillars and with a central rose window, a bell tower from the same age. In the vestibule are several tombs, including one from 1366 by Tura da Imola, and the modern monument to Giuseppe Colucci, the interior reflects the late 18th century reconstruction
Mercury is a major Roman god, being one of the Dii Consentes within the ancient Roman pantheon. He is the god of financial gain, eloquence, messages/communication, boundaries, luck and thieves. He was considered the son of Maia and Jupiter in Roman mythology, in his earliest forms, he appears to have been related to the Etruscan deity Turms, both gods share characteristics with the Greek god Hermes. He is often depicted holding the caduceus in his left hand, similar to his Greek equivalent he was awarded the caduceus by Apollo who handed him a magic wand, which turned into the caduceus. Mercury did not appear among the di indigetes of early Roman religion. Rather, he subsumed the earlier Dei Lucrii as Roman religion was syncretized with Greek religion during the time of the Roman Republic, starting around the 4th century BC. He was often accompanied by a cockerel, herald of the new day, a ram or goat, symbolizing fertility, like Hermes, he was a god of messages, eloquence and of trade, particularly of the grain trade.
Mercury was considered a god of abundance and commercial success, particularly in Gaul and he was also, like Hermes, the Romans psychopomp, leading newly deceased souls to the afterlife. Additionally, Ovid wrote that Mercury carried Morpheus dreams from the valley of Somnus to sleeping humans, archeological evidence from Pompeii suggests that Mercury was among the most popular of Roman gods. The god of commerce was depicted on two bronze coins of the Roman Republic, the Sextans and the Semuncia. This is probably because in the Roman syncretism, Mercury was equated with the Celtic god Lugus, Romans associated Mercury with the Germanic god Wotan, by interpretatio Romana, 1st-century Roman writer Tacitus identifies him as the chief god of the Germanic peoples. The Romans made use of small statues of Mercury. Mercurius Arvernus, a syncretism of the Celtic Arvernus with Mercury, Mercurius Cimbrianus, a syncretism of Mercury with a god of the Cimbri sometimes thought to represent Odin. Mercurius Cissonius, a combination of Mercury with the Celtic god Cissonius, Mercurius Esibraeus, a syncretism of the Iberian deity Esibraeus with the Roman deity Mercury.
Esibraeus is mentioned only in an inscription found at Medelim, and is possibly the deity as Banda Isibraiegus. Mercurius Gebrinius, a syncretism of Mercury with the Celtic or Germanic Gebrinius, known from an inscription on an altar in Bonn, Mercurius Moccus, from a Celtic god, who was equated with Mercury, known from evidence at Langres, France. The name Moccus implies that this deity was connected to boar-hunting, Mercurius Visucius, a syncretism of the Celtic god Visucius with the Roman god Mercury, attested in an inscription from Stuttgart, Germany. Visucius was worshiped primarily in the area of the empire in Gaul
When exactly they were first made is uncertain. Popular tradition ascribes them to Servius Tullius, but due to the quality of art found on even the earliest specimens. A date in the midst of the 5th century BC is generally agreed on, designs featured are that of a bull, an eagle, and other religious symbols. The earliest asses signata were not cast in Rome proper, but in central Italy, Etruria and they bore the image of a branch with side branches radiating from it, and were called Ramos Seccos. They did not equate to a set standard, varying from about 600 to 2500 grams when complete. They were usually broken into subdivisions, and there are very few specimens surviving today. The surviving ramo secco bars are usually quarter, half or three bars, or minor smaller pieces which could be classified as asses rudes. The same fragmentation into smaller change applies to asses signata issued by the city of Rome and they weighed approximately 5 as when whole. They could technically be termed a quincussis, although they are not marked with any value, Ramos seccos were not issued by governing bodies, and could have been made at any foundry facility.
Italo Vecchi, Italian Cast Coinage, A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy, London 2013
Atri is a comune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. In 2001, it had a population of over 11,500, Atri is the setting of the poem, The Bell of Atri, by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Its name is the origin of the name of the Emperor Hadrian, ancient Adria was a city of Picenum, situated about 10 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Antonine Itinerary, it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum and 14 from Teate, the city was founded by Greeks from Aegina and reestablished by Dionysius I the tyrant of Syracuse in the 4th century BC. The first certain historical notice of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 BCE. At a period, according to the Liber de Coloniis, it must have received a colony, probably under Augustus, hence it is termed a Colonia. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may be still traced, after the fall of Rome, the region was subjected, along with most of northern and central Italy, to a long period of violent conflict.
Ultimately, in the 6th century, the Lombards succeeded in establishing hegemony over the area, the rule of the Acquaivivas marked the highpoint of Atris greatest power and splendor. It is now generally admitted that the coins of Adria belong to the city of Picenum, not that of the Veneto and they belong to the class commonly known as aes grave, and are even among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in weight the most ancient Roman aeses. On this account they have assigned to a very remote antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, others to the Greek. But there seems much reason to believe that they are not really so ancient, and belong, in fact, to the Roman colony, some historians say that the city was founded by the Illyrians in the eleventh century BCE. They think that the city Atri was named after the Illyrian god Hatranus, the ancient name has been described as the source from which the Adriatic Sea derived its name. Others maintain that the sea was named for Adria, an Etruscan city in Veneto region, duomo or Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta, This 13th century church was built on the remains of an earlier Romanesque structure.
The cathedral incorporates a 56-metre high campanile, or bell tower, and it houses a fresco cycle by the 15th-century Abruzzi painter Andrea de Litio. The Diocesian museum is located adjacent to cathedral, Palazzo Ducale of Atri, Palace of the Duke of Acquaviva, built on the highest point in the city. The Palazzo now houses offices of both the municipal and provincial governments, medieval Walls and Gates, The three remaining gates in the walls are the Porta Macelli, the Porta San Domenico, and the Capo dAtri. Museo Capitolare San Francesco, This church features a flight of stairs in the Baroque style, San Domenico, This church contains two 17th-century paintings by Giacomo Farelli. San Nicola Santa Chiara, 13th-century church, santo Spirito, 12th to 18th century church
Rimini is a city of 146,606 inhabitants in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy and capital city of the Province of Rimini. It is located on the Adriatic Sea, on the coast between the rivers Marecchia and Ausa and it is one of the most famous seaside resorts in Europe, thanks to its 15-kilometre-long sandy beach, over 1,000 hotels, and thousands of bars and discos. The first bathing establishment opened in 1843, an art city with ancient Roman and Renaissance monuments, Rimini is the hometown of the famous film director Federico Fellini as well. In the 19th century, Rimini was one of the most active cities in the revolutionary front, hosting many of the movements aimed at Italian unification. In the course of World War II, the city was the scene of clashes and bombings, finally, in recent years it has become one of the most important sites for trade fairs and conferences in Italy. The total approximate population of the Rimini urban area is 225,000, in 268 BC at the mouth of the Ariminus, the Roman Republic founded the colonia of Ariminum.
The city was involved in the wars but remained faithful to the popular party and to its leaders, firstly Gaius Marius. After crossing the Rubicon, the made his legendary appeal to the legions in the Forum of Rimini. Ariminum was seen as a bastion against invaders from Gaul and as a springboard for conquering the Padana plain, remains of the amphitheater that could seat 12000 people, and a five-arched bridge of Istrian stone completed by Tiberius are still visible. Later Galla Placidia built the church of San Stefano, when the Ostrogoths conquered Rimini in 493, besieged in Ravenna, had to capitulate. During the Gothic War, Rimini was taken and retaken many times, in its vicinity the Byzantine general Narses overthrew the Alamanni. Under the Byzantine rule, it belonged to the Pentapolis, part of the Exarchate of Ravenna, in 728, it was taken with many other cities by Liutprand, King of the Lombards but returned to the Byzantines about 735. Pepin the Short gave it to the Holy See, but during the wars of the popes, in the 13th century, it suffered from the discords of the Gambacari and Ansidei families.
The city became a municipality in the 14th century and with the arrival of the orders, numerous convents and churches were built. In fact, Giotto inspired the 14th-century School of Rimini, which was the expression of cultural ferment. The House of Malatesta emerged from the struggles between municipal factions with Malatesta da Verucchio, who in 1239 was named podestà of the city, despite interruptions, his family held authority until 1528. In 1312 he was succeeded by Malatestino Malatesta, first signore of the city and Pandolfo I Malatesta, son of Malatesta II, was opposed by his cousin Ramberto and by Cardinal Bertrand du Pouget, legate of Pope John XXII. Malatesta II was lord of Pesaro and he was succeeded by Malatesta Ungaro and Galeotto I Malatesta, uncle of the former, lord of Fano and Cesena