Aes grave

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Aes grave (heavy bronze) is a term in numismatics indicating bronze cast coins used in central Italy during the 3rd century BC, whose value was generally indicated by signs: I for the as, S for semis and pellets for unciae. Standard weights for the as were 272, 327, or 341 grams, depending upon the issuing authority.[1]

The main Roman cast coins had these marks and images:

Image value mark
Ianus As I
Iupiter Semis S
Minerva Triens four pellets
Hercules Quadrans three pellets
Mercury Sextans two pellets
Bellona or Roma Uncia one pellet

Issuing cities[edit]

Main series were from Rome, Ariminum (Rimini), Iguvium (Gubbio), Tuder (Todi), Ausculum (Ascoli Satriano), Firmum (Fermo), Hatria - Hadria (Atri), Luceria (Lucera), and Latin central Italy. Other series have unknown provenance.


See also[edit]


  1. ^ Michael H. Crawford (1974). Roman Republican Coinage. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-521-07492-6.

Further reading[edit]

  • Haeberlin, Ernst: Aes Grave, Das Schwergeld Roms und Mittelitaliens einschließlich der ihm vorausgehenden Rohbronzewährung, Halle 1910.
  • Head, Barclay V.: Historia Nummorum, a Manual of Greek Numismatic, London, 19112.
  • Sear, David: "Roman Coins and Their Values," Volume I, Spink.
  • Sydenham, Edward A.: Aes Grave A Study of the Cast Coinages of Rome and Central Italy. London, Spink, 1926.
  • Italo Vecchi. Italian Cast Coinage. A descriptive catalogue of the cast coinage of Rome and Italy. London Ancient Coins, London 2013. Hard bound in quarto format, 84 pages, 90 plates. ISBN 978-0-9575784-0-1

External links[edit]