In Greek mythology, the Hesperides are the nymphs of evening and golden light of sunsets, who were the "Daughters of the Evening" or "Nymphs of the West". They were called the Atlantides from their reputed father, the Titan Atlas; the name means originating from Hesperos. Hesperos, or Vesper in Latin, is the origin of the name Hesperus, the evening star as well as having a shared root with the English word "west". Ordinarily the Hesperides number three, like the other Greek triads. "Since the Hesperides themselves are mere symbols of the gifts the apples embody, they cannot be actors in a human drama. Their abstract, interchangeable names are a symptom of their impersonality," Evelyn Harrison has observed, they are sometimes portrayed as the evening daughters of Night either alone, or with Darkness, in accord with the way Eos in the farthermost east, in Colchis, is the daughter of the titan Hyperion. The Hesperides are listed as the daughters of Atlas and Hesperis, or of Phorcys and Ceto or of Zeus and Themis.
In another source, the nymphs are said to be the daughters of Hesperus. Among the names given to them, though never all at once, there were either three, four, or seven Hesperides. Apollonius of Rhodes gives the number of three with their names as Aigle and Hespere. Hyginus in his preface to the Fabulae names them as Hesperie and * aerica. In another source, they are named Ægle and Hesperethusa, the three daughters of Hesperus. Hesiod says that these "clear-voiced Hesperides", daughters of Night, guarded the golden apples beyond Ocean in the far west of the world, gives the number of the Hesperides as four, their names as: Aigle, Hesperia whose name refers to the colour of the setting sun: red, yellow, or gold and lastly Arethusa. In addition and Arethusa, the so-called "ox-eyed Hesperethusa." Pseudo-Apollodorus gives the number of the Hesperides as four, namely: Aigle, Erytheia and Arethusa while Fulgentius named them as Aegle, Hesperie and Arethusa. However, the historiographer Diodorus in his account stated that they are seven in number with no information of their names.
An ancient vase painting attests the following names as four: Asterope, Chrysothemis and Lipara. A Pyxis has Hippolyte and Thetis. Petrus Apianus attributed to these stars a mythical connection of their own, he believed that they were nymph daughters of Atlas and Hesperis. Their names were: Aegle, Arethusa, Hespera and Hespereia. A certain Crete, possible eponym of the island of Crete, was called one of the Hesperides, they are sometimes called the Western Maidens, the Daughters of Evening or Erythrai, the "Sunset Goddesses", designations all tied to their imagined location in the distant west. Hesperis is appropriately the personification of the evening and the Evening Star is Hesperus. In addition to their tending of the garden, they have taken great pleasure in singing. Euripides calls them "minstrel maids"; the Hesperides could be hamadryad nymphs or epimeliads as suggested by a passage in which they change into trees: ".. Hespere became a poplar and Eretheis an elm, Aegle a willow's sacred trunk.." and in the same account, they are described figuratively or to have white arms and golden heads.
Erytheia is one of the Hesperides. The name was applied to an island close to the coast of southern Hispania, the site of the original Punic colony of Gades. Pliny's Natural History records of the island of Gades: "On the side which looks towards Spain, at about 100 paces distance, is another long island, three miles wide, on which the original city of Gades stood. By Ephorus and Philistides it is called Erythia, by Timæus and Silenus Aphrodisias, by the natives the Isle of Juno." The island was the seat of Geryon, overcome by Heracles. The Hesperides tend a blissful garden in a far western corner of the world, located near the Atlas mountains in North Africa at the edge of the encircling Oceanus, the world-ocean. According to the Sicilian Greek poet Stesichorus, in his poem the "Song of Geryon", the Greek geographer Strabo, in his book Geographika, the garden of the Hesperides is located in Tartessos, a location placed in the south of the Iberian peninsula. Euesperides, founded by people from Cyrene or Barca might have mythological associations with the garden of Hesperides.
By Ancient Roman times, the garden of the Hesperides had lost its archaic place in religion and had dwindled to a poetic convention, in which form it was revived in Renaissance poetry, to refer both to the garden and to the nymphs that dwelt there. The Garden of the Hesperides is Hera's orchard in the west, where either a single apple tree or a grove grows, producing golden apples. According to the legend, when the marriage of Zeus and Hera took place, the different deities came with nuptial presents for the latter, among them the goddess of Gaia, with branches having golden apples growing on them as a wedding gift. Hera admiring these, begged of Gaea to plant them in her gardens, which extended as far as Mount Atlas; the Hesperides were given the task of tending to the grove, but picked apples from it themselves. Not trusting them, Hera placed in the garden an immortal, never-sleeping, hundred-headed dragon named Ladon as an additi
Hecuba was a queen in Greek mythology, the wife of King Priam of Troy during the Trojan War, with whom she had 19 children. These children included several major characters of Homer's Iliad such as the warriors Hector and Paris and the prophetess Cassandra. Ancient sources vary as to the parentage of Hecuba. According to Homer, Hecuba was the daughter of King Dymas of Phrygia, but Euripides and Virgil write of her as the daughter of the Thracian king Cisseus; the mythographers Pseudo-Apollodorus and Hyginus leave open the question which of the two was her father, with Pseudo-Apollodorus adding a third alternative option: Hecuba's parents could as well be the river god Sangarius and Metope. Some versions from non-extant works are summarized by a scholiast on Euripides' Hecuba: according to those, she was a daughter of Dymas or Sangarius by the Naiad Euagora, or by Glaucippe the daughter of Xanthus. A scholiast on Homer relates that Hecuba's parents were either Dymas and the nymph Eunoe or Cisseus and Telecleia.
According to Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars, the emperor Tiberius pestered scholars with obscure questions about ancient mythology, with one of his favorites being "Who was Hecuba's mother?" Hecuba appears six times in the Iliad. In Book 6.326–96, she meets Hector upon his return to the polis and offers him the libation cup, instructing him to offer it to Zeus and to drink of it himself. Taking Hector's advice, she chooses a gown taken from Alexander's treasure to give as an offering to the goddess and leads the Trojan women to the temple of Athena to pray for help. In Book 22, she pleads with Hector not to fight Achilles, for fear of "never get to mourn you laid out on a bier." In Book 24.201–16, she is stricken with anxiety upon hearing of Priam's plan to retrieve Hector's body from Achilles' hut. Further along in the same episode, at 24.287–98, she offers Priam the libation cup and instructs him to pray to Zeus so that he may receive a favourable omen upon setting out towards the Achaean camp.
Unlike in the first episode in which Hector refuses her offer of the cup, Priam accepts and is rewarded with the requested omen. She laments Hector's death in a well-known speech at 24.748–59. The Bibliotheca of Pseudo-Apollodorus states that Hecuba had a son named Troilus with the god Apollo. An oracle prophesied. Troilus is killed by Achilles. Hecuba is a main character in two plays by Euripides: Hecuba; the Trojan Women describes the aftermath of the fall of Troy, including Hecuba's enslavement by Odysseus. Hecuba takes place just after the fall of Troy. Polydorus, the youngest son of Priam and Hecuba, is sent to King Polymestor for safekeeping, but when Troy falls, Polymestor murders Polydorus. Hecuba learns of this, when Polymestor comes to the fallen city, Hecuba, by trickery, blinds him and kills his two sons. A third story says that when she was given to Odysseus as a slave, she snarled and cursed at him, so the gods turned her into a dog, allowing her to escape. In another tradition, Hecuba went mad upon seeing the corpses of her children Polydorus and Polyxena.
Dante described this episode, which he derived from Italian sources: —Inferno XXX: 13–20 Hecuba is referenced in classical literature, in many medieval and modern works. Among the works which are about Hecuba are: Hecuba and The Trojan Women, plays by Euripides The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, play by Jean Giraudoux King Priam, novel by David Park Cortege of Eagles, ballet by Martha Graham Trojan Barbie, play by Christine Evans The House of Hades, novel by Rick Riordan Troy: Fall of a City a miniseries in which Hecuba is portrayed by Frances O'ConnorHecuba is mentioned in: The Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant The poem O Fortuna in the Carmina Burana The poem "Fortune plango vulnera" in the Carmina Burana Book 13 of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Letter 47, from the Moral Letters to Lucilius, by Seneca; the poem "The Rape of Lucrece" by William Shakespeare Coriolanus by William Shakespeare Hamlet by Shakespeare Cymbeline by Shakespeare Troilus and Cressida by Shakespeare Hamlet or Hecuba: The Intrusion of the Time into the Play by Carl Schmitt The Custom of the Country by Edith Wharton Justice for Hedgehogs by Ronald Dworkin as the drowning swimmer one may or may not have an ethical duty to save As Hakkuba in Philip Armstrong's The Isles of Winter and its sequel, The Towers of Wilusa Helen of Troy by Margaret GeorgeThe name Hecuba or Hecubah appears occasionally: Chapter 14: “Me and Hecuba” in Alan Alda’s memoir Never Have Your Dog Stuffed and Other Things I’ve Learned The cat in the movie Drag Me to Hell The chief antagonist in the video game Nox Harold Hecuba, a character in the Gilligan's Island episode "The Producer" Gabrielle's mother in Xena: Warrior Princess As an evil witch in the canceled daytime drama, Passions The cat in the movie I've Been Waiting For You The ex-wife of Merle Highchurch in The Adventure Zone Balance Arc Virgil, Aeneid III.19–68 Homer, Iliad XIV.717–718 Solinus, De vita Caesarum X.22 Lactantius, Divinae institutions I.22 Pomponius Mela, De chorographia II.26 Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.423–450, 481–571 Euripides, Trojan Women Euripides, Hecuba Tsotakou-Karveli.
Lexicon of Greek Mytho
Johann Ulrich Kraus
Johann Ulrich Kraus was an early German illustrator and publisher in Augsburg. He was a student of Melchior Küsel, in turn a student of Matthäus Merian the Elder. Kraus became a partner in the Augsburg publishing company of Melchior Küsel, whose daughter Johanna Sibylla he married in 1685. Kraus became one of the most respected illustraters of his generation in Augsburg, his business was damaged in the War of the Spanish Succession, but Kraus seems to have recovered and in 1717 is recorded in the archives of Augsburg as a wealthy citizen. Ca 1690 Die Verwandlungen des Ovidii in zweyhundert und sechsundzwantzig Kupffern 1694 Biblisches Engel- u. Kunst Werck 1700 Historische Bilder-Bibel / welche besteht in Fünff Theil 1706 Heilige / Augen- und Gemüths-Lust 1710 Tapisseries du roy Wilhelm Schmidt,'Kraus, Johann Ulrich' in: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 17, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1883, 73 f. Christoph Schwingenstein,'Kraus, Johann Ulrich' in: Neue Deutsche Biographie. Vol. 12, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1980, 689 f.
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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Troy was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, just south of the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik, it was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον. A new capital called, it flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric and declined in the Byzantine era, but is now a Latin Catholic titular see. In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale; these excavations revealed several cities built in succession.
Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik site, on Calvert's property. Troy VII has been identified with the city called Wilusa by the Hittites and is identified with Homeric Troy. Today, the hill at Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site, it lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye; the map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and trade. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC.
Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII. In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander, where they beached their ships; the city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of Scamander were much closer to the city, discharging into a large bay that formed a natural harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, the results confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region, they compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid; the Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language, spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not clear whether Luwian was the official language or in daily colloquial use.
With the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation; the Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas, a ruined town 20 km south of the accepted location. In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the site of Troy, a mound 5 km south of the accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most accepted theory for a century. In 1822, the Scottis
In Greek mythology, was a Titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia and wife of Titan Oceanus, mother of the Potamoi and the Oceanids. Tethys had no active role in no established cults. Tethys was one of the Titan offspring of Gaia. Hesiod lists her Titan siblings as Oceanus, Crius, Iapetus, Rhea, Mnemosyne and Cronus. Tethys married her brother Oceanus, an enormous river encircling the world and was by him the mother of numerous sons, the Potamoi and numerous daughters, the Oceanids. According to Hesiod, there were three thousand river-gods; these included: Achelous, the god of the Achelous River and the largest river in Greece who gave his daughter in marriage to Alcmaeon and was defeated by Heracles in a wrestling contest for the right to marry Deianira. According to Hesiod, there were three thousand Oceanids; these included: Metis, Zeus' first wife, whom Zeus impregnated with Athena and swallowed. Passages in a section of the Iliad called the Deception of Zeus, suggest the possibility that Homer knew a tradition in which Oceanus and Tethys were the parents of the Titans.
Twice Homer has Hera describe the pair as "Oceanus, from whom the gods are sprung, mother Tethys", while in the same passage Hypnos describes Oceanus as "from whom they all are sprung". Timothy Gantz points out that "mother" may refer to the fact that Tethys was Hera's foster mother for a time, as Hera tells us in the lines following, while the reference to Oceanus as the genesis of the gods "might be a formulaic epithet indicating the numberless rivers and springs descended from Okeanos". However, for M. L. West, these lines suggests a myth in which Oceanus and Tethys are the "first parents of the whole race of gods." As an attempt to reconcile this possible conflict between Homer and Hesiod, Plato, in his Timaeus, has Uranus and Gaia as the parents of Oceanus and Tethys, Oceanus and Tethys as the parents of Cronus and Rhea and the other Titans, as well as Phorcys. Tethys played no active part in Greek mythology, the only early story concerning Tethys, is what Homer has Hera relate in the Iliad's Deception of Zeus passage.
There, Hera says that, when Zeus was in the process of deposing Cronus, she was given by her mother Rhea to Tethys and Oceanus, for safekeeping, that they "lovingly nursed and cherished me in their halls". Hera relates this while dissembling that she is on her way to visit Oceanus and Tethys, in hopes of reconciling her foster parents, who are angry with each other and are no longer having sexual relations. Oceanus' consort, at a time Tethys came to be identified with the sea, in Hellenistic and Roman poetry Tethys' name came to be used as a poetic term for the sea; the only other story involving Tethys is an late astral myth concerning the polar constellation Ursa Major, thought to represent the catasterism of Callisto, transformed into a bear, placed by Zeus among the stars. The myth explains why the constellation never sets below the horizon, saying that since Callisto had been Zeus's lover, she was forbidden by Tethys from "touching Ocean's deep", out of concern for her foster-child Hera, Zeus's jealous wife.
In Ovid's Metamorphoses, Tethys turns Aesacus into a diving bird. Tethys was sometimes confused with another sea goddess, the sea-nymph Thetis, the wife of Peleus and mother of Achilles. M. L. West detects in the Iliad's Deception of Zeus passage an allusion to a possible archaic myth "according to, the mother of the gods, long estranged from her husband," speculating that the estrangement might refer to a separation of "the upper and lower waters... corresponding to that of heaven and earth," which parallels the story of "Apsū and Tiamat in the Babylonian cosmology, the male and female waters, which were united," but that, "By Hesiod's time the myth may have been forgotten, Tethys remembered only as the name of Oceanus' wife." This possible correspondence between Oceanus and Tethys, Apsū and Tiamat, has been noticed by several authors, with Tethys' name having been derived from that of Tiamat. Representations of Tethys prior to the Roman period are rare. Tethys appears, identified by inscription, as part of an illustration of the wedding of Peleus and Thetis on the early sixth century BC Attic black-figure "Erskine" dinos by Sophilos.
Tethys, accompanied by Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, follows close behind Oceanus, at the end of a procession of gods invited to the wedding. Tethys is conjectured to be represented in a similar illustration of the wedding of Peleus and Thetis depicted on the early sixth century BC Attic black-figure François Vase. Tethys also appeared as one of the gods fighting the Giants in the Gigantomachy frieze of the second
Jules-Élie Delaunay was a French academic painter. He was born at Nantes in the Loire-Atlantique département of France. Delaunay studied under Flandrin, at the École des Beaux Arts in Paris under Lamothe, he worked in the classicist manner of Ingres until, after winning the Prix de Rome, he went to Italy. After his return from Rome he was entrusted with many important commissions for decorative paintings, such as the frescoes in the church of St Nicholas at Nantes, his Scenes from the Life of St Genevieve, which he designed for the Panthéon, remained unfinished at his death. The Musée d'Orsay has a nude figure of Diana. In the last decade of his life he achieved great popularity as a portrait painter. Among his subjects were his “Mother” and “Mademoiselle Toulmouche.”He was awarded a first-class medal at the Paris Exposition of 1878, the medal of honor in 1889. In 1878 he became an officer of the Legion of Honor, the following year was made a member of the Institute. Jules-Élie Delaunay died in Paris in 1891.
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