A boutique hotel is a small hotel which has between 10 and 100 rooms in unique settings with upscale accommodations and individualized unique selling points. Boutique hotels were a popular style in the 1990s. Boutique hotels began appearing in the 1980s in major cities like London, New York, San Francisco; the term was coined by Steve Rubell in 1984 when he compared the Morgans Hotel, the first hotel he and Ian Schrager owned, to a boutique. A trend observed in recent times is for international hotel chains to establish luxury boutique sub-brands to capitalize on the growth of this segment. Many boutique hotels are furnished in a stylish and/or aspirational manner; the popularity of the boutique concept has prompted some multi-national hotel companies to try to capture a market share. In the United States, New York City remains an important centre for boutique hotels clustered about Manhattan; some members of the hospitality industry are following the general "no-frill chic" consumer trend, with affordable or budget boutique hotels being created all around the world.
Boutique hotels are found in London, New York City and Los Angeles. They are found in resort destinations with exotic amenities such as electronics, yoga and/or painting classes
A putter is a club used in the sport of golf to make short and low-speed strokes with the intention of rolling the ball into the hole from a short distance away. It is differentiated from the other clubs by a clubhead with a flat, low-profile, low-loft striking face, by other features which are only allowed on putters, such as bent shafts, non-circular grips, positional guides. Putters are used from close distances to the cup on the putting green, though certain courses have fringes and roughs near the green which are suitable for putting. While no club in a player's bag is indispensable nor required to be carried by strict rules, the putter comes closest, it is a specialized tool for a specific job, no golfer is without one. Putting is the most precise aspect of the game of golf; the putter must be designed to give the golfer every technical advantage including smooth stroke, good glide, sweet impact, bounce-less topspin ball launch as well as every technique advantage including perfect fit as to shaft angle and length.
The striking face of a putter is not perpendicular to the ground: putters have a small amount of loft, intended to "lift" the ball out of any depression it has made or settled into on the green, which reduces bouncing. This loft is 5–6°, by strict rules cannot be more than 10°; the putter is the only club that may have a grip, not round. The putter is the only club allowed to have a bent shaft; this increases accuracy as the golfer can direct their swing through the ball, without feeling like they are behind it. Many putters have an offset hosel, which places the shaft of the club in line with the center of the ball at impact, again to improve stability and feel as, combined with the vertical bend, the shaft will point directly into the center of the ball at impact; the design of the putter's club head has undergone radical changes since the late 1950’s. Putters were a forged iron piece similar in shape to the irons of the day. One of the first to apply scientific principles to golf club design was engineer Karsten Solheim.
In 1959 instead of attaching the shaft at the heel of the blade, Solheim attached it in the center, transferring much of the weight of the club head to the perimeter. Club design had been based on trial and error. Through attempts to lower the center of gravity of the club head, it evolved into a shorter, thicker head curved from front to rear; the introduction of investment casting for club heads allowed drastically different shapes to be made far more and cheaply than with forging, resulting in several design improvements. First of all, the majority of mass behind the clubface was placed as low as possible, resulting in an L-shaped side profile with a thin, flat club face and another thin block along the bottom of the club behind the face. Additionally, peripheral weighting, or the placing of mass as far away from the center of the clubface as possible, increases the moment of inertia of the club head, reducing twisting if the club contacts the ball off-center and thus giving the club a larger "sweet spot" with which to contact the ball.
Newer innovations include replacing the metal at the "sweet spot" with a softer metal or polymer compound that will give and rebound at impact, which increases the peak impulse imparted to the ball for better distance. Putters are subdivided into peripheral weighted and blade styles. Power instability and practice/play convertibility are features embodied in the latest putter design technology. Though most putters have a 32-to-35-inch shaft, putters are made with longer shaft lengths and grips, are designed to reduce the "degrees of freedom" allowed a player when he or she putts; the more joints that can bend or twist during the putting motion, the more degrees of freedom a player has when putting, which gives more flexibility and feel but can result in more inconsistent putts. With a normal putter, the player has six degrees of freedom: hands, elbows, shoulders and knees, all of which can be moved just to affect the path of the ball and prevent a putt from falling in the cup; such motions nervous uncontrollable motions, are called "yips", having a chronic case of the "yips" can ruin a golfer's short game.
German professional golfer Bernhard Langer is famous for having such a severe case that he once needed four putts to hole out from within three feet of the cup. A belly putter is about 6 to 8 inches longer than a normal putter and is designed to be "anchored" against the abdomen of the player; this design reduces or removes the importance of the hands, wrists and shoulders. A long putter is longer and is designed to be anchored from the chest or the chin and reduces the impact of the hands, wrists and shoulders; the disadvantages are decreased feel and control over putting power with the long putter. Their use in professional tournaments is hotly contested.
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
A cupcake is a small cake designed to serve one person, which may be baked in a small thin paper or aluminum cup. As with larger cakes and other cake decorations such as fruit and candy may be applied; the earliest extant description of what is now called a cupcake was in 1796, when a recipe for "a light cake to bake in small cups" was written in American Cookery by Amelia Simmons. The earliest extant documentation of the term cupcake itself was in "Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry and Sweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receipts cookbook. In the early 19th century, there were two different uses for cupcake. In previous centuries, before muffin tins were available, the cakes were baked in individual pottery cups, ramekins, or molds and took their name from the cups they were baked in; this is the use of the name that has remained, the name of "cupcake" is now given to any small, round cake, about the size of a teacup. While English fairy cakes vary in size more than American cupcake, they are traditionally smaller and are topped with elaborate icing.
The other kind of "cup cake" referred to a cake whose ingredients were measured by volume, using a standard-sized cup, instead of being weighed. Recipes whose ingredients were measured using a standard-sized cup could be baked in cups. In years, when the use of volume measurements was established in home kitchens, these recipes became known as 1234 cakes or quarter cakes, so called because they are made up of four ingredients: one cup of butter, two cups of sugar, three cups of flour, four eggs, they are plain yellow cakes, somewhat less rich and less expensive than pound cake, due to using about half as much butter and eggs compared to pound cake. The names of these two major classes of cakes were intended to signal the method to the baker. A standard cupcake uses the same basic ingredients as standard-sized cakes: butter, sugar and flour. Nearly any recipe, suitable for a layer cake can be used to bake cupcakes; the cake batter used for cupcakes may be flavored or have other ingredients stirred in, such as raisins, nuts, or chocolate chips.
Because their small size is more efficient for heat conduction, cupcakes bake much faster than a normal layered cake. During baking, the volume of the batter increases due to the production of carbon dioxide decreases upon cooling due to the release of leavening gases. Cupcakes may be topped with frosting or other cake decorations, they may be filled with fruit, or pastry cream. For bakers making a small number of filled cupcakes, this is accomplished by using a spoon or knife to scoop a small hole in the top of the cupcake. Another method is to just insert the pastry bag in the middle of the cupcake. In commercial bakeries, the filling may be injected using a syringe. Elaborately decorated cupcakes may be made for special occasions. A cake in a mug is a variant that gained popularity on many Internet cooking forums and mailing lists; the technique can be done in a microwave oven. The recipe takes fewer than five minutes to prepare; the cake rises by mixing vegetable oil into a mixture of flour and other ingredients - as the oil in the mixture heats up, it creates air pockets in the mixture which allows the cake to rise.
A cake in a jar is another way of making cupcakes. The baker uses a glass jar instead of muffin tins or cupcake liners. A butterfly cake is a variant of cupcake called fairy cake for its fairy-like "wings", they can be made from any flavor of cake. The top of the fairy cake is cut off or carved out with a spoon, cut in half. Butter cream, whipped cream or other sweet filling is spread into the hole; the two cut halves are stuck into the butter cream to resemble butterfly wings. The wings of the cake are decorated using icing to form various patterns. Elaborately frosted cupcakes may be made for special occasions such as baby showers, graduations, or holidays. A cake ball is an individual portion of cake, round like a chocolate truffle, coated in chocolate; these are formed from crumbled cake mixed with frosting, rather than being baked as a sphere. A gourmet cupcake is a somewhat recent variant of cupcake. Gourmet cupcakes are large and filled cupcakes, based around a variety of flavor themes, such as Tiramisu or Cappuccino.
In recent years there has been an upcropping of stores that sell only gourmet cupcakes in metropolitan areas. As an alternative to a plate of individual cakes, some bakers place standard cupcakes into a pattern and frost them to create a large design, such as a basket of flowers or a turtle. Cupcakes were baked in heavy pottery cups; some bakers still use individual ramekins, small coffee mugs, large tea cups, or other small ovenproof pottery-type dishes for baking cupcakes. Cupcakes are baked in muffin tins; these pans are most made from metal, with or without a non-stick surface, have six or twelve depressions or "cups". They may be made from stoneware, silicone rubber, or other materials. A standard size cup is 3 inches in diameter and holds about 4 ounces, although pans for both miniature and jumbo size cupcakes exist. Specialty pans shapes. Individual patty cases, or cupcake liners, may be used in baking; these are round sheets of thin paper pressed into a round, fluted cup shape. Liners can facilitate the e
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Yoga mats are specially fabricated mats used as an aid during the practice of hatha yoga to prevent hands and feet slipping during asana practice. They are commonly known as non-slip mats, non-skid mats or sticky mats. Ancient yoga practice in India was conducted on kusha grass, on hard earth without any cover, or on a rug of deer or tiger skin. Due to the scarcity and cost of such rugs, they are now used in India. With yoga's introduction in the West, many practitioners used towels or cotton mats on wooden floors. Rubber mats were introduced as an intermediate material to prevent cotton mats from slipping on wooden floors. Slipping of hands and feet was avoided by squirting a mist of water on the mats on the respective places of positions. In 1982, while teaching yoga in Germany, Angela Farmer used carpet underlay cut to towel size during yoga classes. Angela's father, Richard Farmer, contacted the German padding manufacturer and became the first retailer of "sticky mats"; the first purpose-made yoga mat was manufactured and sold by Hugger Mugger Yoga Products in the 1990s.
In 2002, the first ‘eco-conscious’ mat was manufactured by EcoYoga and sold through Yogamatters in Britain. Yoga mats fulfill the purpose of reducing risk of injury and some insurance companies require yoga practice to be executed with a non-slip mat in order to be eligible for coverage. Yoga mats are around 72" / 182 cm long and have a width of 24" / 60 cm; some practitioners prefer extra-wide mats for positions such as hand-balances. Yoga mats range in thicknesses from 2 mm to 4–5 mm and up to 7 mm for either high performance mats reserved for professional daily practices while guaranteeing little wear-out, or soft mats providing extra cushioning during yoga therapy. Yoga mats are available in many patterns. "Alignment mats" are printed with guides to proper alignment. Some companies print custom images on mats. Other items used to complement yoga mats are belts and bricks, The first commercially produced yoga mats were made from PVC. More commercial mats have become made from natural jute and rubber.
Mats with rubber bases may have microfiber top layers. General care instructions include advice on how to machine wash mats, or alternatively to wipe down the mat with a warm wet cloth and allow to air dry. Sleeping pad