In linguistics and pedagogy, an interlinear gloss is a gloss placed between lines, such as between a line of original text and its translation into another language. When glossed, each line of the original text acquires one or more lines of transcription known as an interlinear text or interlinear glossed text —interlinear for short; such glosses help the reader follow the relationship between the source text and its translation, the structure of the original language. In its simplest form, an interlinear gloss is a literal, word-for-word translation of the source text. Interlinear glosses have been used for a variety of purposes over a long period of time. One common usage has been to annotate bilingual textbooks for language education; this sort of interlinearization serves to help make the meaning of a source text explicit without attempting to formally model the structural characteristics of the source language. Such annotations have been expressed not through interlinear layout, but rather, through enumeration of words in the object and meta language.
One such example is Wilhelm von Humboldt's annotation of Classical Nahuatl: This "inline" style allows examples to be included within the flow of text, for the word order of the target language to be written in an order which approximates the target language syntax. So, this approach requires the readers to "re-align" the correspondences between source and target forms. More modern 19th- and 20th-century approaches took to glossing vertically, aligning the same sort of word-by-word content in such a way that the metalanguage terms were placed vertically below the source language terms. In this style, the given example might be rendered thus: Note that here word ordering is determined by the syntax of the object language. Modern linguists have adopted the practice of using abbreviated grammatical category labels. A 2008 publication which repeats this example labels it as follows: This approach is denser and requires effort to read, but it is less reliant on the grammatical structure of the metalanguage for expressing the semantics of the target forms.
In computing, special text markers are provided in Specials to indicate the start and end of interlinear glosses. A semi-standardized set of parsing conventions and grammatical abbreviations is explained in the Leipzig Glossing Rules. An interlinear text will consist of some or all of the following in this order, from top to bottom: The original orthography, a conventional transliteration into the Latin alphabet, a phonetic transcription, a morphophonemic transliteration, a word-by-word or morpheme-by-morpheme gloss, where morphemes within a word are separated by hyphens or other punctuation,and a free translation, which may be placed in a separate paragraph or on the facing page if the structures of the languages are too different for it to follow the text line by line; as an example, the following Taiwanese clause has been transcribed with five lines of text: 1. The standard pe̍h-ōe-jī transliteration, 2. A gloss using tone numbers for the surface tones, 3. A gloss showing the underlying tones in citation form, 4.
A morpheme-by-morpheme gloss in English, 5. An English translation:In linguistics, it has become standard to align the words and to gloss each transcribed morpheme separately; that is, koat-tēng in line 1 above would either require a hyphenated two-word gloss, or be transcribed without a hyphen, for example as koattēng. Grammatical terms are abbreviated and printed in SMALL CAPITALS to keep them distinct from translations when they are frequent or important for analysis. Varying levels of analysis may be detailed. For example, in a Lezgian text using standard romanization, Here every Lezgian morpheme is set off with hyphens and glossed separately. Since many of these are difficult to gloss in English, the roots are translated, but the grammatical suffixes are glossed with three-letter grammatical abbreviations; the same text may be glossed at a different level of analysis: Here the Lezgian morphemes are translated into English as much as possible. A more colloquial gloss would be: Here the gloss is word for word.
In interlinear morphological glosses, various forms of punctuation separate the glosses. The words are aligned with their glosses; that is, there should be the same number of words separated with spaces in the text and its gloss, as well as the same number of hyphenated morphemes within a word and its gloss. This is the basic system, can be applied universally. For example, An underscore may be used instead of a period, as in go_out-PFV, when a single word in the source language happens to correspond to a phrase in the glossing language, though a period would still be used for other situations, such as Greek oikíais house. FEM. PL. DAT'to the houses'. However, sometimes finer distinctions may be made. For example, clitics may be separated with a double hyphen rather than a hyphen: Affixes which cause discontinuity may be set off by angle brackets, reduplication with tildes, rather than with hyph
A separable verb is a verb, composed of a lexical core and a separable particle. In some sentence positions, the core verb and the particle appear in one word, whilst in others the core verb and the particle are separated; the particle cannot be referred to as a prefix because it can be separated from the core verb. German, Dutch and Hungarian are notable for having many separable verbs. Separable verbs challenge theories of sentence structure because when they are separated, it is not evident how the compositionality of meaning should be understood; the separation of such verbs is called tmesis. The German verb ankommen is a separable verb, is used here as the first illustration: The first two examples, sentences a and b, contain the "simple" tenses. In matrix declarative clauses that lack auxiliary verbs, the verb and its particle are separated, the verb appearing in V2 position and the particle appearing in clause-final position; the second two examples, sentences c and d, contain the so-called "complex tenses".
The following two examples are from Dutch: The Dutch verb aankomen is separable, as illustrated in the first sentence with the simple present tense, whereas when an auxiliary verb appears as in the second sentence with present perfect tense/aspect, the lexical verb and its particle appear together as a single word. The following examples are from Hungarian: The verb letesz is separated in the negative sentence. Affixes in Hungarian are separated from the verb in imperative and prohibitive moods. Moreover, word order influences the strength of prohibition, as the following examples show: English has many phrasal or compound verb forms that are somewhat analogous to separable verbs. However, in English the preposition or verbal particle is either an invariable prefix or is always a separate word, without the possibility of grammatically conditioned alternations between the two. An adverbial particle can be separated from the verb by intervening words. Although the verbs themselves never alternate between prefix and separate word, the alternation is seen across derived words.
Separable verbs challenge the understanding of meaning compositionality because when they are separated, the two parts do not form a constituent. Hence theories of syntax that assume that form–meaning correspondences should be understood in terms of syntactic constituents are faced with a difficulty, because it is not apparent what sort of syntactic unit the verb and its particle build. One prominent means of addressing this difficulty is via movement. One stipulates that languages like German and Dutch are SOV languages and that when separation occurs, the lexical verb has moved out of the clause-final position to a derived position further to the left, e.g. in German The verb kommt is seen as originating in a position where it appeared with its particle an, but it moves leftward to the V2 position. An alternative analysis of the structure of separable verbs dispenses with the notion that the constituent is the fundamental unit of syntactic analysis. Instead, the catena is taken to be primary.
The following dependency grammar trees illustrate the catena-based analysis: The verb and particle form a catena when they are separated in the first two trees, they form a catena when they appear together as a single word in the second two trees. The principle of compositionality is hence understood in terms of catenae; the catena is the basic meaning-bearing unit, not the constituent. The four Hungarian examples from above are analyzed in terms of catenae as follows: The particle le is separated from its verb when the negation appears. Despite this fact, the particle still forms a catena with its verb in all four trees; these structures are therefore consistent with the catena-based understanding of meaning compositionality. The fundamental meaning bearing unit is the catena, not the constituent; when a prefix can be used both separably and inseparably, there are cases where the same verb can have different meanings depending on whether its prefix is separable or inseparable. In German, among other languages, some verbs can exist as separable and inseparable forms with different meanings.
For example, umfahren one can construct an opposite meaning: The infinitive form umfahren is only identical in its written form. When spoken, the non-separable form is stressed as umfahren, whereas the separable is stressed as umfahren; the same happens in Dutch, related to German and English. Sometimes the meanings are quite different if they have correspondences in the cognate English verbs: Examples: https://web.archive.org/web/20060624073433/http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dutch/grammatica/separable_verbs.htm
A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units in data processing, data transmission, digital information, notably the bit and the byte, to indicate multiplication by a power of 2. The computer industry has used the units kilobyte and gigabyte, the corresponding symbols KB, MB, GB, in at least two different measurement systems. In citations of main memory capacity, gigabyte customarily means 1073741824 bytes; as this is a power of 1024, 1024 is a power of two, this usage is referred to as a binary measurement. In most other contexts, the industry uses the multipliers kilo, giga, etc. in a manner consistent with their meaning in the International System of Units, namely as powers of 1000. For example, a 500 gigabyte hard disk holds 500000000000 bytes, a 1 Gbit/s Ethernet connection transfers data at 1000000000 bit/s. In contrast with the binary prefix usage, this use is described as a decimal prefix, as 1000 is a power of 10; the use of the same unit prefixes with two different meanings has caused confusion.
Starting around 1998, the International Electrotechnical Commission and several other standards and trade organizations addressed the ambiguity by publishing standards and recommendations for a set of binary prefixes that refer to powers of 1024. Accordingly, the US National Institute of Standards and Technology requires that SI prefixes only be used in the decimal sense: kilobyte and megabyte denote one thousand bytes and one million bytes while new terms such as kibibyte and gibibyte, having the symbols KiB, MiB, GiB, denote 1024 bytes, 1048576 bytes, 1073741824 bytes, respectively. In 2008, the IEC prefixes were incorporated into the international standard system of units used alongside the International System of Quantities. Early computers used one of two addressing methods to access the system memory. For example, the IBM 701 used binary and could address 2048 words of 36 bits each, while the IBM 702 used decimal and could address ten thousand 7-bit words. By the mid-1960s, binary addressing had become the standard architecture in most computer designs, main memory sizes were most powers of two.
This is the most natural configuration for memory, as all combinations of their address lines map to a valid address, allowing easy aggregation into a larger block of memory with contiguous addresses. Early computer system documentation would specify the memory size with an exact number such as 4096, 8192, or 16384 words of storage; these are all powers of two, furthermore are small multiples of 210, or 1024. As storage capacities increased, several different methods were developed to abbreviate these quantities; the method most used today uses prefixes such as kilo, mega and corresponding symbols K, M, G, which the computer industry adopted from the metric system. The prefixes kilo- and mega-, meaning 1000 and 1000000 were used in the electronics industry before World War II. Along with giga- or G-, meaning 1000000000, they are now known as SI prefixes after the International System of Units, introduced in 1960 to formalize aspects of the metric system; the International System of Units does not define units for digital information but notes that the SI prefixes may be applied outside the contexts where base units or derived units would be used.
But as computer main memory in a binary-addressed system is manufactured in sizes that were expressed as multiples of 1024, when applied to computer memory, came to be used to mean 1024 bytes instead of 1000. This usage is not consistent with the SI. Compliance with the SI requires that the prefixes take their 1000-based meaning, that they are not to be used as placeholders for other numbers, like 1024; the use of K in the binary sense as in a "32K core" meaning 32 × 1024 words, i.e. 32768 words, can be found as early as 1959. Gene Amdahl's seminal 1964 article on IBM System/360 used "1K" to mean 1024; this style was used by other computer vendors, the CDC 7600 System Description made extensive use of K as 1024. Thus the first binary prefix was born. Another style was to truncate the last three digits and append K using K as a decimal prefix similar to SI, but always truncating to the next lower whole number instead of rounding to the nearest; the exact values 32768 words, 65536 words and 131072 words would be described as "32K", "65K" and "131K".
This style was used from about 1965 to 1975. These two styles were used loosely around the same time, sometimes by the same company. In discussions of binary-addressed memories, the exact size was evident from context; the HP 21MX real-time computer denoted 196608 as "196K" and 1048576 as "1M", while the HP 3000 business computer could have "64K", "96K", or "128K" bytes of memory. The "truncation" method waned. Capitalization of the letter K became the de facto standard for binary notation, although this could not be extended to higher powers, use of the lowercase k did persist; the practice of using the SI-inspired "kilo" to indicate 1024 was extended to "megabyte" meaning 10242 bytes, "gigabyte" for 10243 bytes. For example, a "512 megabyte" RAM module is 512×10242 bytes, rather than 512000000; the symbols Kbit, Kbyte and Mbyte started to be used as "binary units"—"bit" or "
Maya script known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system, deciphered. The earliest inscriptions found which are identifiably Maya date to the 3rd century BCE in San Bartolo, Guatemala. Maya writing was in continuous use throughout Mesoamerica until the Spanish conquest of the Maya in the 16th and 17th centuries. Maya writing used logograms complemented with a set of syllabic glyphs, somewhat similar in function to modern Japanese writing. Maya writing was called "hieroglyphics" or hieroglyphs by early European explorers of the 18th and 19th centuries who did not understand it but found its general appearance reminiscent of Egyptian hieroglyphs, to which the Maya writing system is not at all related. Modern Mayan languages are written using the Latin alphabet rather than Maya script. Evidence suggests that codices and other classic texts were written by scribes—usually members of the Maya priesthood—in Classic Maya, a literary form of the extinct Chʼoltiʼ language.
It is possible that the Maya elite spoke this language as a lingua franca over the entire Maya-speaking area, but texts were written in other Mayan languages of the Petén and Yucatán Yucatec. There is some evidence that the script may have been used to write Mayan languages of the Guatemalan Highlands. However, if other languages were written, they may have been written by Chʼoltiʼ scribes, therefore have Chʼoltiʼ elements. Mayan writing consisted of a elaborate set of glyphs, which were laboriously painted on ceramics and bark-paper codices, carved in wood and stone, molded in stucco. Carved and molded glyphs were painted, but the paint has survived. In 2008, the sound of about 80% of Maya writing could be read and the meaning of about 60% could be understood with varying degrees of certainty, enough to give a comprehensive idea of its structure. Maya texts were written in blocks arranged in columns two blocks wide, with each block corresponding to a noun or verb phrase; the blocks within the columns were read left to right, top to bottom, would be repeated until there were no more columns left.
Within a block, glyphs were arranged left-to-right. Glyphs were sometimes conflated into ligatures, where an element of one glyph would replace part of a second. In place of the standard block configuration, Maya was sometimes written in a single row or column, or in an'L' or'T' shape; these variations most appeared when they would better fit the surface being inscribed. The Maya script was a logosyllabic system with some syllabogramatic elements. Individual glyphs or symbols could represent either a morpheme or a syllable, the same glyph could be used for both; because of these dual readings, it is customary to write logographic readings in ALL CAPS and phonetic readings in italics. For example, a calendaric glyph can be read as the syllable chi. Glyphs used as syllabograms were logograms for single-syllable words those that ended in a vowel or in a weak consonant such as y, w, h, or glottal stop. For example, the logogram for'fish fin'—found in two forms, as a fish fin and as a fish with prominent fins—was read as and came to represent the syllable ka.
These syllabic glyphs performed two primary functions: as phonetic complements to disambiguate logograms which had more than one reading. For example, bʼalam'jaguar' could be written as a single logogram, BʼALAM. In addition, some syllable glyphs were homophones, such as the 6 different glyphs used to write the common third person pronoun u-, it is possible, but not certain, that these conflicting readings arose as the script was adapted to new languages. Phonetic glyphs stood for simple vowel-only syllables. However, Mayan phonotactics is more complicated than this. Most Mayan words end with consonants, there may be sequences of two consonants within a word as well, as in xolteʼ, CVCCVC; when these final consonants were sonorants or gutturals they were sometimes ignored. More final consonants were written, which meant that an extra vowel was written as well; this was an "echo" vowel that repeated the vowel of the previous syllable. For example, the word ` fish fin' would be written in full as ka-ha.
However, there are many cases where some other vowel was used, the orthographic rules for this are only understood. Lacadena & Wichmann proposed the following conventions: A CVC syllable was written CV-CV, where the two vowels were the same: yo-po'leaf' A syllable with a long vowel was written CV-Ci, unless the long vowel was, in which case it was written CiCa: ba-ki'captive', yi-tzi-na'younger brother' A syllable with a glottalized vowel was written with a final a if the vowel was, or with a final u if the vowel was or: hu-na'paper', ba-tzʼu'howler monkey'. Preconsonantal is not indicated. In short, if the vowels are the same, a simple vowel is intended. If the vowels
North America is a continent within the Northern Hemisphere and all within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers, about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, the fourth by population after Asia and Europe. In 2013, its population was estimated at nearly 579 million people in 23 independent states, or about 7.5% of the world's population, if nearby islands are included. North America was reached by its first human populations during the last glacial period, via crossing the Bering land bridge 40,000 to 17,000 years ago; the so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10,000 years ago. The Classic stage spans the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended in 1492, the transatlantic migrations—the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery and the Early Modern period. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants. Owing to the European colonization of the Americas, most North Americans speak English, Spanish or French, their culture reflects Western traditions; the Americas are accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann. Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil, he explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio:... ab Americo inventore... quasi Americi terram sive Americam.
For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name, but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa", "Asia" and "Africa". Other mapmakers extended the name America to the northern continent, In 1538, Gerard Mercator used America on his map of the world for all the Western Hemisphere; some argue that because the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries, the derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be put in question. In 1874, Thomas Belt proposed a derivation from the Amerrique mountains of Central America. Marcou corresponded with Augustus Le Plongeon, who wrote: "The name AMERICA or AMERRIQUE in the Mayan language means, a country of perpetually strong wind, or the Land of the Wind, and... the can mean... a spirit that breathes, life itself." The United Nations formally recognizes "North America" as comprising three areas: Northern America, Central America, The Caribbean.
This has been formally defined by the UN Statistics Division. The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with context. In Canadian English, North America refers to the land mass as a whole consisting of Mexico, the United States, Canada, although it is ambiguous which other countries are included, is defined by context. In the United States of America, usage of the term may refer only to Canada and the US, sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands. In France, Portugal, Romania and the countries of Latin America, the cognates of North America designate a subcontinent of the Americas comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, Bermuda. North America has been referred to by other names. Spanish North America was referred to as Northern America, this was the first official name given to Mexico. Geographically the North American continent has many subregions; these include cultural and geographic regions. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs, such as the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement.
Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America and Caribbean islands with English-speaking populations; the southern North American continent is composed of two regions. These are the Caribbean; the north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of "North America", which encompasses the whole continent, the term "North America" is sometimes used to refer only to Mexico, the United States, Greenland; the term Northern America refers to the northern-most countries and territories of North America: the United States, Bermuda, St. Pierre and Miquelon and Greenland. Although the term does not refer to a unifie
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphasyllabary writing systems. They are used throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and parts of East Asia, including Japan in the form of Siddhaṃ, they are descended from the Brahmi script of ancient India, are used by languages of several language families: Indo-European, Tibeto-Burman, Austroasiatic and Tai. They were the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Brahmic scripts descended from the Brahmi script. Brahmi is attested from the 3rd century BC during the reign of Ashoka, who used the script for imperial edicts, but there are some claims of earlier epigraphy found on pottery in South India and Sri Lanka; the most reliable of these were short Brahmi inscriptions dated to the 4th century BC and published by Coningham et al.. Northern Brahmi gave rise to the Gupta script during the Gupta period, which in turn diversified into a number of cursives during the medieval period. Notable examples of such medieval scripts, developed by the 7th or 8th century, include Nagari and Sharada.
The Siddhaṃ script was important in Buddhism, as many sutras were written in it. The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan; the syllabic nature and dictionary order of the modern kana system of Japanese writing is believed to be descended from the Indic scripts, most through the spread of Buddhism. Southern Brahmi evolved into Old-Kannada and Vatteluttu scripts, which in turn diversified into other scripts of South India and Southeast Asia. Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism during 3rd century BCE and from where Buddhism spread to east Asia; the present Telugu script is derived from Bhattiprolu Script or "Kannada-Telugu script" or Kadamba script known as "Old Telugu script", owing to its similarity to the same. Minor changes were made, now called Tamil Brahmi, which has far fewer letters than some of the other Indic scripts as it has no separate aspirated or voiced consonants; some characteristics, which are present in most but not all the scripts, are: Each consonant has an inherent vowel, a short'a'.
Other vowels are written by adding to the character. A mark, known in Sanskrit as a virama/halant, can be used to indicate the absence of an inherent vowel; each vowel has two forms, an independent form when not part of a consonant, a dependent form, when attached to a consonant. Depending on the script, the dependent forms can be either placed to the left of, to the right of, below, or on both the left and the right sides of the base consonant. Consonants can be combined in ligatures. Special marks are added to denote the combination of'r' with another consonant. Nasalization and aspiration of a consonant's dependent vowel is noted by separate signs; the alphabetical order is: vowels, velar consonants, palatal consonants, retroflex consonants, dental consonants, bilabial consonants, approximants and other consonants. Each consonant grouping had four stops, a nasal consonant. Below are comparison charts of several of the major Indic scripts, organised on the principle that glyphs in the same column all derive from the same Brahmi glyph.
Accordingly: The charts are not comprehensive. Glyphs may be unrepresented if they don't derive from any Brahmi character, but are inventions; the pronunciations of glyphs in the same column may not be identical. The pronunciation row is only representative; the transliteration is indicated in ISO 15919. Notes Vowels are presented in their independent form on the left of each column, in their corresponding dependent form combined with the consonant k on the right. A glyph for ka is an independent consonant letter itself without any vowel sign, where the vowel a is inherent. Notes The Brahmi script was divided into regional variants at the time of the earliest surviving epigraphy around the 3rd century BC. Cursives of the Brahmi script began to diversify further from around the 5th century AD and continued to give rise to new scripts throughout the Middle Ages; the main division in antiquity was between southern Brahmi. In the northern group, the Gupta script was influential, in the southern group the Vatteluttu and Old-Kannada/Pallava scripts with the spread of Buddhism sent Brahmic scripts throughout Southeast Asia.
Gupta script, 5th century Sharada, 8th century Gurmukhi, 14th century Landa, 10th century Khojki, 16th century Khudabadi, 1550s Mahajani Multani Takri Siddham, 7th century Anga Lipi, 720 Assamese script, 13th century Bengali script Tirhuta/Mithilakshar, 15th century Tibetan script, 7th century Lepcha alphabet Limbu alphabet'Phags-pa, 13th century Nagari, 8th century Devanagari, 13th century Gujarati, 16th century Modi, 17th century Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, 19th century Kaithi, 16th century Nandinagari, 8th century Sylheti Nagari, 16th century Bhaiksuki Nepal script Bhujimol, 6th century Ranjana, 12th century Soyombo, 17th century Prachalit Tocharian script, 7th century Meeitei Mayek Odia, 10th century Tamil-Brahmi Tamil script Vatteluttu Saurashtra alphabet Kolezhuthu Malayanma Pallava script Grantha alphabet Goykanadi Cham alphabet Tigalari alphabet Malayalam script Sinhala script Dhives akuru Thaana Kawi script Balinese script Batak script Baybayin Kulitan alphabet Buhid alphabet Hanunó'o alphabet Javanese script Lontara script Sundanese script Rencong script Rejang script Tagbanwa script Khmer alphabet Thai alphabet Lao alphabet Old Mon script Ahom
An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, modality, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs accompany a main verb; the main verb provides the main semantic content of the clause. An example is the verb. Here, the main verb is finish, the auxiliary have helps to express the perfect aspect; some sentences contain a chain of two or more auxiliary verbs. Auxiliary verbs are called helping verbs, helper verbs, or auxiliaries. Below are some sentences that contain representative auxiliary verbs from English, Spanish and French, with the auxiliary verb marked in bold: a. Do you want tea? – do is an auxiliary accompanying the main verb want, used here to form a question – see do-support.b. He has given his all. – has is an auxiliary used in expressing the perfect aspect of give.c. He cogido tu lápiz. – he is an auxiliary accompanying the main verb coger, used here to form a compound verb, the perfect present in Spanish. Have grabbed your pencil ='I have taken your pencil.'d.
Das wurde mehrmals gesagt. – wurde'became' is an auxiliary used to build the passive voice in German. That became many times said ='That was said many times.'e. Sie ist nach Hause gegangen. – ist'is' is an auxiliary used with movement verbs to build the perfect tense/aspect in German. She is to home gone ='She went home/She has gone home.'f. J'ai vu le soleil. – ai'have' is an auxiliary used to build the perfect tense/aspect in French. I have seen the sun ='I have seen the sun/I saw the sun.'g. Nous sommes hébergés par un ami. – sommes'are' is an auxiliary used to build the passive voice in French. We are hosted by a friend; these auxiliaries help show tense/aspect, or form passive voice. Auxiliaries like these appear with a full verb that carries the main semantic content of the clause. Auxiliary verbs help express grammatical tense, aspect and voice, they appear together with a main verb. The auxiliary is said to "help" the main verb; the auxiliary verbs of a language form a closed class, i.e. there is a fixed small number of them.
They are among the most occurring verbs in a language. Acknowledged verbs that can serve as auxiliaries in English and many related languages are the equivalents of be to express passive voice, have to express perfect aspect or past time reference. In some treatments, the copula be is classed as an auxiliary though it does not "help" another verb, e.g. The bird is in the tree. – is serves as a copula with a predicative expression not containing any other verb. Definitions of auxiliary verbs are not always consistent across languages, or among authors discussing the same language. Modal verbs may not be classified as auxiliaries, depending on the language. In the case of English, verbs are identified as auxiliaries based on their grammatical behavior, as described below. In some cases, verbs that function to auxiliaries, but are not considered full members of that class, are called semi-auxiliaries. In French, for example, verbs such as devoir, aller, vouloir and laisser, when used together with the infinitive of another verb, can be called semi-auxiliaries.
The following sections consider auxiliary verbs in English. They list auxiliary verbs present the diagnostics that motivate this special class; the modal verbs are included in this class, due to their behavior with respect to these diagnostics. A list of verbs that function as auxiliaries in English is as follows: be, could, dare, do, may, must, ought, should, wouldThe status of dare and ought is debatable and the use of these verbs as auxiliaries can vary across dialects of English. If the negative forms can't, don't, won't, etc. are viewed as separate verbs the number of auxiliaries increases. The verbs do and have can function as full verbs or as light verbs, which can be a source of confusion about their status; the modal verbs form a subclass of auxiliary verbs. Modal verbs are defective insofar as they cannot be inflected, nor do they appear as gerunds, infinitives, or participles; the following table summarizes the auxiliary verbs in standard English and the meaning contribution to the clauses in which they appear.
Many auxiliary verbs are listed more than once in the table based upon discernible differences in use. Deontic modality expresses an ability, necessity, or obligation, associated with an agent subject. Epistemic modality expresses the speaker's assessment of likelihood of reality. Distinguishing between the two types of modality can be difficult, since many sentences contain a modal verb that allows both interpretations; the verbs listed in the previous section can be classified as auxiliaries based upon two diagnostics: they allow subject–auxiliary inversion and they can take not as a postdependent. The following examples illustrate the extent to which subject–auxiliary inversion can occur with an auxiliary verb but not with a full verb: a, he was working today. B. Was he working today? - Auxiliary verb was allows subject–auxiliary inversion.a. He worked today. B. *Worked he today? - Full verb worked does