The Afghan Armed Forces are the military forces of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. They consist of the Afghan Air Force; the President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-Chief of the Afghan Armed Forces, administratively controlled through the Ministry of Defense. The National Military Command Center in Kabul serves as the headquarters of the Afghan Armed Forces; the Afghan Armed Forces has 300,000 active duty soldiers and airmen, which are expected to reach 360,000 soldiers and airmen in the coming year. The current Afghan military originates in 1709 when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar followed by the Durrani Empire; the Afghan military fought many wars with the Safavid dynasty and Maratha Empire from the 18th to the 19th century. It was re-organized with help from the British in 1880, when the country was ruled by Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, it was modernized during King Amanullah Khan's rule in the early 20th century, upgraded during King Zahir Shah's forty-year rule. From 1978 to 1992, the Soviet-backed Afghan Armed Force fought with multi-national mujahideen groups who were being backed by the United States, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan.
After President Najibullah's resignation in 1992 and the end of Soviet support, the military dissolved into portions controlled by different warlord factions and the mujahideen took control over the government. This era was followed by the rise of the Pakistan-backed Taliban regime, who established a military force on the basis of Islamic sharia law. After the removal of the Taliban and the formation of the Transitional Islamic State of Afghanistan in late 2001 and 2002 the Afghan Armed Forces was rebuilt by NATO forces in the country by the United States Armed Forces. Despite early problems with recruitment and training, it is becoming effective in fighting against the Taliban insurgency; as of 2014, it is becoming able to operate independently from the NATO International Security Assistance Force. As a major non-NATO ally of the United States, Afghanistan continues to receive billions of dollars in military assistance. Afghans have served in the militaries of the Ghaznavids, Delhi Sultanate and the Persian army.
The current Afghan military traces its origin to the early 18th century when the Hotaki dynasty rose to power in Kandahar and defeated the Persian Safavid Empire at the Battle of Gulnabad in 1722. "The sun had just appeared on the horizon when the armies began to observe each other with that curiosity so natural on these dreadful occasions. The Persian army just come out of the capital, being composed of whatever was most brilliant at court, seemed as if it had been formed rather to make a show than to fight; the riches and variety of their arms and vestments, the beauty of their horses, the gold and precious stones with which some of their harnesses were covered, the richness of their tents contributed to render the Persian camp pompous and magnificent. On the other side there was a much smaller body of soldiers, disfigured with fatigue and the scorching heat of the sun, their clothes were so ragged and torn in so long a march that they were scarce sufficient to cover them from the weather, their horses being adorned with only leather and brass, there was nothing glittering about them but their spears and sabres..."
When Ahmad Shah Durrani formed the Durrani Empire in 1747, his Afghan army fought a number of wars in the Punjab region of Hindustan during the 18th to the 19th century. One of the famous battles was the 1761 Battle of Panipat in which the Afghans invaded and decisively defeated the Hindu Maratha Empire; the Afghans engaged in wars with the Punjabi Sikh Empire of Ranjit Singh, which included the Battle of Jamrud in which Hari Singh Nalwa was killed by Prince Akbar Khan. During the First Anglo-Afghan War, British India invaded Afghanistan in 1838 but withdraw in 1842. During the three years a number of battles took place in different parts of Afghanistan; the first organized army of Afghanistan was established after the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1880 when the nation was ruled by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan. Traditionally, Afghan governments relied on three military institutions: the regular army, tribal levies, community militias; the regular army was commanded by government leaders. The tribal or regional levies - irregular forces - had part-time soldiers provided by tribal or regional chieftains.
The chiefs received land ownership, cash payments, or other privileges in return. The community militia included all available able-bodied members of the community, mobilized to fight only in exceptional circumstances, for common causes under community leaders. Combining these three institutions created a formidable force whose components supplemented each other's strengths and minimized their weaknesses. After the Third Anglo-Afghan War ended, the reforming King Amanullah did not see the need for a large army, instead deciding to rely on Afghanistan's historical martial qualities; this resulted in neglect, recruitment problems, an army unable to quell the 1929 up-rising that cost him his throne. However, under his reign, the Afghan Air Force was formed in 1924; the Afghan Armed Forces were expanded during King Zahir Shah's reign, reaching a strength of 70,000 in 1933. Following World War II, Afghanistan received continued military support from the British government under the Lancaster Plan from 1945 to 1947, until the partition of India realigned British priorities in the region.
Afghanistan declined to join the 1955 United States-sponsored Baghdad Pact.
Around 1,300 species of freshwater crabs are distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics, divided among eight families. They show direct development and maternal care of a small number of offspring, in contrast to marine crabs, which release thousands of planktonic larvae; this limits the dispersal abilities of freshwater crabs, so they tend to be endemic to small areas. As a result, a large proportion are threatened with extinction. More than 1,300 described species of freshwater crabs are known, out of a total of 6,700 species of crabs across all environments; the total number of species of freshwater crabs, including undescribed species, is thought to be up to 65% higher up to 2,155 species, although most of the additional species are unknown to science. They belong to eight families, each with a limited distribution, although various crabs from other families are able to tolerate freshwater conditions or are secondarily adapted to fresh water; the phylogenetic relationships between these families is still a matter of debate, so how many times the freshwater lifestyle has evolved among the true crabs is unknown.
The eight families are: Superfamily TrichodactyloideaTrichodactylidae Superfamily Potamoidea Potamidae Potamonautidae Deckeniidae – treated as part of Potamonautidae Platythelphusidae – treated as part of PotamonautidaeSuperfamily GecarcinucoideaGecarcinucidae Parathelphusidae – nowadays treated as a junior synonym of GecarcinucidaeSuperfamily Pseudothelphusoidea Pseudothelphusidae The fossil record of freshwater organisms is poor, so few fossils of freshwater crabs have been found. The oldest is Tanzanonautes tuerkayi, from the Oligocene of East Africa, the evolution of freshwater crabs is to postdate the break-up of the supercontinent Gondwana. Members of the family Aeglidae and Clibanarius fonticola are restricted to fresh water, but these "crab-like" crustaceans are members of the infraorder Anomura; the external morphology of freshwater crabs varies little, so the form of the gonopod is of critical importance for classification. Development of freshwater crabs is characteristically direct, where the eggs hatch as juveniles, with the larval stages passing within the egg.
The broods comprise only a few hundred eggs, each of, quite large, at a diameter around 1 mm. The colonisation of fresh water has required crabs to alter their water balance. In addition to their gills, freshwater crabs have a "pseudolung" in their gill chamber that allows them to breathe in air; these developments have preadapted freshwater crabs for terrestrial living, although freshwater crabs need to return to water periodically to excrete ammonia. Freshwater crabs are found throughout the subtropical regions of the world, they live in a wide range of water bodies, from fast-flowing rivers to swamps, as well as in tree boles or caves. They are nocturnal, emerging to feed at night; some species provide important food sources for various vertebrates. A number of freshwater crabs are secondary hosts of flukes in the genus Paragonimus, which causes paragonimiasis in humans; the majority of species are narrow endemics. This is at least attributable to their poor dispersal abilities and low fecundity, to habitat fragmentation caused by the world's human population.
In West Africa, species that live in savannas have wider ranges than species from the rainforest. Every species of freshwater crab described so far has been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. For instance, all but one of Sri Lanka's 50 freshwater crab species are endemic to that country, more than half are critically endangered. Neil Cumberlidge. "Freshwater Crab Biology". Northern Michigan University. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011
John Freke was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1614 and 1624. Freke was the son of Thomas Freke of Iwerne Courtney and studied at Hart Hall, Oxford on 31 October 1605, aged 14, he studied law at the Middle Temple in 1600. In 1614, he was elected Member of Parliament for Wareham. In 1621 he was elected MP for Melcombe Regis, he was re-elected MP for Weymouth in 1624. He purchased Cerne Abbey from the Crown in 1625 and was knighted in 1631, he was appointed High Sheriff of Dorset for January to October, 1636. He married twice: firstly Arundell, the daughter of Sir George Trenchard of Wolveton, Dorset, with whom he had a son who predeceased him and a daughter and secondly Jane, the daughter and coheiress of Sir John Shurley of Isfield and widow of Sir Walter Covert of Slaugham, Sussex with whom he had 2 sons and 2 daughters, his youngest son, Thomas was an MP. "FREKE, John, of Westbrooke House, Dorset. History of Parliament Online. Retrieved 29 May 2013
Entropy is a monthly peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research on all aspects of entropy and information theory. It was established in 1999 and is published by MDPI; the journal publishes special issues compiled by guest editors. The editor-in-chief is Kevin H. Knuth. Entropy consists of six sections: Thermodynamics Section Statistical Mechanics Information Theory Quantum Information Complexity Astrophysics and Cosmology Entropy Reviews Entropy and Biology The journal is abstracted and indexed in: According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2017 impact factor of 2.305. In 2013, Entropy published a review paper saying glyphosate may be the most important factor in the development of obesity, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and infertility; the paper does not contain any primary research results. It was criticized as pseudo-science by the science magazine Discover and Jeffrey Beall, founder of Beall's List of predatory open-access publishers, said "Will MDPI publish anything for money?".
In response to the controversy, the editors of Entropy added an "Expression of Concern" to the article's frontmatter. In 2017 researchers Robin Mesnage and Michael N. Antoniou, both of whom are working to limit the use of glyphosate, said that "although evidence exists that glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic below regulatory set safety limits, the arguments of Samsel and Seneff serve to distract rather than to give a rational direction." Official website
The Skyrunner Booster is a Russian paramotor, designed and produced by Skyrunner Paramotor Laboratory of Pskov for powered paragliding. Now out of production, when it was available the aircraft was supplied ready-to-fly; the Booster was designed to comply with the US FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles rules as well as European regulations. It features a paraglider-style wing, single-place accommodation and a single 26 hp Simonini Racing engine in pusher configuration with a 2.38:1 ratio reduction drive and a 125 cm diameter two-bladed wooden propeller. The fuel tank capacity is 8.5 litres. As is the case with all paramotors, take-off and landing is accomplished by foot. Inflight steering is accomplished via handles that actuate the canopy brakes, creating yaw. Data from BertrandGeneral characteristics Crew: one Empty weight: 23 kg Fuel capacity: 8.5 litres Powerplant: 1 × Simonini Racing single cylinder, two-stroke, air-cooled aircraft engine, with a 2.38:1 reduction drive, 19 kW Propellers: 2-bladed wooden, fixed pitch, 1.25 m diameter
Motorola Zine is a series of candybar mobile phones from Motorola, is one of the series in the 4LTR line. The ZN5 was released in China in July 2008, November 2008 for T-Mobile as the first 5.0 megapixel phone subsidized on a major US carrier. It is the first Motorola phone to include a 5.0MP camera and one of the few with wi-fi, though it does not support T-Mobile's Hotspot@Home service. It features Motorola's new ModeShift technology, first introduced with the Rokr E8, it has Kodak Imaging Technology, Kodak Perfect Touch Technology which brightens photos and sharpen details. It was being released for sale in Central and Eastern Europe; the Motorola Zine ZN5 specifications are: Official Motorola Zine ZN5 website Unofficial ZN5 modding website