Peter I of Portugal
Peter the Just redirects here. It can refer to Peter of Castile. Peter I (Portuguese: Pedro I, called the Just or the Cruel, was King of Portugal from 1357 until his death, he was the third but only surviving son of his wife, Beatrice of Castile. In 1328, Peter's father, Afonso IV arranged for the marriage of his eldest daughter, Maria, to Alfonso XI of Castile. In 1334, she bore him a son, who became Peter of Castile. However, Maria returned home to her father in Portugal in 1335 because her royal husband soon after their marriage had begun a long affair with the beautiful and newly widowed Leonor de Guzman, which the Castilian king refused to end. Alfonso's cousin, Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, had been rebuffed by the Castilian king in 1327 when the two-year child marriage between his daughter Constanza and Alfonso had been annulled to clear the way for the marriage to Maria. For two years Juan Manuel had waged war against the Castilians, who had kept Constanza hostage, until Bishop John del Campo of Oviedo mediated a peace in 1329.
Enraged by Alfonso's infidelity and mistreatment of his lawful wife, her father made a new alliance with the powerful Castilian aristocrat. Afonso married Peter, to Constanza, thereby allying himself with Juan Manuel; when Constanza arrived in Portugal in 1340, Inês de Castro, the beautiful and aristocratic daughter of a prominent Galician family, accompanied her as her lady-in-waiting. Peter soon fell in love with Inês, the two conducted a long love affair that lasted until Inês's murder in 1355. Constanza died in 1345, weeks after giving birth to Fernando, who became the first of Peter's sons to succeed him as king of Portugal; the scandal of Peter's affair with Inês, its political ramifications, caused Afonso to banish Inês from court after Constanza died. Peter refused to marry any of the princesses his father suggested as a second wife; the two aristocratic lovers began living together in secret. According to the chronicle of Fernão Lopes, during this period, Peter began giving Inês's brothers, exiles from the Castilian court, important positions in Portugal and they became the heir-apparent's closest advisors.
This alarmed Afonso. He worried that upon his death, civil war could tear the country apart, or the Portuguese throne would fall into Castilian hands, either as Juan Manuel fought to avenge his daughter's honor, or the de Castro brothers supported their sister. Peter claimed. In any event, in 1355, Afonso sent three men to find Inês at the Monastery of Santa Clara-a-Velha in Coimbra, where she was detained, they decapitated her in front of one of her young children. Enraged, Peter revolted against his father. Afonso defeated his son within a year, but died shortly thereafter, Peter succeeded to the throne in 1357; the love affair and father-son conflict inspired more than twenty operas and many writers, including: the Portuguese national epic Os Lusíadas by Luís de Camões, the Spanish "Nise lastimosa" and "Nise laureada" by Jerónimo Bermúdez and'Reinar despues de morir' by Luís Vélez de Guevara, as well as "Inez de Castro" by Mary Russell Mitford and Henry de Montherlant's French drama La Reine morte.
Peter reigned for a decade, is confused with his Castilian nephew because of their identical nicknames. Fernão Lopes labels Peter "the Just" and said that the Portuguese king loved justice—especially the dispensing of it, which he enjoyed doing for himself. Inês' assassins received his harshest punishment: the three had escaped to Castile, but Peter arranged for them to be exchanged for Castilian fugitives residing in Portugal with his nephew, Peter of Castile; the Portuguese king conducted a public trial of Pêro Coelho and Álvaro Gonçalves in 1361. After finding them guilty of Ines' murder, the king ripped their hearts out with his own hands, according to Lopes, because of what they had done to his own heart. Diogo Lopes Pacheco escaped and died in 1383. According to legend, Peter had Inês' body exhumed and placed upon a throne, dressed in rich robes and jewels, required all of his vassals to kiss the hand of the deceased "queen". However, contemporary evidence that the event occurred is minimal.
Peter had two tombs constructed, one for each of them, so they would see each other when rising at the Last Judgment. The tombs show Peter and Inês facing each other, with the words "Até o fim do mundo..." inscribed on the marble. Peter was the father of Ferdinand I of Portugal and John I of Portugal. John was the Master of the military order of Avis, he would become the founder of the Avis dynasty after the 1383–85 Crisis. Before his marriage to Constance, in 1329 he was betrothed to Blanche of Castile but because of her weak mental health and incapacity, the marriage never took place. Quinta das Lágrimas
Afonso II of Portugal
Afonso II, or Affonso, Alfonso or Alphonso or Alphonsus, nicknamed the Fat, King of Portugal, was born in Coimbra on 23 April 1185 and died on 25 March 1223 in the same city. He was the second but eldest surviving son of Sancho I of Portugal by his wife, Infanta of Aragon. Afonso succeeded his father on 27 March 1211; as a king, Afonso II set a different approach of government. Hitherto, his father Sancho I and his grandfather Afonso I were concerned with military issues either against the neighbouring Kingdom of Castile or against the Moorish lands in the south. Afonso did not pursue territory enlargement policies and managed to ensure peace with Castile during his reign. Despite this, some towns, like Alcácer do Sal in 1217, were conquered from the Moors by the private initiative of noblemen; this does not mean that he was a somehow cowardly man. The first years of his reign were marked instead by internal disturbances between Afonso and his brothers and sisters; the king managed to keep security within Portuguese borders only by exiling his kin.
Since military issues were not a government priority, Afonso established the state's administration and centralized power on himself. He designed the first set of Portuguese written laws; these were concerned with private property, civil justice, minting. Afonso sent ambassadors to European kingdoms outside the Iberian Peninsula and began amicable commercial relations with most of them. Other reforms included the always delicate matters with the pope. In order to get the independence of Portugal recognized by Rome, his grandfather, Afonso I, had to legislate an enormous number of privileges to the Church; these created a state within the state. With Portugal's position as a country established, Afonso II endeavoured to weaken the power of the clergy and to apply a portion of the enormous revenues of the Catholic Church to purposes of national utility; these actions led to a serious diplomatic conflict between Portugal. After being excommunicated for his audacities by Pope Honorius III, Afonso II promised to make amends to the church, but he died in Coimbra on 25 March 1223 before making any serious attempts to do so.
King Afonso was buried at the Monastery of Santa Cruz in Coimbra where his body remained for nearly ten years. His remains were transferred subsequently to Alcobaça Monastery, he and his wife, Queen Urraca, were buried at its Royal Pantheon. In 1206, he married his fourth cousin Infanta Urraca of Castile, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile and Eleanor of England, both being descendants of King Alfonso VI of León; the offspring of this marriage were: Infante Sancho, succeeded his father as Sancho II, 4th King of Portugal. Married Valdemar the Young, son of Valdemar II of Denmark and Margaret of Bohemia, daughter of Ottokar I of Bohemia, he was the father of Sancho Fernandes, prior of Santo Estêvão of Alfama. Out of wedlock, he had two illegitimate sons: João Afonso, buried in the Alcobaça monastery. Accompanied his brother King Afonso in the conquest of Faro in 1249, he had an illegitimate daughter named Constança Peres
Afonso, Duke of Porto
Infante D. Afonso of Braganza, Duke of Porto was a Portuguese Infante of the House of Braganza, the son of King Dom Luis I of Portugal and his wife, Dona Maria Pia of Savoy. From 1908 to the abolition of the Portuguese Monarchy in 1910 he was the Prince Royal of Portugal as heir presumptive to his nephew, King Dom Manuel II. Dom Afonso had a military career. In fact, he was a general of some considerable competence in the Portuguese Army, where he had been the inspector-general of artillery, his exemplary military background allowed him to be chosen to command military forces at Goa, at the end of the nineteenth century, when he was, Viceroy of India. His performance in India motivated his nomination to be Constable of Portugal. In the early months of 1890, his engagement to Archduchess Marie Valerie of Austria was publicised, but she refused to marry him, under the influence of her aunt by marriage, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria, of the Miguelist branch of the Braganza Dynasty; when threats on the life of his brother, became known to him, he adopted the habit of arming himself with a revolver and day, making himself ready to defend his family whenever it might be necessary.
He urged the Prince Royal, Luís Filipe, to carry a weapon as well. Dom Afonso was a lady's man, known for his kindness and bon-vivant lifestyle. For instance, he liked to act as a fireman with the Ajuda Fire Corps near the Palace of Ajuda, which he patronized as honorary commander-in-chief, he lived at the Palace of Ajuda after King Luis's death. Dom Afonso was a lover of automobile races, he was responsible for the first motor races in Portugal, where he was one of the first drivers. After the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic in 1910, Afonso went into exile abroad, first at Gibraltar with his nephew, the deposed king, Manuel II, afterwards to Italy with his mother, Queen Maria Pia, he lived with her at Turin, after her death, he moved to Rome, to Naples. Suffering, like his mother, the dowager Queen Maria Pia of Savoy, from debilitating mental and emotional health after the ferocious 1908 attack on their family, Afonso de Bragança married, in Rome on 26 September 1917, a twice-divorced, once-widowed, American heiress Nevada Stoody Hayes.
This was a politically significant event, at least to those Portuguese royalists who clung to the hope of a restoration of the House of Braganza: as significant funding for any power grab was urgently needed. As of 1917, the Portuguese pretender, Manuel II, was living in England with his wife of four years, the Princess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, but they had no children; the royalists were apprehensive about the prospects for a legitimate Braganza heir, their anxiety redoubled at the news of Afonso's marriage to a commoner one of such a dubious reputation. In Portugal, morganatic marriage was not recognized. Any legitimate child of Afonso and Nevada could become the lawful heir to the Portuguese throne. Nearly as disturbing was the prospect that both Afonso would fail to produce an heir. In this event, the claimant to the Portuguese throne would be a descendent of Miguel I, the absolutist king who, in 1834, lost the Portuguese War of the Two Brothers to the liberal line of constitutional monarchs.
Dom Afonso was the fourth husband of Nevada Stoody Hayes. They were unable to marry religiously in Italy, where the king of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III, like the Pope, chose not to recognize the validity of a previous trial marriage in Rome, she convinced Afonso to marry her again at a Madrid hotel, where a consular officer of the Portuguese Republic performed the civil ceremony, with no family or friends as witnesses. Some believe that the Portuguese consul in Madrid was as cooperative as he was because the Republican government in power at Lisbon was delighted to see one of the last of the Braganzas do such an unpopular thing. A religious marriage ceremony was performed in Madrid on 23 November 1917; the Prince had tried to get the king's approval for his marriage, but he found that his nephew and the rest of the royal family were vehemently opposed to it. After his marriage, his pension was cut by Manuel II, Dom Afonso rejected by his relatives in the Italian royal family, began to live in obscurity and sickness during his final days.
He died alone, in Naples, on 21 February 1920. Only one Portuguese servant remained with him until the end. Though the terms of a morganatic marriage exclude the surviving spouse from inheriting any of the titles or privileges that are the prerogatives of royalty, they do not exclude the survivor from inheriting property. In his will, Dom Afonso left his entire estate to Nevada Stoody Hayes. After he and Manuel II had both died, his widow demanded that the Portuguese government recognize her rights to a substantial part of the House of Braganza's patrimony, her husband had named her his sole legal heir in his last will. As the marriage, the will, was disputed in Lisbon, Nevada was arrested shortly after she arrived at Lisbon to claim her inheritance. However, she proved a substantial portion of her claim, she was granted the right to remove many objects of art and expensive goods from the Portuguese royal palaces; the 35-year-old former Duchess of Porto traveled to Portugal from Italy with the body of her late husband, she arranged for its installation in the Braganza pantheon in the Monastery of São Vic
John I of Portugal
John I called John of Aviz, was King of Portugal from 1385 until his death in 1433. He is recognized chiefly for his role in Portugal's victory in a succession war with Castile, preserving his country's independence and establishing the Aviz dynasty on the Portuguese throne, his long reign of 48 years, the most extensive of all Portuguese monarchs, saw the beginning of Portugal's overseas expansion. John's well-remembered reign in his country earned him the epithet of Fond Memory; as part of his efforts to acquire Portuguese territories in Africa, he became the first king of Portugal to use the title "Lord of Ceuta". John was born in Lisbon as the natural son of King Peter I of Portugal by a woman named Teresa, according to the royal chronicler Fernão Lopes, was a noble Galician. In the 18th century, António Caetano de Sousa found a 16th-century document in the archives of the Torre do Tombo in which she was named as Teresa Lourenço. In 1364, by request of Nuno Freire de Andrade, a Galician Grand Master of the Order of Christ, he was created Grand Master of the Order of Aviz.
On the death without a male heir of his half-brother, King Ferdinand I, in October 1383, strenuous efforts were made to secure the succession for Beatrice, Ferdinand's only daughter. As heir presumptive, Beatrice had married king John I of Castile, but popular sentiment was against an arrangement in which Portugal would have been annexed by Castile; the 1383–1385 Portuguese interregnum followed, a period of political anarchy, when no monarch ruled the country. On 6 April 1385, the Council of the Kingdom met in Coimbra and declared John Master of Aviz, to be king of Portugal; this was followed by the liberation of all of the Minho in the course of two months as part of a war against Castile in opposition to its claims to the Portuguese throne. Soon after, the king of Castile again invaded Portugal with the purpose of conquering Lisbon and removing John I from the throne. John I of Castile was accompanied by French allied cavalry while English troops and generals took the side of John of Aviz.
John and Nuno Álvares Pereira, his constable and talented supporter, repelled the attack in the decisive Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August 1385. John I of Castile retreated; the Castilian forces abandoned Santarém, Torres Vedras and Torres Novas, many other towns were delivered to John I by Portuguese nobles from the Castilian side. As a result, the stability of the Portuguese throne was permanently secured. On 11 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, who had proved to be a worthy ally; the marriage consolidated an Anglo-Portuguese Alliance. John I of Castile died in 1390 without issue from his wife Beatrice, which meant that a competing legitimate bloodline with a claim to the throne of Portugal died out. John I of Portugal was able to rule in peace and concentrate on the economic development and territorial expansion of his realm; the most significant military actions were the siege and conquest of the city of Ceuta by Portugal in 1415, the successful defence of Ceuta from a Moroccan counterattack in 1419.
These measure were intended to help seize control of navigation off the African coast and trade routes from the interior of Africa. The raids and attacks of the Reconquista in the Iberian Peninsula created captives on both sides who were either ransomed or sold as slaves; the Portuguese crown extended this practice to North Africa. After the attack on Ceuta, the king sought papal recognition of the military action as a Crusade; such a ruling would have enabled those captured to be legitimately sold as slaves. In response to John's request, Pope Martin V issued the Papal bull Sane charissimus of 4 April 1418, which confirmed to the king all of the lands he might win from the Moors. Under the auspices of Prince Henry the Navigator, voyages were organized to explore the African coast; these led to the discovery of the uninhabited islands of Madeira in 1417 and the Azores in 1427. Contemporaneous writers describe John as a man of wit, keen on concentrating power on himself, but at the same time possessed a benevolent and kind demeanor.
His youthful education as master of a religious order made him an unusually learned king for the Middle Ages. His love for knowledge and culture was passed on to his sons, who are referred to collectively by Portuguese historians as the "illustrious generation": Edward, the future king, was a poet and a writer. In 1430, John's only surviving daughter, married Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, enjoyed an refined court culture in his lands. On 2 February 1387, John I married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, in Porto. From that marriage were born several famous princes and princesses of Portugal that became known as the "illustrious generation"; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "John I. of Portugal". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 443. Williamson, D. 1988. Debrett's Kings and Queens of Europe Ana Echevarría Arsuaga: Catalina de Lancaster, edit. Nerea, 2002. ISBN 84-89569-79-7)
Cardinal-Infante Afonso of Portugal
Cardinal-Infante Afonso was a Portuguese infante, son of King Manuel I of Portugal and his wife Maria of Aragon. Afonso during his life was archbishop of Lisbon and cardinal, he died on 21 April 1540, in Lisbon and was buried in Lisbon Cathedral before he was moved to the Jerónimos Monastery. Cardinal-Infante Descendants of Manuel I of Portugal
Afonso V of Portugal
Afonso V, called the African, was King of Portugal. His sobriquet refers to his conquests in Northern Africa; as of 1471, Afonso V was the first king of Portugal to claim dominion over a plural "Kingdom of the Algarves", instead of the singular "Kingdom of the Algarve". Territories added to the Portuguese crown lands in North Africa during the 15th century came to be referred to as possessions of the Kingdom of the Algarve, not the Kingdom of Portugal; the "Algarves" were considered to be the southern Portuguese territories on both sides of the Strait of Gibraltar. Afonso was born in the second son of King Edward of Portugal by his wife Eleanor of Aragon. Following the death of his older brother, Infante João, Afonso acceded to the position of heir apparent and was made the first Prince of Portugal by his father, who sought to emulate the English Court's custom of a dynastic title that distinguished the heir apparent from the other children of the monarch, he was only six years old when he succeeded his father in 1438.
During his minority, Afonso V was placed under the regency of his mother in accordance with a will of his late father. As both a foreigner and a woman, the queen was not a popular choice for regent. Opposition rose and without any important ally among the Portuguese aristocracy other than Afonso, Count of Barcelos, the illegitimate half brother of King Edward, the queen's position was untenable. In 1439, the Portuguese Cortes decided to replace the queen with Peter, Duke of Coimbra, the young king's oldest uncle. Peter's main policies were concerned with restricting the political power of the great noble houses and expanding the powers of the crown; the country prospered under his rule, but not peacefully, as his laws interfered with the ambition of powerful nobles. The count of Barcelos, a personal enemy of the Duke of Coimbra became the king's favourite uncle and began a constant struggle for power. In 1442, the king made Afonso the first Duke of Braganza. With this title and its lands, he became the most powerful man in Portugal and one of the richest men in Europe.
To secure his position as regent, Peter had Afonso marry his daughter, Isabella of Coimbra, in 1445. But on 9 June 1448, when the king came of age, Peter had to surrender his power to Afonso V; the years of conspiracy by the Duke of Braganza came to a head. On 15 September of the same year, Afonso V nullified all the laws and edicts approved under the regency. In the following year, led by what were discovered to be false accusations, Afonso declared Peter a rebel and defeated his army in the Battle of Alfarrobeira, in which his uncle was killed. After this battle and the loss of one of Portugal's most remarkable infantes, the Duke of Braganza became the de facto ruler of the country. Afonso V turned his attentions to North Africa. In the reign of his grandfather John I, Ceuta had been conquered from the king of Morocco, now the new king wanted to expand the conquests; the king's army conquered Alcácer Ceguer in 1458 and Arzila in 1471. Tangiers, on the other hand, was won and lost several times between 1460 and 1464.
These achievements granted the king the nickname of the Africano. The king supported the exploration of the Atlantic Ocean led by prince Henry the Navigator but after Henry's death in 1460, he did nothing to continue Henry's work. Administratively, Afonso V was a passive king, he chose not to pursue the revision of laws or development of commerce, preferring instead to preserve the legacy of his father Edward and grandfather John I. In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, which granted Afonso V the right to reduce "Saracens and any other unbelievers" to hereditary slavery; this was reaffirmed and extended in the Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. These papal bulls came to be seen by some as a justification for the subsequent era of slave trade and European colonialism; when the campaigns in Africa were over, Afonso V found new grounds for battle in neighboring Castile. On December 11, 1474 King Henry IV of Castile died without a male heir, leaving just one daughter, Joanna la Beltraneja.
However, her paternity was questioned. The death of Henry ignited a war of succession with one faction supporting Joanna and the other supporting Isabella, Henry's half-sister. Afonso V was persuaded to intervene on behalf of his niece, he proclaimed himself king of Castile and led troops into the kingdom. Because of their close blood-relationship, a formal marriage had to wait for papal dispensation. On May 12, 1475, Afonso entered Castile with an army of 14,000 foot soldiers. In March, 1476, after several skirmishes and much maneuvering, the 8, 000 men of Afonso and Prince João, faced a Castilian force of similar size in the battle of Toro; the Castilians were led by Isabella's husband, Prince Ferdinand II of Aragon, Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba. The fight was fierce and confusing but the result was a stalemate: While the forces of Cardinal Mendoza and the Duke of Alba won over their opponents led by the Portuguese King –who left the battlefield to take refuge in Castronuño, the troops commanded by Prince Joao defeated and persecuted the troops of the Castilian right wing, recovered the Portuguese royal standard, remaining ordered in the battlefield where they collected the fugitives of Afonso.
Both sides claimed victory but Afonso's prospects for obtaining the Castilian crown were damaged. “It was
Afonso, Prince of Portugal
Afonso, Prince of Portugal was the heir apparent to the throne of Portugal. He was born in Lisbon and died in a horse-riding accident on the banks of the river Tagus. Afonso, named after his grandfather, King Afonso V, was the only son of King John II and Eleanor of Viseu; the king was fond of him and named the island of Príncipe after him. Afonso's grandfather Afonso V of Portugal had sided with Joanna la Beltraneja, a rival for the throne of Castile against her half-aunt, Queen Isabella I of Castile, she was never considered legitimate and, when the king was dying, no one took her as a serious contender for the crown. Isabella was due to inherit the crown, but Afonso V was keen to interfere with the succession in Castile. In 1475 he married his niece Joanna. Since her adulteress mother was his own sister, Afonso V had not only ambition, but the family honour to protect, he prepared to defend his wife's rights. King Ferdinand and Isabella, won the war of succession and, as part of the Treaty of Alcáçovas, signed in 1479, it was agreed that their eldest daughter Isabella would marry Afonso.
Isabella was to come with a large dowry that in practice represented the war compensation obtained by Portugal. In 1480, Prince Afonso, who at that time was five years old, went to live in the town of Moura with his maternal grandmother, Beatrice. In the early months of the following year, his future wife, the ten-year-old Isabella, joined him and lived there for about two years; the wedding, by proxy, took place ten years in the spring of 1490 in Seville. On 19 November of that year, Isabella arrived in Badajoz where she was welcomed by Afonso's uncle, the future King Manuel I of Portugal, whom she would marry six years after her husband's death. Afonso and Isabella were reunited in Elvas on 22 November and, on the following day, Isabella met her mother-in-law, Queen Eleanor, in the Convento do Espinheiro in Évora, where the court had gathered to ratify the marriage, celebrated earlier in Seville; this wedding had the blessings of both Kingdoms. The queen of Castile, whose mother and nurse were Portuguese, wanted to strengthen the ties with Portugal, and, at the same time, this would allow her to "keep an eye on and control the steps of her eternal rival, Joanna la Beltraneja", through her daughter.
In July 1491, the royal family was spending the summer in the Santarém District near the banks of the River Tagus. King John invited his son to swim with him; the young prince refused the invitation at first, but seeing that his father wanted him to keep him company, decided to join him. According to the chronicle of Rui de Pina:...na força do correr, o cavalo do príncipe caiu, e o levou debaixo de si, onde logo de improviso ficou como morto, sem fala e sem sentidos.. According to the same author, when Afonso's mother heard the news of the accident, stricken with grief, she ran, riding on a mule, accompanied by her daughter-in-law, to be with her son, lying on the ground. Nothing could be done; as a sign of mourning, his parents decided to dress in black. The funeral rites were held at Batalha Monastery and Prince Afonso was buried there the resting place of his grandfather King Afonso V, his widow, Infanta Isabella, returned to Castile and before the siege of Granada was lifted, she joined her parents in Íllora.
The Catholic Monarchs abandoned the camp temporarily to console her. King John tried without success until the end of his life to legitimize the ten-year-old Jorge, Duke of Coimbra, his illegitimate son, his wife, Queen Eleanor, was adamantly against having the king's bastard son occupy the throne, an opinion shared by the Catholic Monarchs, like Queen Eleanor, supported the claims of the Duke of Beja, Eleanor's brother, as the heir to the throne. In 1494, King John, whose health had worsened, executed his last will in which named his cousin and brother-in-law, the Duke of Beja, his successor. King John died in October 1495 and, in 1497, his successor, the Duke of Beja, now King Manuel I of Portugal married Isabella, Prince Afonso's widow