African-American English

African-American English known as Black English in American linguistics, is the set of English dialects spoken by most black people in the United States and many in Canada. African-American English shows variation such as in vernacular versus standard forms, rural versus urban characteristics, features specific to singular cities or regions only, other sociolinguistic criteria. There has been a significant body of African-American literature and oral tradition for centuries. African-American English began as early as the seventeenth century, when the Atlantic slave trade brought African slaves into British-colonial North America in an area that became the Southern United States in the late eighteenth century. During the development of plantation culture in this region, nonstandard dialects of English were spoken by British settlers, as well as some creolized varieties resulting in both first- and second-language English varieties developed by African Americans; the nineteenth century's evolving cotton-plantation industry, the twentieth century's Great Migration contributed to the spread of the first of these varieties as stable dialects of English among African Americans.

The most widespread modern dialect is known as African-American Vernacular English. African-American Vernacular is the native variety of the vast majority of working- and middle-class African Americans in urban areas, with its own unique accent and vocabulary features. Typical features of the grammar include a "zero" copula, simplification of the possessive form, complexification of verb aspects and tenses beyond those of other English dialects. Common features of the phonology include non-rhoticity, the metathetic use of aks instead of ask, simplification of diphthongs, a raising chain shift of the front vowels, a wider range of intonation or "melody" patterns than most General American accents. AAVE is used by middle-class African Americans in casual and informal settings as one end of a sociocultural language continuum, AAVE shows some slight variations by region or city. African-American Standard English is the prestigious end of the middle-class African-American language continuum, used for more formal, careful, or public settings than AAVE.

This variety exhibits standard English vocabulary and grammar but retains certain elements of the unique AAVE accent, with intonational or rhythmic features maintained more than phonological ones. Most middle-class African Americans are bi-dialectal between this standard variety and AAVE, learning the former variety through schooling, so that adults will even codeswitch between the two varieties within a single conversation. Of the phonological features maintained in this standard dialect, they tend to be less marked. For instance, one such characteristic is the omission of the final consonant in word-final consonant clusters, so words such as past or hand may lose their final consonant sound. Black Appalachian Americans have been reported as adopting Appalachian/Southern dialect associated with white Appalachians; these similarities include an accent, rhotic, the categorical use of the grammatical construction "he works" or "she goes", Appalachian vocabulary. However African-American English in Appalachia is diverse, with African-American women linguistically divided along sociocultural lines.

African-American English in the North Carolina Outer Banks is accommodating to urban AAVE through the recent generations, despite having aligned with local Outer Banks English for centuries. African Nova Scotian English is spoken by descendants of Black Nova Scotians, black immigrants from the United States who live in Nova Scotia, Canada. Though most African American freedom seekers in Canada ended up in Ontario through the Underground Railroad, only the dialect of African Nova Scotians retains the influence of West African pidgin. In the 19th century, African Nova Scotian English would have been indistinguishable from English spoken in Jamaica or Suriname. However, it has been de-creolized since this time, due to interaction and influence from the white Nova Scotian population, who hail from the British Isles. Desegregation of the province's school boards in 1964 further accelerated the process of de-creolization; the language is a relative of the African-American Vernacular English, with significant variations unique to the group's history in the area.

There are noted differences in the dialects of those from Guysborough County, those from North Preston, the Guysborough group having been in the province three generations earlier. Howe & Walker use data from early recordings of African Nova Scotian English, Samaná English, the recordings of former slaves to demonstrate that speech patterns were inherited from nonstandard colonial English; the dialect was extensively studied in 1992 by Shana Poplack and Sali Tagliamonte from the University of Ottawa. A commonality between African Nova Scotian English and African-American Vernacular English is -deletion; this rate of deletion is 57% among Black Nova Scotians, 60% among African Americans in Philadelphia. Meanwhile, in the surrounding white communities of Nova Scotia, -deletion does

Åge Hareide

Åge Fridtjof Hareide is a Norwegian football manager since 2015 managing the Denmark national football team. In his playing career, he played for Hødd and Molde in Norway as well as Manchester City and Norwich City in England. Hareide was capped 50 times playing for Norway; as a coach, Hareide has won league titles in all of the Scandinavian countries, In Sweden with Helsingborgs IF in 1999 and with Malmö FF in 2014, in Denmark with Brøndby in 2001–02 and in his native Norway with Rosenborg in 2003. Hareide was in charge of the Norway national team from 2003 to 2008. During his playing career, Hareide played for Hødd, Manchester City and Norwich City, he was an active player for the Norway national team from 1976 through 1986, scoring five goals in 50 matches. As a coach Hareide has won three European countries' national league championships, namely that of Denmark and his native Norway, making him the only coach to have won the league in three Scandinavian countries. Other coaches who have won league titles in three countries include fellow Scandinavians Trond Sollied and Sven-Göran Eriksson, while Ernst Happel, Giovanni Trapattoni, José Mourinho and Carlo Ancelotti have won championships in four countries.

In the mid-1990s, Norwegian millionaires Kjell Inge Røkke and Bjørn Rune Gjelsten were interested in bringing Hareide back to Manchester City as manager if their bid to take over the club was successful, but the takeover bid failed and Hareide never returned to the club. When the pair tried to take over Leeds United around the same time, it was once again reported that Hareide would be installed as manager if the takeover bid succeeded, but this bid too failed and Hareide was never put in charge at Elland Road. However, the pair succeeded in a takeover bid for fellow English Premier League club Wimbledon in June 1997, Hareide appeared all set to become the new manager of the club in a move that would have ousted the incumbent Joe Kinnear, but this never happened either. Hareide was employed as the coach of the Norway national football team at the end of 2003, replacing Nils Johan Semb, after one season as coach of Rosenborg BK. On 8 December 2008, after having failed to take Norway to any international tournaments, having had a bad start to the 2010 FIFA World Cup qualifying campaign, Hareide resigned from his position as national team coach of Norway.

On 9 December 2008 Hareide announced. On 10 June 2009 it was announced that he wouldbe coaching Örgryte IS. On 1 December 2009 the former Norway national team head coach left the Swedish club to join Viking FK, from Stavanger to replace Uwe Rösler. Following Egil Østenstad resignation as director of football in Viking, Viking announced in September 2011 that Hareide would be manager of Viking, that Josep Clotet Ruiz would be hired as coach from the 2012-season onwards, similar to the organization English clubs and Molde have, with Ole Gunnar Solskjær as manager and Mark Dempsey as coach. Viking finished 9th in 2010, Hareide's first season, 11th in 2011. With the team positioned on 10th place on 9 June 2012, Hareide was released by Viking FK because of the bad results. Following Conny Karlsson's resignation in Helsingborgs IF, the club hired Hareide, the last coach who won Allsvenskan with Helsingborgs IF, except Karlsson, as head coach until the end of the 2012 season. Hareide was brought out of retirement from his managerial career by being appointed as the new manager of the reigning Swedish champions Malmö FF on 9 January 2014.

He had immediate success at the club as he led the team to defend their Allsvenskan title and qualify for the group stage of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League in his first season. For this successful season Hareide was awarded Allsvenskan manager of the year, he was nominated for coach of the year at Svenska idrottsgalan. On 10 December 2015 Hareide was announced as the new manager of the Denmark national football team replacing Morten Olsen, who had stepped down following the UEFA Euro 2016 qualification. Hareide began his new job on 1 March 2016. In November 2017, he managed his Denmark team to qualification for the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia; this was achieved with a 5-1 aggregate play-off win over Ireland. Hareide was the Danish coach at the 2018 FIFA World Cup. One month before the beginning of the competition, he said of the French National team, which Denmark was to play in the first round: "The great nations at the World Cup are the best, but not France." Most great nations of football performed poorly.

Denmark was eliminated in round 16. He resigned as the Norway national team coach worked as an expert Norwegian Premier League commentator for the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation; as of match played 18 November 20191 Only competitive matches are counted. 2 For these earlier statistics, only league matches are collected. Molde FK Norwegian Football Cup: 1994Helsingborgs IF Allsvenskan: 1999 Svenska Cupen: 1997–98Brøndby IF Danish Superliga: 2001–02Rosenborg BK Tippeligaen: 2003 Norwegian Football Cup: 2003Malmö FF Allsvenskan: 2014 Svenska Supercupen: 2014 Allsvenskan Manager of the Year: 2014 Malmö FF profile


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