History of San Francisco
The history of the city of San Francisco and its development as a center of maritime trade, were shaped by its location at the entrance to a large natural harbor. San Francisco is the name of both the city and the county, which share the same boundaries. Starting overnight as the base for the rush of 1849, the city quickly became the largest and most important population, naval. It was devastated by an earthquake and fire in 1906 but was quickly rebuilt. The San Francisco Federal Reserve Branch opened in 1914, and San Francisco is ranked sixth on the Global Financial Centres Index and has grown wealthier by its proximity to Silicon Valley. The earliest evidence of habitation in what is now the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. Native Americans who settled in this region found the bay to be a resource for hunting and gathering, leading to the establishment of small villages. Collectively, these early Native Americans are now known as the Ohlone, and their trade patterns included places as far away as Baja California, the Mojave Desert and Yosemite.
The earliest Europeans to reach the site of San Francisco were a Spanish exploratory party in 1769, led overland from Mexico by Don Gaspar de Portolà, the Spanish recognized the location, with its large natural harbor, to be of great strategic significance. A subsequent expedition, led by Juan Bautista de Anza, selected sites for military, the Presidio of San Francisco was established for the military, while Mission San Francisco de Asís began the cultural and religious conversion of some 10,000 Ohlone who lived in the area. The mission became known as Mission Dolores, because of its nearness to a named after Our Lady of Sorrows. The original plaza of the Spanish settlement remains as Portsmouth Square, todays city took its name from the mission, and Yerba Buena became the name of a San Francisco neighborhood now known as South of Market. The Moscone Center and Yerba Buena Gardens are in the Yerba Buena area, in addition, the name Yerba Buena was applied to the former Goat Island in the middle of San Francisco Bay, adjacent to Treasure Island.
San Francisco became part of the United States with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, European visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area were preceded at least 8,000 years earlier by Native Americans. According to one anthropologist, the name for San Francisco was awaste, meaning. When the Spanish arrived, they found the area inhabited by the Yelamu tribe, the Ohlone speakers are distinct from Pomo speakers north of the San Francisco Bay, and are part of the Miwok group of languages. Their traditional territory stretched from Big Sur to the San Francisco Bay, miwok-speaking Indians lived in Yosemite, and Ohlone-speakers intermarried with Chumash and Pomo speakers as well. The Spanish conquest of the San Francisco Bay area came than to Southern California, a Spanish exploration party, led by Portolà and arriving on November 2,1769, was the first documented European sighting of San Francisco Bay
Willie Brown (politician)
Willie Lewis Brown, Jr. is an American politician of the Democratic Party. He served over 30 years in the California State Assembly, spending 15 years as its speaker, and served as the 41st mayor of San Francisco, the first African American to do so. Under the current California term-limits law, no Speaker of the California State Assembly will be permitted to have a longer tenure than Browns, the San Francisco Chronicle called Brown one of San Franciscos most notable mayors who had celebrity beyond the citys boundaries. Brown was born in Mineola and graduated from Mineola Colored High School in 1951 and he moved to San Francisco in 1951, attending San Francisco State University and graduating in 1955 with a degree in liberal studies. Brown earned a J. D. from University of California and he spent several years in private practice before gaining election in his second attempt to the California Assembly in 1964. Brown became the Democrats whip in 1969 and speaker in 1980 and he was known for his ability to manage people and maintain party discipline.
According to The New York Times, Brown became one of the countrys most powerful state legislators and his long tenure and powerful position were used as a focal point of Californias initiative campaign to limit the terms of state legislators, which passed in 1990. During the last of his three allowed post-initiative terms, Brown maintained control of the Assembly despite a slim Republican majority by gaining the vote of several Republicans, near the end of his final term, Brown left the legislature to become mayor of San Francisco. Brown served as San Francisco mayor from January 8,1996 until January 8,2004 and his tenure as mayor is marked by a significant increase in real estate development, public works, city beautification, and other large-scale city projects. He presided over the era at a time when San Franciscos economy was rapidly expanding. Brown presided over the city’s most diverse administration with more Asian Americans, Latinos, gays and he increased San Franciscos funding of Muni by tens of millions of dollars and ended the citys policy of punishing people for feeding the homeless.
The SF Board of Supervisors opposed Browns agenda and some of his initiatives, in particular office, Brown was restricted by term limits from running for mayor and was succeeded by a political protege, Gavin Newsom. Brown was born in Mineola, a segregated town in east Texas marked by racial tensions, to Minnie Collins Boyd. Brown was the fourth of five children, during Browns childhood, mob violence periodically erupted in Mineola, keeping African Americans from voting. His first job was as a boy in a whites-only barber shop. He worked as a janitor, fry cook, and field hand and he learned his work ethic at a young age from his grandmother. He graduated from MacFarland High School, a school he described as substandard. Brown originally wanted to attend Stanford University and his interviewer from Stanford taught at San Francisco State and was surprised by Brown’s ambition
San Francisco Public Library
The San Francisco Public Library is the public library system of the city of San Francisco. The Main Library is located at Civic Center, at 100 Larkin Street, in 1877 a residents meeting was called by Andrew Smith Hallidie who advocated the creation of a public library for San Francisco. A board of trustees for the Library was created in 1878 through the Rogers Act, signed by Governor of California William Irwin, the San Francisco Public Library opened in 1879 on Bush Street at Kearny Street and hired Albert Hart as the first librarian. In 1888 the Library moved to the Larkin Street wing of City Hall at Civic Center, the first three branches opened from 1888 to 1889, in the Mission, in North Beach, and in Potrero Hill. In 1889 the Library became a Federal depository by nomination of Senator George Hearst, in 1906, architect Daniel Burnham presented his plans for a new Civic Center for San Francisco, including a new library building. These plans were put on hold after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, the library moved to temporary quarters while a new building was designed and built.
In 1917, the new library building, designed by George W. Kelham. Ten major murals by California Tonalist Gottardo Piazzoni were installed in 1931-1932, four more were completed in 1945, but left uninstalled until the 1970s. In 1986, a force was set up to complete the design of the Civic Center, including the use of Marshall Square, next to the main library at the time. Construction on the current Main Library began on March 15,1993, the building was completed in 1995 and opened a year on April 18,1996. The old main library, which was damaged in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, was rebuilt as the new Asian Art Museum. At over 376,000 square feet and with six floors above ground and one below, the new library features over 300 computer terminals, room for 1100 laptops, and a new wing for children. The city spent $104.5 million on the new library. San Francisco Public Library/Other Facts about the Building, Library visitations doubled in its first year open, from 1.1 million to 2.1 million, and the number of library card holders nearly tripled.
Nonetheless, the Main Library has its critics, in October 1996 author Nicholson Baker wrote a scathing article in The New Yorker about the weeding of books from the library as it moved to the new building. He was critical about the elimination of the catalog when the computerized catalog was introduced. Due to this publicity, the library released an official response to Nicholsons New Yorker article. Later, under pressure that included Mayor Willie Brown, City Librarian Ken Dowlin whose policy it was to weed. The library was used in the 1998 film City of Angels
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Port of San Francisco
The Port of San Francisco is a semi-independent organization run by a five-member commission, appointed by the Mayor and approved by the Board of Supervisors. All eligible State port authority employees had the option to employees of the City and County of San Francisco to maintain consistent operation of the Port of San Francisco. The Port of San Francisco lies on the edge of the San Francisco Bay near the Golden Gate. It has been called one of the three natural harbors in the world, but it took two long centuries for navigators from Spain and England to find the anchorage originally called Yerba Buena. A port, as was said in its days, in which all the fleets of the world could find anchorage. The port area under the commissions control comprises nearly eight miles of waterfront lands, commercial real estate, the list of landmarks under port control include Fishermans Wharf, Pier 39, the Ferry Building, AT&T Park, located next to China Basin and Pier 70 at Potrero Point. Huge covered piers on piles jut out into San Francisco bay along much of the waterfront, the founding padres of Mission Dolores and the other northern California missions found the jetty at Clarkes Point a convenient landing for their commerce in hides and tallow.
It is the location where Russian ships anchored to load supplies of meat. Early European visitors were the British Raccoon in 1814 and the French frigate Artemise in 1839, the sloop USS St. Louis, which arrived in 1840, was the first warship to fly the American flag in San Francisco Bay. The earliest development of a port in San Francisco, two and a half miles east of the Presidio, was under the Mexican regime, begun in 1835 as the town of Yerba Buena. Before this time, the port at Monterey was considered the port of entry to California. Captain Richardson erected the first abode of a European on the hill overlooking the Bay and he became the first harbor master by appointment of the Governor Mariano Guadaloupe de Vallejo. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7,1846, during the Mexican-American War, montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. In 1847, the first American alcalde, Lt. Washington Allon Bartlett changed the name from Yerba Buena to San Francisco, the early city built up on the west side of Yerba Buena Cove around Portsmouth Square.
At the same time, the owner of the land at the foot of Telegraph Hill, W. S. Clarke built a timbered wharf and the location became known as Clarkes Point. Later, a substantial wharf 750 feet long and 60 feet wide was erected to the depth of water,26 feet and this project was followed by other wharves built below Broadway and Clay streets, and at Commercial street. It was at this site that the population of San Francisco met the Pacific mail liner the Oregon to receive the official announcement that California had been admitted to the Union. The bluff at the point was quickly leveled and on the created a wharf was built that became the first regular berthing place, for a short time
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area
Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area is reliant on a complex multimodal infrastructure consisting of roads, highways, tunnels and bike and pedestrian paths. A2011 Brookings Institution study ranked the San Francisco MSA and the San Jose MSA sixteenth and second, another nationwide study, conducted by the University of Minnesota in 2014, ranked the San Francisco MSA second and San Jose MSA tenth. Despite this, the San Francisco Bay Area remains the second most traffic-congested region in the country with a declining per capita use of public transit, the following airports are served by commercial airlines. In addition there are general aviation airports in the region. San Francisco International Airport The busiest in the region, and an international hub airport in California second only to LAX. Hub to United Airlines and Virgin America, Oakland International Airport The second-busiest airport in the region and a major base airport for Southwest Airlines. Oakland International Airport is the oldest of the Bay Areas civilian airports still in use, the site was chosen due to its superior weather conditions for aircraft operations.
Mineta San Jose International Airport The third-busiest and fastest-growing airport in the Bay Area, another minor airport is Charles M. Schulz - Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa. It is served by two airlines, Horizon Air and Allegiant Air. In addition to rail and bus systems, there are public and private ferry services, such as Golden Gate Ferry. Most of the larger agencies accept the Clipper Card, a contactless smart card. An extensive rail infrastructure that provides a mix of services exists within the nine Bay Area counties, an expansion that is currently under construction will build an additional station in Alameda County and bring BART south into Santa Clara County by 2016. The Millbrae Intermodal Terminal provides transfers between Caltrain and BART, the Altamont Commuter Express, commonly known as ACE, provides commuter rail service, but from the Central Valley into Silicon Valley, terminating in the San Jose Diridon Station. In addition, Amtrak has a presence throughout the Bay Area, stations in Martinez and Emeryville feature Coast Starlight and California Zephyr service.
The Capitol Corridor connects Bay Area cities to Sacramento, and features BART transfer stations at Richmond, a series of overlapping bus agencies provide additional public transit coverage to Bay Area regions both served and not served by rail transit. All of these provide limited night bus service, which are intended to shadow the rail routes that are closed during the nighttime hours for maintenance. The ferry, along all the major train and bus operators. In addition, Bay Area residents may rent bicycles from the Bay Area Bike Share in certain parts of San Francisco, San Mateo, until 1971 the Southern Pacific Railroad operated from its Third and Townsend Depot commuter trains to San Jose and long distance trains to Los Angeles
San Francisco Police Department
The San Francisco Police Department is the city police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California. The departments motto is the same as that of the city and county, Oro en paz, fierro en guerra, archaic Spanish for Gold in peace, iron in war. The SFPD should not be confused with the San Francisco Sheriffs Department and it is the 11th largest police department in the United States. The SFPD began operations on August 13,1849, during the Gold Rush under the command of Captain Malachi Fallon, at the time, Chief Fallon had a force of one deputy captain, three sergeants and thirty officers. In 1851, Albert Bernard de Russailh wrote about the nascent San Francisco police force, As for the police, the police force is largely made up of ex-bandits, and naturally the members are interested above all in saving their old friends from punishment. Policemen here are quite as much to be feared as the robbers and you pay them well to watch over your house, and they set it on fire. In short, I think that all the people concerned with justice or the police are in league with the criminals, the city is in a hopeless chaos, and many years must pass before order can be established.
In a country where so many races are mingled, a severe and inflexible justice is desirable, on October 28,1853, the Board of Aldermen passed Ordinance No. 466, which provided for the reorganization of the police department, sections one and two provided as follows, The People of the City of San Francisco do ordain as follows, Sec.1. The Police Department of the City of San Francisco, shall be composed of a day and night police, consisting of 56 men, each to be recommended by at least ten tax-paying citizens. There shall be one Captain and one assistant Captain of Police, who shall be elected in joint convention of the Board of Aldermen and assistant Aldermen. The remainder of the force, viz.54 men, shall be appointed as follows, By the Mayor,2, by the City Marshal,2, by the City Recorder,2, in July 1856, the Consolidation Act went into effect. This act abolished the office of City Marshal and created in its stead the office of Chief of Police, the first Chief of Police elected in 1856 was James F.
Curtis a former member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance. The SFPD is known for being one of the forces for modern law enforcement. In early August 1975, the SFPD went on strike over a pay dispute, the city quickly obtained a court order declaring the strike illegal and enjoining the SFPD back to work. The court messenger delivering the order was met with violence and the SFPD continued to strike, only managers and African-American officers remained on duty, with 45 officers and 3 fire trucks responsible for a city population of 700,000. Supervisor Dianne Feinstein pleaded Mayor Joseph Alioto to ask Governor Jerry Brown to call out the National Guard to patrol the streets, when enraged civilians confronted SFPD officers at the picket lines, the officers arrested them. Again, the SFPD ignored the court order, on August 20 a bomb detonated at the Mayors home with a sign reading Dont Threaten Us left on his lawn
Howard Washington Thurman was an influential African-American author, theologian and civil rights leader. In 1944, he co-founded, along with Alfred Fisk, the first major interracial, interdenominational church in the United States, Howard Thurman died on April 10,1981 in San Francisco, California. Howard Thurman was born in 1899 in Florida, probably in West Palm Beach and he spent most of his childhood in Daytona, where his family lived in Waycross, one of Daytonas three all-black communities. He was profoundly influenced by his grandmother, Nancy Ambrose. Nancy Ambrose and Thurmans mother, were members of Mount Bethel Baptist Church in Waycross and were women of deep Christian faith, Thurmans father, Saul Thurman, died of pneumonia when Howard Thurman was seven years old. After completing eighth grade, Thurman attended the Florida Baptist Academy in Jacksonville, one hundred miles from Daytona, it was one of only three high schools for African Americans in Florida at the time. In 1923, Thurman graduated from Morehouse College as valedictorian, in 1925, he was ordained as a Baptist minister at First Baptist Church of Roanoke, while still a student at Rochester Theological Seminary.
He graduated from Rochester Theological Seminary in May 1926 as valedictorian in a class of twenty-nine students, from June,1926 until the fall of 1928, Thurman served as pastor of Mount Zion Baptist Church in Oberlin, Ohio. In the fall of 1928, he moved to Atlanta, during the spring semester of 1929, Thurman pursued further study as a special student at Haverford College with Rufus Jones, a noted Quaker philosopher and mystic. Thurman was selected as the first dean of Rankin Chapel at Howard University in the District of Columbia in 1932 and he served there from 1932 to 1944. He served on the faculty of the Howard University School of Divinity, Thurman traveled broadly, heading Christian missions and meeting with world figures such as Mahatma Gandhi. In 1944, Thurman left his position at Howard to help the Fellowship of Reconciliation establish the Church for the Fellowship of All Peoples in San Francisco. It was the first racially integrated, intercultural church in the United States and he served as co-pastor with a white minister, Dr.
Alfred Fisk. Many of their congregation were African Americans who had migrated to San Francisco from Oklahoma, the church helped create a new community for many in San Francisco. Thurman was invited to Boston University in 1953, where he became the dean of Marsh Chapel and he was the first black Dean of Chapel at a majority-white university or college in the United States. In addition, he served on the faculty of Boston University School of Theology, Thurman was active and well known in the Boston community, where he influenced many leaders. During his tenure at Boston University, the Good Friday Experiment was conducted and this was a controversial experiment on the effects of hallucinogenic drugs on religious experience. After leaving Boston University in 1965, Thurman continued his ministry as chairman of the board, Thurman was a prolific author, writing twenty books on theology and philosophy
San Francisco Municipal Railway
The San Francisco Municipal Railway is the public transit system for the city and county of San Francisco, California. In 2006, it served 46.7 square miles with an budget of about $700 million. In ridership Muni is the seventh largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006 and the second largest in California behind Metro in Los Angeles. With a fleet average speed of 8.1 mph, it is the slowest major urban transit system in America and one of the most expensive to operate, costing $19.21 per mile per bus and $24.37 per mile per train. However, it has more boardings per mile and more vehicles in operation than similar transit agencies, many weekday riders are commuters, as the daytime weekday population in San Francisco exceeds its normal residential population. Muni shares four metro stations with BART, on weekends, most Muni bus lines are scheduled to run every ten to twenty minutes. However, complaints of unreliability, especially on less-often-served lines and older lines, are a system-wide problem.
Muni has had difficulty meeting a stated goal of 85% voter-demanded on-time service. Most intercity connections are provided by BART and Caltrain heavy rail, AC Transit buses at the Transbay Terminal, 70% of stops are spaced closer than recommended range of 800–1,000 feet apart. Muni is short for the Municipal in San Francisco Municipal Railway and is not an acronym, the Muni metro is often called the train or the streetcar. Most San Francisco natives use Muni when speaking about the system in general, the E Embarcadero and F Market & Wharves lines are referred to by Muni as a historic streetcar line rather than as a heritage railway. Munis logo is a stylized, trademarked worm version of the word muni and this logo was designed by San Francisco-based graphic designer Walter Landor in the mid-1970s. Bus and trolleybus lines have number designations, rail lines have letters, except for cable cars, cash fares are $2.50 for adults, $1. Clipper card fares are $2.25 for adults and $1 for seniors, proof-of-payment, which fare inspectors may demand at any time, is either a Clipper card, Muni Passport, or paper transfer.
One fare entitles a rider to unlimited vehicle transfers for the next 90 to 120 minutes, cable cars are $7 one way, with no transfers unless the rider has a Muni Passport or Fast Pass. As of September 2014 monthly passes cost $70 for adults, $35 for low-income residents, or $24 for youth, passes are valid on all Muni lines—including cable cars—and the $83 adult Fast Pass allows BART transit entirely within San Francisco. Other passes and stickers are valid on all Muni lines, including cable cars, cable car fare is $7 per trip, with no transfers issued or accepted. Muni has implemented a smart card payment system known as Clipper
San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department
The San Francisco Recreation & Parks Department is the city agency responsible for governing and maintaining all city owned parks and recreational facilities in San Francisco, California. The Recreation & Parks Department runs Sharp Park in Pacifica and Camp Mather in Tuolumne County, current facilities include 4,113 acres of total recreational and open space with 3,400 acres of that land within San Francisco. As San Francisco grew over of the years and facilities were added all over the city, separately the city was running playgrounds, athletic fields, and recreational facilities under the direction of the Recreation Commission. In 1950 the two commissions were merged and the San Francisco Recreation & Park Department was born, the General Manager is appointed by the mayor of San Francisco. The Recreation & Parks Department is governed by a commission who are appointed by the mayor of San Francisco to 4 year terms. The Commission President is elected by fellow Commissioners, Commission meetings are held once a month at San Francisco City Hall.
Mark Buell, Allan Low, Gloria Bonilla, Tom Harrison, Meagan Levitan, in the past, there have been efforts to change the selection process for commissioners. This proposal had 5 votes on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors but was not able to get the vote necessary to put it on the ballot. The Department is responsible for over 220 neighborhood parks and Golden Gate Park, the largest, the Golden Gate National Recreation Area is federal and is administered by the National Park Service. Golden Gate Park is San Franciscos premier municipal park, planted in 1871 the park covers 1,017 acres of land across the western edge of San Francisco. Configured as a rectangle the park is three miles long east to west and about half a mile north to south. McLaren Park is the second largest municipal park in San Francisco, located in south-east San Francisco, the park is surrounded by the Excelsior, Crocker-Amazon, Visitacion Valley and University Mound neighborhoods. Dolores Park is a city park located two blocks south of Mission Dolores at the edge of the Mission District.
Dolores Park is bounded by 18th Street on the north, 20th Street on the south, Dolores Street on the east, coit Tower is a 210-foot tower in the Telegraph Hill neighborhood. The tower, in the citys Pioneer Park, was built in 1933 using Lillie Hitchcock Coits bequest to beautify the city of San Francisco, the tower was proposed in 1931 as an appropriate use of Coits gift. The Zoo is owned by the Recreation & Parks Department and managed by its partner non-profit San Francisco Zoological Society, Candlestick Park was home of the San Francisco 49ers through the 2013 season and was home of the San Francisco Giants until 2000. In 2014 the 49ers moved to the new Levis Stadium and Candlestick Park is being torn down, Kezar Stadium is and outdoor 10,000 seat multi-purpose stadium located in the southeastern corner of Golden Gate Park. Before being renovated and downsized in 1989 it was the home of the San Francisco 49ers
Oakland /ˈoʊklənd/ is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. The city was incorporated in 1852, Oaklands territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the citys population, increasing its housing stock and it continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. Oakland is known for its sustainability practices, including a top-ranking for usage of electricity from renewable resources, in addition, due to a steady influx of immigrants during the 20th century, along with thousands of African-American war-industry workers who relocated from the Deep South during the 1940s.
Oakland is the most ethnically diverse city in the country. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians, who lived there for thousands of years, the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, in 1772, the area that became Oakland was claimed, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio, the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons, Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called encinal—Spanish for oak grove—due to the oak forest that covered the area. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland, on May 4,1852, the Town of Oakland incorporated.
Two years later, on March 25,1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, the city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, a number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, at the time of incorporation, Oakland consisted of the territory that lay south of todays major intersection of San Pablo Avenue and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north, Oaklands rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the town of Alameda being made an island