East African Community
John Magufuli, the president of Tanzania, is the EACs chairman. The organisation was founded in 1967, collapsed in 1977, the EAC is an integral part of the African Economic Community. The EAC is a precursor to the establishment of the East African Federation. In 2010, the EAC launched its own common market for goods, labour, in 2013, a protocol was signed outlining their plans for launching a monetary union within 10 years. Kenya and Uganda have cooperated with each other since the early 20th century and Rwanda joined the EAC on 6 July 2009. Inter-territorial co-operation between the Kenya Colony, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Tanganyika Territory was formalised in 1948 by the EAHC and this provided a customs union, a common external tariff and postage. It dealt with common services in transport and communications, the new organisation ran into difficulties because of the lack of joint planning and fiscal policy, separate political policies, and Kenyas dominant economic position. In 1967, the EACSO was superseded by the EAC and this body aimed to strengthen the ties between the members through a common market, a common customs tariff, and a range of public services to achieve balanced economic growth within the region.
The three member states lost over sixty years of co-operation and the benefits of economies of scale, the EAC was revived on 30 November 1999, when the treaty for its re-establishment was signed. It came into force on 7 July 2000,23 years after the collapse of the previous community, a customs union was signed in March 2004, which commenced on 1 January 2005. Kenya, the regions largest exporter, continued to pay duties on goods entering the four countries on a declining scale until 2010. A common system of tariffs will apply to imported from third-party countries. On 30 November 2016 it was declared that the aim would be confederation rather than federation. This was contradicted by President Salva Kiir, who announced South Sudan had begun the process one month later. The application was deferred by the EAC in December 2012, however incidents with Ugandan boda-boda operators in South Sudan have created political tension and may delay the process. In December 2012, Tanzania agreed to South Sudan’s bid to join the EAC, in May 2013 the EAC set aside US$82,000 for the admission of South Sudan into the bloc even though admission may not happen until 2016.
The process, to start after the EAC Council of Ministers meeting in August 2013, was projected to take at least four years. A team was formed to assess South Sudans bid, however, in April 2014 and those recommendations, had not been released to the public
Chairperson of the African Union
The Chairman of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union elected by the Assembly of Heads of State for a one-year term. It rotates among the five regions. In 2002, South African President Thabo Mbeki served as the chairman of the union. The post rotates annually amongst the five regions of Africa. In January 2007, the assembly elected Ghanaian President John Kufuor over Sudans President Omar al-Bashir due to the ongoing Conflict in Darfur, the government of Chad threatened to withdraw its membership if Sudan assumed the chair. Some had suggested Tanzania as a candidate from the East African region. By consensus, Ghana was elected instead as it was celebrating its 50th independence anniversary that year, libya was at the time one of the largest financial supporters of the AU. The election of Equatoguinean President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo in January 2011 was criticized by rights activists as it undermined the AUs commitment to democracy. The incumbent is the head of the AU and in this capacity, chairs the biannual summits and represents the continent in various international fora such as TICAD, FOCAC, G8.
The Chairperson is assisted by a bureau of three vice-chairpersons and a rapporteur
Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya. Tripoli, with its area, has a population of about 1.1 million people. The city is located in the part of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean. Tripoli includes the Port of Tripoli and the countrys largest commercial and it is the site of the University of Tripoli. The vast Bab al-Azizia barracks, which includes the family estate of Muammar Gaddafi, is located in the city. Colonel Gaddafi largely ruled the country from his residence in this barracks, Tripoli was founded in the 7th century BC by the Phoenicians, who named it Oea. Due to the long history, there are many sites of archaeological significance in Tripoli. Tripoli may refer to the shabiyah, the Tripoli District, Tripoli is known as Tripoli-of-the-West, to distinguish it from its Phoenician sister city Tripoli, Lebanon known in Arabic as Ṭarābulus al-Sham meaning Levantine Tripoli. It is affectionately called The Mermaid of the Mediterranean, describing its turquoise waters, Tripoli English pronunciation, /ˈtrɪpəli/ is a Greek name that means Three Cities, introduced in Western European languages through the Italian Tripoli.
In Arabic, طرابلس it is called Ṭarābulus, compare Sanskrit, tri meaning the number 3, and pura meaning a fortress, city or town. Hence, in Sanskrit Tripura means Three Cities, the city passed into the hands of the rulers of Cyrenaica, although the Carthaginians wrested it from the Greeks. By the half of the 2nd century BC it belonged to the Romans, who included it in their province of Africa, and gave it the name of Regio Syrtica. Around the beginning of the 3rd century AD, it known as the Regio Tripolitana. It was probably raised to the rank of a province by Septimius Severus. In spite of centuries of Roman habitation, the only visible Roman remains, apart from scattered columns, the fact that Tripoli has been continuously inhabited, unlike e. g. Following the conquest, Tripoli was ruled by dynasties based in Cairo, for some time it was a part of the Berber Almohad empire and of the Hafsids kingdom. It was part of the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries, finding themselves in very hostile territory, the Knights enhanced the citys walls and other defenses.
Though built on top of a number of buildings, much of the earliest defensive structures of the Tripoli castle are attributed to the Knights of St John
The African Union is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent. It was established on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, the most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AUs secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa, the objectives of the AU are, To achieve greater unity and solidarity between the African countries and Africans. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of its Member States, to accelerate the political and social-economic integration of the continent. To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent, to encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. To promote peace and stability on the continent, to promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation and good governance.
To promote and protect human and peoples rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights, to establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations. To promote sustainable development at the economic and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies, to promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African peoples. To coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the attainment of the objectives of the Union. To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science, to work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent. The African Union is made up of political and administrative bodies. The highest decision-making organ is the Assembly of the African Union, the Assembly is chaired by Idriss Déby, President of Chad.
The AU has a body, the Pan African Parliament. Its president is Bethel Nnaemeka Amadi, the AU Commission, the secretariat to the political structures, is chaired by Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma of South Africa. On 15 July 2012, Ms. Dlamini-Zuma won a contested vote to become the first female head of the African Union Commission. The main administrative capital of the African Union is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, a new headquarters complex, the AU Conference Center and Office Complex, was inaugurated on 28 January 2012, during the 18th AU summit. The tower is 99.9 meters high to signify the date 9 September 1999, the AU covers the entire continent except for several territories held by Spain, France and the United Kingdom. AU troops were deployed in Sudan for peacekeeping during Darfur conflict
Arab Maghreb Union
The Arab Maghreb Union is a trade agreement aiming for economic and future political unity among Arab countries of the Maghreb in North Africa. Its members are the nations of Algeria, Mauritania, the Union has been unable to achieve tangible progress on its goals due to deep economic and political disagreements between Morocco and Algeria regarding, among others, the issue of Western Sahara. No high level meetings have taken place since 3 July 2008 and commentators regard the Union as stagnant, the idea for an economic union of the Maghreb began with the independence of Tunisia and Morocco in 1956. It was not until thirty years later, that five Maghreb states—Algeria, Mauritania, the Union was established on 17 February 1989 when the treaty was signed by the member states in Marrakech. According to the Constitutive Act, its aim is to guarantee cooperation with regional institutions. Take part in the enrichment of the international dialogue, reinforce the independence of the member states and.
Strategic relevance of the region is based on the fact that, collectively, it boasts large phosphate and gas reserves, the success of the Union would, therefore be economically important. There is a rotating chairmanship within the AMU which is held in turn by each nation, the current Secretary-General is the Tunisian Taïeb Baccouche. During the 16th session of the AMU Foreign Ministers, held on 12 November 1994 in Algiers, the Western Sahara conflict is pending resolution. There have been problems of traditional rivalries within the AMU, for example, in 1994, Algeria decided to transfer the presidency of the AMU to Libya. This followed the diplomatic tensions between Algeria and other members, especially Morocco and Libya, whose leaders continuously refused to attend AMU meetings held in Algiers. Algerian officials justified the decision, arguing that they were simply complying with the AMU Constitutive Act, following the announcement of the decision to transfer the presidency of the Union, the Libyan President, Muammar Gaddafi, stated that it was time to put the Union in the freezer.
This raises questions about Libyas position towards the Union, the concern is that Libya will have a negative influence on the manner in which it will preside over the organization. Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony south of Morocco that was reintegrated by the kingdom of Morocco, has declared independence as the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. The latest top-level conference, in mid-2005, was derailed by Moroccos refusal to meet, Algeria has continuously supported the Polisario Front liberation movement. Several attempts have been made, notably by the United Nations, in mid-2003, the UN Secretary Generals Personal Envoy, James Baker, proposed a settlement plan, referred to as the Baker Plan II. The UNs proposal was rejected by Morocco and accepted by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, in addition, the quarrel between Libya and Mauritania has not made the task of reinvigorating the organisation any easier. Mauritania has accused the Libyan Secret Services of being involved in a 2003 attempted coup against President Maaouya Ould SidAhmed Taya
The group was composed of seven states led by radical, left-wing leaders largely from North Africa - Algeria, Ghana, Libya and Morocco. The conflict and eventual compromise between the Casablanca Group and the Monrovia Group lead to the establishment of the Organisation of African Unity, the group first met in 1961 in the Moroccan port city of Casablanca, hence the alliances name. This conference brought together some of the continents most prominent statesman like Gamal Abdel-Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, what united them was a belief in the need for African political unification or federation. In other words, they believed in the transfer of powers from national governments to a supranational. Nkrumah even argued for the establishment of an army which could be deployed to fight colonialism or white minority rule across the continent. His famous Pan-Africanist slogan was Africa Must Unite, the Casablanca Group was ultimately unsuccessful. Most other African leaders did not support such radical change, the ideas of its rival, the so-called Monrovia Group - which believed in Pan-Africanism but not at the expense of nationalism and independent statehood - prevailed.
In 1963, the Organisation of African Unity was established, all the members of both the Casablanca and Monrovia groups joined, putting their differences to one side. The OAU, now the African Union, has achieved limited integration. It is a reflection of the values of the Monrovia Group, as well as disagreeing on the nature of African unity, the groups took up conflicting positions on the conflicts in Algeria and Congo
African Economic Community
The African Economic Community is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states. The stated goals of the include the creation of free trade areas, customs unions, a single market, a central bank. Currently there are multiple regional blocs in Africa, known as Regional Economic Communities, the RECs consist primarily of trade blocs and, in some cases, some political and military cooperation. Most of these RECs form the pillars of AEC, many of which have an overlap in some of their member states. Due to this proportion of overlap it is likely that some states with several memberships will eventually drop out of one or more RECs. GAFTA. Somalia is participating, but no practical implementation yet, stage 2, Steady progress, nothing factual to check. In May 2012 the idea was extended to include ECOWAS, ECCAS, African Economic Outlook Economy of Africa Economy of the African Union A single African currency in our time.
African leaders agree to form single market African Union Official Website South African webpage on RECs Pan-African Perspective
Organisation of African Unity
The Organisation of African Unity was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, with 32 signatory governments. It was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, the OAU had the following primary aims, To co-ordinate and intensify the co-operation of African states in order to achieve a better life for the people of Africa. To defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of African states, South Africa and Angola were two such countries. The OAU proposed two ways of ridding the continent of colonialism and white minority rule, firstly, it would defend the interests of independent countries and help to pursue the independence those of still-colonised ones. Secondly, it would remain neutral in terms of world affairs, a Liberation Committee was established to aid independence movements and look after the interests of already-independent states. The OAU aimed to stay neutral in terms of global politics, the OAU had other aims, Ensure that all Africans enjoyed human rights.
Raise the living standards of all Africans, settle arguments and disputes between members – not through fighting but rather peaceful and diplomatic negotiation. Soon after achieving independence, a number of African states expressed a desire for more unity within the continent. Aside from Ghana, it comprised Algeria, Morocco, Mali, founded in 1961, its members were described as progressive states. The Monrovian bloc, led by Senghor of Senegal, felt that unity should be achieved gradually and it did not support the notion of a political federation. Its other members were Nigeria, Liberia and most of the former French colonies, some of the initial discussions took place at Sanniquellie, Liberia. The dispute was resolved when Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie I invited the two groups to Addis Ababa, where the OAU and its headquarters were subsequently established. The Charter of the Organisation was signed by 32 independent African states, the organisation was widely derided as a bureaucratic talking shop with little power.
It struggled to enforce its decisions, and its lack of armed force made intervention exceedingly difficult, civil wars in Nigeria and Angola continued unabated for years, and the OAU could do nothing to stop them. The policy of non-interference in the affairs of member states limited the effectiveness of the OAU, when human rights were violated, as in Uganda under Idi Amin in the 1970s, the OAU was powerless to stop them. The Organisation was praised by Ghanaian former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan for bringing Africans together, the OAU was, successful in some respects. Many of its members were members of the UN, too and its pursuit of African unity, was in some ways successful. Total unity was difficult to achieve, however, as the OAU was largely divided, the pro-Socialist faction was led by Kwame Nkrumah, while Félix Houphouët-Boigny of the Ivory Coast led the pro-capitalists
Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa
The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is a free trade area with twenty member states stretching from Libya to Swaziland. COMESA was formed in December 1994, replacing a Preferential Trade Area which had existed since 1981. Nine of the states formed a free trade area in 2000, with Rwanda and Burundi joining the FTA in 2004, the Comoros and Libya in 2006. COMESA is one of the pillars of the African Economic Community, in 2008, COMESA agreed to an expanded free-trade zone including members of two other African trade blocs, the East African Community and the Southern Africa Development Community. COMESA is considering a common visa scheme to boost tourism, according to the treaties, the following organs have decision-making power, The COMESA Authority, composes of Heads of States or Government and is COMESA’s supreme policy-making organ. Thereafter, the COMESA Chairmanship moves to Ethiopian Prime Minister His Excellency Hailemariam Desalegn, the Authority is tasked with the general policy direction and controlling the overall performance of the executive functions of COMESA.
The COMESA Authority meets once a year at Summits which are held in different member States, the hosting government and the COMESA Secretariat bear joint responsibility for their organization. The Authority meetings are held in closed sessions and usually decisions are taken by consensus, the session leaders have to issue a communiqué, recording any decisions made. These directives and decisions taken by the Authority are binding on all member States, the COMESA Council of Ministers The COMESA Court of Justice decisions have precedence over any decisions of national courts. The Persons are permitted under the Treaty to sue a member State in the COMESA Court, in the event that a member States court is reviewing the application or interpretation of the Treaty, it may request the Courts opinion on the matter. If the national court is a court from which there is no appeal or remedy, the national remedies must be exhausted before a person can bring a matter to the COMESA CJ. The COMESA Court has jurisdiction over suits brought by COMESA employees and it may act as an arbitrary tribunal on any matter arising from a contract to which COMESA or any of its institutions is a party.
Further the Court can adjudicate any dispute between member States who agree to bring the dispute before it, unlike the Statute of the International Court, the treaty does not state the sources of law to be applied by the Court. The Treaty and any COMESA issued legal instruments, will make the law to be applied. The Court is not given the power to interpret the statutes of the other COMESA institutions, the proposal was adopted and the Court was expanded in June 2005 with the appointment of seven judges in the Court of First Instance and five judges in the Appellate Division. The work of the Court was suspended until the Appellate Division judges were appointed, during this reformation of the Court, the previously fully independent Court was made subject to the review of any proposed Rules of Court by the Ministers of Justice and Attorneys-General. The Court was established under the 1994 Treaty, the first set of judges was not appointed until 1998, unlike other African regional courts, the COMESA Court continues to receive cases.
However, due to lack of funds the Court is unable to hear all its cases at certain times, funding is only done for one session of the Court per year, these has contributed greatly to piling of cases
Bureau of the Pan-African Parliament
The Bureau of the Pan-African Parliament is essentially the leadership of the Pan-African Parliament and consists of one President and four Vice-Presidents. The President and each Vice-President represents a different region of Africa, determining the draft agenda and the programmes of the sessions of Parliament. Determining the establishment and structure of the Secretariat and lay down regulations for the staff, including their terms, proposing to Parliament for adoption the establishment and job descriptions of its support staff. Proposing, to the Pan African Parliament, the appointment of the Clerk, the preparation of the draft budget and its presentation to the responsible Committee. Coordinating and harmonising the functions of Permanent Committees, any other matters in accordance with the directives issued by Parliament. Carrying out any other functions as may be prescribed by Parliament or incidental to these functions