Ghana the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language; the first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast, it became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957. Ghana's population of 30 million spans a variety of ethnic and religious groups.
According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president, both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa, it is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, Group of 24 and the Commonwealth of Nations. The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea. Ghana was recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century. Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories.
This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, the Mankessim Kingdom. Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were settled by the 5th century BC. By the early 11th century, the Akans were established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named. From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana based on gold trading; these states included Bonoman, Denkyira, Mankessim Kingdom, Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism; the Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, as a centralised kingdom with an advanced specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities traded with the states of Africa.
The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under Naa Gbewaa. With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba, established themselves as the rulers over the locals, made Gambaga their capital; the death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mossi and Wala. Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century. Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and established the Portuguese Gold Coast, focused on the extensive availability of gold; the Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah which they renamed São Jorge da Mina. In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build the Elmina Castle, completed in three years.
By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi. In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, Axim in 1642. Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast, Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast. Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast. Beginning in the 17th century — in addition to the gold trade — Portuguese, Dutch and French traders participated in the Atlantic slave trade in this area. More than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Dano-Norwegians and German merchants. In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states.
The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times i
African-American history is the part of American history that looks at the African-Americans or Black Americans in the United States. Although marginalized, African-American history has gained ground in school and university curricula and gained wider scholarly attention since the late 20th century; the black history that pre-dates the slave trade is taught in schools and is never acknowledged. As a result, many African-Americans grow up believing that slavery is the only event to occur in their history before the civil rights movement, not accurate. Of the 10.7 million Africans who were brought to the Americas until the 1860s, 450 thousand were shipped to what is now the United States. Most African Americans are descended from Africans brought directly from Africa to America to become slaves. Captured in African wars or raids and transported in the Atlantic slave trade. African Americans are descended from various ethnic groups from western and central Africa, including the Sahel. A smaller number came from southeastern Africa.
The major ethnic groups that the enslaved Africans belonged to included the Hausa, Igbo, Mandé, Akan, Fon and Makua, among many others. Although these different groups varied in customs, religious theology and language, what they had in common was a way of life, different from the Europeans. However, since a majority of the slaves came from these villages and societies, once sent to the Americas these different peoples had European standards and beliefs forced upon them, causing them to do away with tribal differences and forged a new history and culture, a creolization of their common pasts and European culture. Slaves from specific African ethnic groups were more sought after and more dominant in numbers than others in certain regions of what became the United States. Studies of contemporary documents reveal seven regions from which Africans were sold or taken during the Atlantic slave trade; these regions were: Senegambia, encompassing the coast from the Senegal River to the Casamance River, where captives as far away as the Upper and Middle Niger River Valley were sold.
The largest source of slaves transported across the Atlantic Ocean for the New World was West Africa. Some West Africans were skilled iron workers and were therefore able to make tools that aided in their agricultural labor. While there were many unique tribes with their own customs and religions, by the 10th century many of the tribes had embraced Islam; those villages in West Africa that were lucky enough to be in good conditions for growth and success, prospered. They contributed their success to the slave trade. Origins and percentages of African Americans imported into British North America and Louisiana: Before the Atlantic slave trade there were people of African descent in America. A few countries in Africa would buy and trade other enslaved Africans, who were prisoners of war, with the Europeans; the people of Mali and Benin are known for partaking in the event of selling their prisoners of war and other unwanted people off as slaves. In the account of Olaudah Equiano, he described the process of being transported to the colonies and being on the slave ships as a horrific experience.
On the ships, the slaves were separated from their family. Once aboard the ships the captives were segregated by gender. Under the deck, the slaves did not have enough space to walk around freely. Male slaves were kept in the ship's hold, where they experienced the worst of crowding; the captives stationed on the floor beneath low-lying bunks could move and spent much of the voyage pinned to the floorboards, which could, over time, wear the skin on their elbows down to the bone. Due to the lack of basic hygiene and dehydration diseases spread wildly and death was common; the women on the ships endured rape by the crewmen. Women and children were kept in rooms set apart from the main hold; this gave crewmen easy access to the women, regarded as one of the perks of the trade system. Not only did these rooms give the crewmen easy access to women but it gave enslaved women better access to information on the ship's crew and daily routine, but little opportunity to communicate this to the men confined in the ship's hold.
As an example, women instigated a 1797 insurrection aboard the British ship Thomas by stealing weapons and passing them to the men below as well as engaging in hand-to-hand combat with the ship's crew. In the midst of these terrible conditions, African slaves plotted mutiny. Male slaves were the most candidates to mutiny and only at times they were on deck. While rebellions did not happen they were unsuccessful. In order for the crew members to keep the slaves under control and prevent future rebellions, the crews were twice as large and members would instill fear into the slaves through brutality and harsh punishments. From the time of being captured in Africa to the arrival to the plantations of the European masters, took an average of
Senegal the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa. Senegal is bordered by Mauritania in the north, Mali to the east, Guinea to the southeast, Guinea-Bissau to the southwest. Senegal borders The Gambia, a country occupying a narrow sliver of land along the banks of the Gambia River, which separates Senegal's southern region of Casamance from the rest of the country. Senegal shares a maritime border with Cape Verde. Senegal's economic and political capital is Dakar; the unitary semi-presidential republic is the westernmost country in the mainland of the Old World, or Afro-Eurasia, owes its name to the Senegal River, which borders it to the east and north. Senegal covers a land area of 197,000 square kilometres and has an estimated population of about 15 million; the climate is Sahelian, though there is a rainy season. From a Portuguese transliteration of the name of the Zenaga known as the Sanhaja, or a combination of the supreme deity in Serer religion and o gal meaning body of water in the Serer language.
Alternatively, the name could derive from the Wolof phrase "Sunuu Gaal," which means "our boat." The territory of modern Senegal has been inhabited by various ethnic groups since prehistory. Organized kingdoms emerged around the seventh century, parts of the country were ruled by prominent regional empires such as the Jolof Empire; the present state of Senegal has its roots in European colonialism, which began during the mid-15th century, when various European powers began competing for trade in the area. The establishment of coastal trading posts led to control of the mainland, culminating in French rule of the area by the 19th century, albeit amid much local resistance. Senegal peacefully attained independence from France in 1960, has since been among the more politically stable countries in Africa. Senegal's economy is centered on commodities and natural resources. Major industries are fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining, construction materials, ship construction and repair.
As in most African nations, agriculture is a major sector, with Senegal producing several important cash crops, including peanuts, cotton, green beans, tomatoes and mangoes. Owing to its relative stability and hospitality are burgeoning sectors. With it being a multiethnic and secular nation, Senegal is predominantly Sunni Muslim with Sufi and animist influences. French is the official language, although many native languages are recognized. Since April 2012, Senegal's president has been Macky Sall. Senegal has been a member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie since 1970. Archaeological findings throughout the area indicate that Senegal was inhabited in prehistoric times and has been continuously occupied by various ethnic groups; some kingdoms were created around the 7th century: Takrur in the 9th century and the Jolof Empire during the 13th and 14th centuries. Eastern Senegal was once part of the Ghana Empire. Islam was introduced through Toucouleur and Soninke contact with the Almoravid dynasty of the Maghreb, who in turn propagated it with the help of the Almoravids, Toucouleur allies.
This movement faced resistance from ethnicities of the Serers in particular. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the area came under the influence of the empires to the east. In the Senegambia region, between 1300 and 1900, close to one-third of the population was enslaved as a result of captives taken in warfare. In the 14th century the Jolof Empire grew more powerful, having united Cayor and the kingdoms of Baol, Saloum, Futa Tooro and Bambouk, or much of present-day West Africa; the empire was a voluntary confederacy of various states rather than an empire built on military conquest. The empire was founded by Ndiadiane Ndiaye, a part Serer and part Toucouleur, able to form a coalition with many ethnicities, but collapsed around 1549 with the defeat and killing of Lele Fouli Fak by Amari Ngone Sobel Fall. In the mid-15th century, the Portuguese landed on the Senegal coastline, followed by traders representing other countries, including the French. Various European powers—Portugal, the Netherlands, Great Britain—competed for trade in the area from the 15th century onward.
In 1677, France gained control of what had become a minor departure point in the Atlantic slave trade—the island of Gorée next to modern Dakar, used as a base to purchase slaves from the warring chiefdoms on the mainland. European missionaries introduced Christianity to the Casamance in the 19th century, it was only in the 1850s that the French began to expand onto the Senegalese mainland after they abolished slavery and began promoting an abolitionist doctrine, adding native kingdoms like the Waalo, Cayor and Jolof Empire. French colonists progressively invaded and took over all the kingdoms except Sine and Saloum under Governor Louis Faidherbe. Yoro Dyao was in command of the canton of Foss-Galodjina and was set over Wâlo by Louis Faidherbe, where he served as a chief from 1861 to 1914. Senegalese resistance to the French expansion and curtailing of their lucrative slave trade was led in part by Lat-Dior, Damel of Cayor, Maad a Sinig Kumba Ndoffene Famak Joof, the Maad a Sinig of Sine, resulting in the Battle of Logandème.
On 4 April 1959 Senegal and the French Sudan merged to form the Mali Federation, which became independent on 20 June 1960, as a result of a transfer of power agreement signed with France on 4 April 1960. Due to internal political difficulties, the Federation broke up on 20 August, when
A diaspora is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. In particular, diaspora has come to refer to involuntary mass dispersions of a population from its indigenous territories, most notably the expulsion of Jews from the Land of Israel and the fleeing of Greeks after the fall of Constantinople. Other examples are the African transatlantic slave trade, the southern Chinese or Indians during the coolie trade, the Irish during and after the Irish Famine, the Romani from India, the Italian diaspora, the exile and deportation of Circassians, the emigration of Anglo-Saxon warriors and their families after the Norman Conquest of England. Scholars have distinguished between different kinds of diaspora, based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labor migrations, or by the kind of social coherence within the diaspora community and its ties to the ancestral lands; some diaspora communities maintain strong political ties with their homeland. Other qualities that may be typical of many diasporas are thoughts of return, relationships with other communities in the diaspora, lack of full integration into the host countries.
Diasporas maintain ties to the country of their historical affiliation and influence the policies of the country where they are located. The term is derived from the Greek verb διασπείρω, "I scatter", "I spread about" which in turn is composed of διά, "between, across" and the verb σπείρω, "I sow, I scatter". In Ancient Greece the term διασπορά hence meant "scattering" and was inter alia used to refer to citizens of a dominant city-state who emigrated to a conquered land with the purpose of colonization, to assimilate the territory into the empire. An example of a diaspora from classical antiquity is the century-long exile of the Messenians under Spartan rule and the Ageanites as described by Thucydides in his "history of the Peloponnesian wars." Its use began to develop from this original sense. So after the Bible's translation into Greek, the word diaspora would have been used to refer to the Northern Kingdom exiled between 740–722 BC from Israel by the Assyrians, as well as Jews and Levites exiled from the Southern Kingdom in 587 BC by the Babylonians, from Roman Judea in 70 AD by the Roman Empire.
It subsequently came to be used to refer to the historical movements and settlement patterns of the dispersed indigenous population of Israel. In English when capitalized and without modifiers, the term refers to the Jewish diaspora; the wider application of diaspora evolved from the Assyrian two-way mass deportation policy of conquered populations to deny future territorial claims on their part. According to the Oxford English Dictionary Online, the first known recorded usage of the word diaspora in the English language was in 1876 referring "extensive diaspora work of evangelizing among the National Protestant Churches on the continent"; the term became more assimilated into English by the mid 1950s, with long-term expatriates in significant numbers from other particular countries or regions being referred to as a diaspora. An academic field, diaspora studies, has become established relating to this sense of the word. In all cases, the term diaspora carries a sense of displacement the population so described finds itself for whatever reason separated from its national territory, its people have a hope, or at least a desire, to return to their homeland at some point, if the "homeland" still exists in any meaningful sense.
Some writers have noted that diaspora may result in a loss of nostalgia for a single home as people "re-root" in a series of meaningful displacements. In this sense, individuals may have multiple homes throughout their diaspora, with different reasons for maintaining some form of attachment to each. Diasporic cultural development assumes a different course from that of the population in the original place of settlement. Over time, remotely separated communities tend to vary in culture, traditions and other factors; the last vestiges of cultural affiliation in a diaspora is found in community resistance to language change and in maintenance of traditional religious practice. William Safran in an article published in 1991, set out six rules to distinguish diasporas from migrant communities; these included criteria. While Safran's definitions were influenced by the idea of the Jewish diaspora, he recognised the expanding use of the term. Rogers Brubaker notes that use of the term diaspora has been widening.
He suggests that one el
Bowling Green State University
Bowling Green State University is a large residential, public research university located in Bowling Green, United States. The 1,338-acre main academic and residential campus is located 15 miles south of Ohio; the University has nationally recognized programs and research facilities in the natural and social sciences, arts, business and wellness, humanities and applied technologies. The institution was granted a charter in 1910 as a normal school, specializing in teacher training and education, as part of the Lowry Normal School Bill that authorized two new normal schools in the state of Ohio. Over the university's history, it developed from a small rural normal school into a comprehensive public university; as of 2017 Bowling Green offered over 200 undergraduate programs, as well as master's and doctoral degrees through eight academic colleges. Its academic programs have been nationally ranked by Forbes magazine, U. S. News & World Report, Washington Monthly; the University is ranked the most affordable college in Ohio by Business Insider in 2018.
Additionally, in 2018 BGSU received designation as an Innovation and Economic Prosperity university by the Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities and its Commission on Innovation and Economic Prosperity. The 2011 Carnegie Foundation classified BGSU as having "high research activity". Research projects in the areas of psychology, sociology and human development and sustainability are among the most prominent. BGSU had an on-campus residential student population of 6,000 students and a total enrollment of over 19,000 students as of 2018; the university maintains a satellite campus, known as BGSU Firelands, in Huron, Ohio, 60 miles east of the main campus. Although the majority of students attend classes on BGSU's main campus, about 2,000 students attend classes at Firelands and about 600 additional students attend online. About 85% of Bowling Green's students are from Ohio; the university hosts an extensive student life program, with over 300 student organizations. Fielding athletic teams known as Bowling Green Falcons, the university competes at the NCAA Division I level as a member of the Mid-American Conference in all sports except ice hockey, in which the university is a member of the Western Collegiate Hockey Association.
The campus is home to annual events including State Fire School. The movement for a public high learning institution in northwestern Ohio began in the late 1800s as part of the growth in public institutions during the Progressive Era to meet demands for training and professional development of teachers. During the period, people of northwestern Ohio campaigned for a school in their region to produce better quality education and educators; the movement argued that the existing universities, Ohio State University in Columbus, Miami University in Oxford and Ohio University in Athens, were distant and the region lacked a state-supported school of its own. In 1910, the Ohio General Assembly passed the Lowry Normal School Bill that authorized Governor Judson Harmon to appoint the Commission on Normal School Sites to survey forty communities for two sites for normal schools, one in northeastern Ohio and one in northwestern Ohio; the commission examined population within a 25-mile radius of each community, along with railroad and transportation infrastructure, the moral atmosphere and sanitary conditions and site suitability.
Bowling Green offered four possible sites and became one of four finalists including Fremont and Van Wert. Despite the town being the home of John Lowry, Napoleon was ruled out because the commission found it had numerous saloons. Fremont was eliminated due to the specific stipulations imposed by the President Rutherford B. Hayes Memorial Commission. Bowling Green was chosen on November 1910, over Van Wert in a 3 -- 2 vote by the commission; the site located on 82.5 acres of rural land and a small town park, nearby railroad and transportation infrastructure, its central location in the region, Bowling Green's dry status were major factors that the town was chosen by the commission. At the same time, the commission chose Kent for a school in Northeastern Ohio. Over the years 1911 and 1912, the Board of Trustees was appointed by the Governor and elected a school president on February 16, 1912. A campus plan was created and $150,000 was appropriated to develop the campus and construct the first buildings.
The school opened on September 15, 1914, as Bowling Green State Normal School in two temporary locations at the Bowling Green Armory and at a branch school in Toledo for the 1914–1915 academic year. It enrolled 304 students from Ohio and New York who were taught by 21 faculty members; the school graduated its first class in 1915. University Hall and Williams Hall opened the school's first two permanent buildings. Two years the first baccalaureate degrees for teacher education were awarded. On March 28, 1920, a tornado, part of the 1920 Palm Sunday tornado outbreak, damaged three of the school's buildings; the tornado touched down near Bowling Green and strengthened as it moved into Ottawa County where it killed two people in Genoa. Over the next decade the school expanded academic facilities and student life, as enrollment grew to over 900 students. On October 28, 1927, Ivan "Doc" Lake, a BGSU graduate and sports editor of the Daily Sentinel-Tribune, established the nickname “Falcons". Lake thought the falcon was a fitting nickname because the falcon is a small but powerful bird of prey, like the athletes, goes throug
William Manning Marable was an American professor of public affairs and African-American Studies at Columbia University. Marable directed the Institute for Research in African-American Studies, he was active in progressive political causes. At the time of his death, he had completed a biography of human rights activist Malcolm X titled Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, for which Marable won the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for History. Marable was raised in Dayton, Ohio, his parents were both graduates of Central State, an black university in nearby Wilberforce. His mother was an ordained minister and held a Ph. D. In April 1968, at the behest of his mother, 17-year-old Marable covered the funeral of Martin Luther King, Jr. in Atlanta, for Dayton's black newspaper. He graduated from Jefferson Township High School shortly thereafter. Marable received his Bachelor of Arts degree from Earlham College and went on to earn his master's degree and Ph. D. in history, at the University of Wisconsin, University of Maryland.
Marable served on the faculty of Tuskegee Institute, University of San Francisco, Cornell University, Fisk University, served as the founding director of the Africana and Hispanic Studies Program at Colgate University, Purdue University, Ohio State University, University of Colorado at Boulder, where he was chairman of the Department of Black Studies. He founded the Institute for Research in African-American Studies at Columbia University appointed as the M. Moran Weston and Black Alumni Council Professor of African-American Studies and professor of history and public affairs. Marable served as Chair of Movement for a Democratic Society. Marable served on the Board of Directors for the Hip-Hop Summit Action Network, a non-profit coalition of public figures working to utilize hip-hop as an agent for social change. Marable was a member of the New York Legislature's Amistad Commission, created to review state curriculum regarding the slave trade. Marable was a critic of Afrocentrism, he wrote: Populist Afrocentrism was the perfect social theory for the upwardly mobile black petty bourgeoisie.
It gave them a sense of ethnic superiority and cultural originality, without requiring the hard, critical study of historical realities. It provided a philosophical blueprint to avoid concrete struggle within the real world.... It was, in short, only the latest theoretical construct of a politics of racial identity, a world-view designed to discuss the world but never to change it, it was reported in June 2004 by activist group Racism Watch that Marable had called for immediate action to be taken to end the U. S. military's use of Raphael Patai's book The Arab Mind which Marable described as "a book full of racially charged stereotypes and generalizations." In a 2008 column, Marable endorsed Senator Barack Obama's bid for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination. Marable, diagnosed with sarcoidosis, underwent a double lung transplant as treatment in mid-2010. Marable died of complications from pneumonia on April 1, 2011, in New York City at the age of 60. Marable's biography of Malcolm X concluded that Malcolm X exaggerated his early criminal career, engaged in a homosexual relationship with a white businessman.
He concluded that some of the killers of Malcolm X are still alive and were never charged. Critics of the biography contend that the focus on Marable's discussion of Malcolm's potential same sex relationships, about three sentences long in a 592-page book, overlooks more important political statements Marable makes about Malcolm's underlying lifelong commitment to revolutionary Pan Africanism. Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention was nominated for the National Book Award, The New York Times ranked it among the 10 Best Books of 2011, it was one of three nominees for the inaugural Andrew Carnegie Medal for Excellence in Nonfiction presented by the American Library Association for the best adult non-fiction. It was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2012. How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America, ISBN 978-0-89608-165-9 Race and Rebellion, ISBN 978-0-87805-493-0 Beyond Black and White: Transforming African American Politics, ISBN 978-1-85984-049-8 Speaking Truth to Power: Essays on Race and Radicalism, ISBN 978-0-8133-8828-1 Black Liberation in Conservative America, ISBN 978-0-89608-559-6 Black Leadership, ISBN 978-0-231-10746-4 Let Nobody Turn Us Around, ISBN 978-0-8476-9930-8 Freedom: A Photographic History of the African American Struggle, ISBN 978-0-7148-4270-7 The Great Wells of Democracy: The Meaning of Race in American Life, ISBN 978-0-465-04394-1 W. E. B.
DuBois: Black Radical Democrat, ISBN 978-1-59451-019-9 The Autobiography of Medgar Evers, ISBN 0-465-02177-8 Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, ISBN 978-0-670-02220-5 Living Black History: How Reimagining the African-American Past Can Remake America's Racial Future, ISBN 9780465043958 The Portable Malcolm X Reader, ISBN 978-0-14-310694-4 Hond, Paul. "Manning Marable's Living Legacy". Columbia Magazine. Manning Marable interview via Tavis Smiley Marable Memorial Film Interview with Marable on "New Books in Biography" McMillian, John. "For Manning". The Atlantic. Appearances on C-SPAN
Benin the Republic of Benin and Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; the majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of 114,763 square kilometres and its population in 2016 was estimated to be 10.87 million. Benin is a tropical nation dependent on agriculture. Benin is a big exporter of palm oil; the substantial employment and income arise from subsistence farming. The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are spoken; the largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed by Islam and Protestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey, along with the city-state of Porto-Novo, a large area with many different nations to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of enslaved people who were shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After enslavement was abolished, France renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France; the sovereign state has had a tumultuous history since with many different democratic governments, military coups, military governments. A Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed between 1975 and 1990. In 1991, it was replaced by the current multi-party Republic of Benin. During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. On 30 November 1975, it was renamed to Benin, after the body of water on which the country lies—the Bight of Benin.
This had been named by Europeans after the Benin Empire in present-day Nigeria. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes; the form "Benin" is the result of a Portuguese corruption of the city of Ubinu. The new name, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Fon Kingdom of Dahomey, limited to most of the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent Porto-Novo, central Benin, the multi-ethnic northwestern sector Atakora, nor the Bariba Kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern district; the current country of Benin combines three areas which had distinctly different political systems and ethnicities prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city-states along the coast and a mass of tribal regions inland; the Oyo Empire, located to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region. It conducted raids and exacted tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.
The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, consisting of Fon people, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast. By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo; the rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods. The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were apprenticed to older soldiers, taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army. Dahomey was famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king's wives, or Mino, "our mothers" in the Fon language Fongbe, known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th-century explorers such as Sir Richard Burton.
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery. They had a practice of killing war captives in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling African captives to European slave-traders. Though the leaders of Dahomey appear to have resisted the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants; the area was named the "Slave Coast" because of this flourishing trade. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area; the number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s. The decline was due to the Slave Trade Act 1807 banning the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and the United States following in