The Zagros Mountains are a long mountain range in Iran and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a total length of 1,600 km; the Zagros mountain range begins in northwestern Iran and follows Iran's western border, while covering much of southeastern Turkey and northeastern Iraq. From this border region, the range follows Iran's coast on the Persian Gulf, it spans the whole length of the western and southwestern Iranian plateau, ending at the Strait of Hormuz. The highest point is Mount Dena, at 4,409 metres; the Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by the collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision happened during the Miocene and folded the entire rocks, deposited from the Carboniferous to the Miocene in the geosyncline in front of the Iranian Plate; the process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains and the Iranian Plateau are getting higher and higher.
Recent GPS measurements in Iran have shown that this collision is still active and the resulting deformation is distributed non-uniformly in the country taken up in the major mountain belts like Alborz and Zagros. A dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros; the GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/a, dropping to ~5 mm/a in the northwest Zagros. The north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation; the GPS results show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast and oblique shortening in the northwest Zagros. The Zagros mountains were created around the time of the second ice age, which caused the tectonic collision, leading to its uniqueness; the sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt, whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is thin. This different basal friction is responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault.
Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more and a wider zone of deformation with lower topography was formed. Stresses induced in the Earth's crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone and siltstone while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone and dolomite; this differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, the Zagros region is an important area for oil production. Salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for petroleum exploration, as the impermeable salt traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. There is much water-soluble gypsum in the region; the mountains have a sedimentary origin and are made of limestone.
In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks could be found in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault. On both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic and Jurassic rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on both sides; the Folded Zagros is formed of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks and the Neogene rocks south of the Paleogene rocks. The mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges, orogenically have the same age as the Alps. Iran's main oilfields lie in the western central foothills of the Zagros mountain range; the southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits. They contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils. Signs of early agriculture date back as far as 9000 BC to the foothills of the mountains. There were settlements that grew into cities named Anshan and Susa. Jarmo is one archaeological site in this area.
Shanidar, where the ancient skeletal remains of Neanderthals have been found, is another. Some of the earliest evidence of wine production has been discovered in the mountains. During early ancient times, the Zagros was the home of peoples such as the Kassites, Guti and Mitanni, who periodically invaded the Sumerian and/or Akkadian cities of Mesopotamia; the mountains create a geographic barrier between the Mesopotamian Plain, in Iraq, the Iranian Plateau. A small archive of clay tablets detailing the complex interactions of these groups in the early second millennium BC has been found at Tell Shemshara along the Little Zab. Tell Bazmusian, near Shemshara, was occupied between 800 CE, although not continuously; the mountains contain several ecosystems. Prominent among them are the forest steppe areas with a semi-arid climate; as defined by the World Wildlife Fund and used in their Wildfinder, the particular terrestrial ecoreg
Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains such a state in its local vicinity in a moderately sealed container. Desiccation is employed in the oil and gas industry; these materials are obtained in a hydrated state, but the water content leads to corrosion or is incompatible with downstream processing. Removal of water is achieved by cryogenic condensation, absorption into glycols, absorption onto desiccants such as silica gel. A desiccator is a heavy glass or plastic container, now somewhat antiquated, used in practical chemistry for drying or keeping small amounts of materials dry; the material is placed on a shelf, a drying agent or desiccant, such as dry silica gel or anhydrous sodium hydroxide, is placed below the shelf. Some sort of humidity indicator is included in the desiccator to show, by color changes, the level of humidity; these indicators are in the form of indicator plugs or indicator cards.
The active chemical is cobalt chloride. Anhydrous cobalt chloride is blue; when it bonds with two water molecules, it turns purple. Further hydration results in the pink hexaaquacobalt chloride complex 2+. In biology and ecology, desiccation refers to the drying out of a living organism, such as when aquatic animals are taken out of water, slugs are exposed to salt, or when plants are exposed to sunlight or drought. Ecologists study and assess various organisms' susceptibility to desiccation. For example, in one study the investigators found that Caenorhabditis elegans dauer is a true anhydrobiote that can withstand extreme desiccation and that the basis of this ability is founded in the metabolism of trehalose. Several bacterial species have been shown to accumulate DNA damages upon desiccation. Deinococcus radiodurans is resistant to ionizing radiation; the functions necessary to survive ionizing radiation are necessary to survive prolonged desiccation. Radiation resistance is considered to be an incidental consequence of the organism's evolutionary adaptation to dehydration, a common physiological stress in nature.
The chromosomal DNA from desiccated D. radiodurans revealed increased DNA double-strand breaks. DNA double-strand breaks are repaired principally by a RecA-dependent recombination process that requires the presence of two genome copies. By this process D. radiodurans can survive thousands of double-strand breaks per cell. Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant strains that are deficient in the ability to repair double-strand breaks by the non-homologous enjoining pathway are more sensitive to prolonged desiccation during stationary phase than wild-type strains. NHEJ appears to be the preferred pathway for repairing double-strand breaks caused by desiccation during stationary phase. NHEJ can repair double-strand breaks when only one chromosome is present in a cell. Upon exposure to extreme dryness, Bacillus subtilis endospores acquire DNA-double strand breaks and DNA-protein crosslinks. In broadcast engineering, a desiccator may be used to pressurize the feedline of a high-power transmitter; because it carries a large amount of energy from the transmitter to the antenna, the feedline must have low dielectric losses.
Because it must be lightweight so as not to overload the radio tower, air is used as the dielectric. Since moisture can condense in these lines, desiccated air or nitrogen gas is pumped in; this pressure keeps water or other dampness from coming in the line at any point along its length. Deposition List of desiccants Hygroscopy Mummy
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa and Europe, regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania. It is used in the context of, contrasts with, the New World. In the context of archaeology and world history, the term "Old World" includes those parts of the world which were in cultural contact from the Bronze Age onwards, resulting in the parallel development of the early civilizations in the temperate zone between the 45th and 25th parallels, in the area of the Mediterranean, Persian plateau, Indian subcontinent and China; these regions were connected via the Silk Road trade route, they have a pronounced Iron Age period following the Bronze Age. In cultural terms, the Iron Age was accompanied by the so-called Axial Age, referring to cultural and religious developments leading to the emergence of the historical Western, Near Eastern and Far Eastern cultural spheres; the concept of the three continents in the Old World, viz. Asia and Europe, goes back to classical antiquity.
Their boundaries as defined by Ptolemy and other geographers of antiquity were drawn along the Nile and Don rivers. This definition remained influential throughout the Early Modern period; the mainland of Afro-Eurasia has been referred to as the "World Island". The term may have been coined by Sir Halford John Mackinder in The Geographical Pivot of History; the equivalent of the Old World had names in some of its ancient cultures, including Midgard in Germanic cosmology, Oikoumene among the Greeks. Eurocentrism Afro-Eurasia
The Oligocene is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present. As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the exact dates of the start and end of the epoch are uncertain; the name Oligocene was coined in 1854 by the German paleontologist Heinrich Ernst Beyrich. The Oligocene is followed by the Miocene Epoch; the Oligocene is the final epoch of the Paleogene Period. The Oligocene is considered an important time of transition, a link between the archaic world of the tropical Eocene and the more modern ecosystems of the Miocene. Major changes during the Oligocene included a global expansion of grasslands, a regression of tropical broad leaf forests to the equatorial belt; the start of the Oligocene is marked by a notable extinction event called the Grande Coupure. By contrast, the Oligocene–Miocene boundary is not set at an identified worldwide event but rather at regional boundaries between the warmer late Oligocene and the cooler Miocene.
Oligocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are: The Paleogene Period general temperature decline is interrupted by an Oligocene 7-million-year stepwise climate change. A deeper 8.2 °C, 400,000-year temperature depression leads the 2 °C, seven-million-year stepwise climate change 33.5 Ma. The stepwise climate change began 32.5 Ma and lasted through to 25.5 Ma, as depicted in the PaleoTemps chart. The Oligocene climate change was a global increase in ice volume and a 55 m decrease in sea level with a related temperature depression; the 7-million-year depression abruptly terminated within 1–2 million years of the La Garita Caldera eruption at 28–26 Ma. A deep 400,000-year glaciated Oligocene Miocene boundary event is recorded at McMurdo Sound and King George Island. During this epoch, the continents continued to drift toward their present positions. Antarctica became more isolated and developed an ice cap. Mountain building in western North America continued, the Alps started to rise in Europe as the African plate continued to push north into the Eurasian plate, isolating the remnants of the Tethys Sea.
A brief marine incursion marks the early Oligocene in Europe. Marine fossils from the Oligocene are rare in North America. There appears to have been a land bridge in the early Oligocene between North America and Europe, since the faunas of the two regions are similar. Sometime during the Oligocene, South America was detached from Antarctica and drifted north towards North America, it allowed the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to flow cooling the Antarctic continent. Angiosperms continued their expansion throughout the world as tropical and sub-tropical forests were replaced by temperate deciduous forests. Open plains and deserts became more common and grasses expanded from their water-bank habitat in the Eocene moving out into open tracts; however at the end of the period, grass was not quite common enough for modern savannas. In North America, subtropical species dominated with cashews and lychee trees present, temperate trees such as roses and pines were common; the legumes spread, while sedges and ferns continued their ascent.
More open landscapes allowed animals to grow to larger sizes than they had earlier in the Paleocene epoch 30 million years earlier. Marine faunas became modern, as did terrestrial vertebrate fauna on the northern continents; this was more as a result of older forms dying out than as a result of more modern forms evolving. Many groups, such as equids, rhinos and camelids, became more able to run during this time, adapting to the plains that were spreading as the Eocene rainforests receded; the first felid, originated in Asia during the late Oligocene and spread to Europe. South America was isolated from the other continents and evolved a quite distinct fauna during the Oligocene; the South American continent became home to strange animals such as pyrotheres and astrapotheres, as well as litopterns and notoungulates. Sebecosuchians, terror birds, carnivorous metatheres, like the borhyaenids remained the dominant predators. Brontotheres died out in the Earliest Oligocene, creodonts died out outside Africa and the Middle East at the end of the period.
Multituberculates, an ancient lineage of primitive mammals that originated back in the Jurassic became extinct in the Oligocene, aside from the gondwanatheres. The Oligocene was home to a wide variety of strange mammals. A good example of this would be the White River Fauna of central North America, which were a semiarid prairie home to many different types of endemic mammals, including entelodonts like Archaeotherium, running rhinoceratoids, three-toed equids, nimravids and early canids like Hesperocyon. Merycoidodonts, an endemic American group, were diverse during this time. In Asia during the Oligocene, a group of running rhinoceratoids gave rise to the indricotheres, like Paraceratherium, which were the largest land mammals to walk the Earth; the marine animals of Oligocene oceans resembled today's fauna, such as the bivalves. Calcareous cirratulids appeared in the Oligocene; the fossil record of marine mammals is a little spotty during this time, not as well known as the Eocene o
Messinian salinity crisis
The Messinian Salinity Crisis referred to as the Messinian Event, in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, was a geological event during which the Mediterranean Sea went into a cycle of or nearly complete desiccation throughout the latter part of the Messinian age of the Miocene epoch, from 5.96 to 5.33 Ma. It ended with the Zanclean flood. Sediment samples from below the deep seafloor of the Mediterranean Sea, which include evaporite minerals and fossil plants, show that the precursor of the Strait of Gibraltar closed tight about 5.96 million years ago, sealing the Mediterranean off from the Atlantic. This resulted in a period of partial desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea, the first of several such periods during the late Miocene. After the strait closed for the last time around 5.6 Ma, the region's dry climate at the time dried the Mediterranean basin out nearly within a thousand years. This massive desiccation left a deep dry basin, reaching 3 to 5 km deep below normal sea level, with a few hypersaline pockets similar to today's Dead Sea.
Around 5.5 Ma, less dry climatic conditions resulted in the basin receiving more freshwater from rivers, progressively filling and diluting the hypersaline lakes into larger pockets of brackish water. The Messinian Salinity Crisis ended with the Strait of Gibraltar reopening 5.33 Ma, when the Atlantic filled up the Mediterranean basin in what is known as the Zanclean flood. Today, the Mediterranean is saltier than the North Atlantic due to its near isolation by the Strait of Gibraltar and its high rate of evaporation. If the Strait of Gibraltar closes again, the Mediterranean would evaporate in about a thousand years, after which continued northward movement of Africa may obliterate the Mediterranean altogether. Only the inflow of Atlantic water maintains the present Mediterranean level. When, shut off sometime between 6.5 to 6 MYBP, net evaporative loss set in at the rate of around 3,300 cubic kilometers yearly. At that rate, the 3.7 million cubic kilometres of water in the basin would dry up in scarcely more than a thousand years, leaving an extensive layer of salt some tens of meters thick and raising global sea level about 12 meters.
In the 19th century, the Swiss geologist and paleontologist Karl Mayer-Eymar studied fossils embedded between gypsum-bearing and freshwater sediment layers, identified them as having been deposited just before the end of the Miocene Epoch. In 1867, he named the period the Messinian after the city of Messina in Italy. Since several other salt-rich and gypsum-rich evaporite layers throughout the Mediterranean region have been dated to the same period. Seismic surveying of the Mediterranean basin in 1961 revealed a geological feature some 100–200 m below the seafloor; this feature, dubbed the M reflector followed the contours of the present seafloor, suggesting that it was laid down evenly and at some point in the past. The origin of this layer was interpreted as related to salt deposition. However, different interpretations were proposed for the age of its deposition. Earlier suggestions from Denizot in 1957 and Ruggieri in 1967 proposed that this layer was of Late Miocene age, the same Ruggieri coined the term Messinian Salinity Crisis.
New and high-quality seismic data on the M-reflector were acquired in the Mediterranean Basin in 1970, published by e.g. Auzende et al.. At the same time, the salt was cored during Leg 13 of the Deep Sea Drilling Program conducted from the Glomar Challenger under the supervision of co-chief scientists William B. F. Ryan and Kenneth J. Hsu; these deposits were dated and interpreted for the first time as deep-basin products of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. The first drilling of the Messinian salt at the deeper parts of the Mediterranean Sea came in the summer of 1970, when geologists aboard the Glomar Challenger brought up drill cores containing arroyo gravels and red and green floodplain silts. One drill core contained a wind-blown cross-bedded deposit of deep-sea foraminiferal ooze that had dried into dust and been blown about on the hot dry abyssal plain by sandstorms, mixed with quartz sand blown in from nearby continents, ended up in a brine lake interbedded between two layers of halite.
These layers alternated with layers containing marine fossils, indicating a succession of drying and flooding periods. The massive presence of salt does not require a desiccation of the sea; the main evidence for the evaporative drawdown of the Mediterranean comes from the remains of many canyons that were cut into the sides of the dry Mediterranean basin by rivers flowing down to the abyssal plain. For example, the Nile cut its bed down to several hundred feet below sea level at Aswan, 2,500 m below sea level just north of Cairo. In many places in the Mediterranean, fossilized cracks have been found where muddy sediment had dried and cracked in the sunlight and drought. In the Western Mediterranean series, the presence of pelagic oozes interbedded within the evaporites suggests that the area was flooded and desiccated over the course of 700,000 years. Based on palaeomagnetic datings of Messinian deposits that have since been brought above sea level by tectonic activity, the salinity crisis s
The World (archipelago)
The World or The World Islands, is an artificial archipelago of various small islands constructed in the rough shape of a world map, located in the waters of the Persian Gulf, 4.0 kilometres off the coast of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The World islands are composed of sand dredged from Dubai's shallow coastal waters, are one of several artificial island developments in Dubai; the World's developer is Nakheel Properties, the project was conceived by Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, the ruler of Dubai. The actual construction was done by Van Oord and Boskalis; the same companies created the Palm Jumeirah. Construction of the 300 islands began in 2003. Though 60 percent of the islands had been sold off to private contractors back in 2008, development on most of these islands has failed to initiate; as of July 2012, the Lebanon Island was developed and was the only island that had so far been developed commercially, being used for private corporate events and public parties. As of late 2013, only two of the islands had been developed.
In January 2014, Kleindienst Group announced. The first of these series of islands will be Europe and Germany with development led by Kleindienst Group. Islands in the project range from 14,000 to 42,000 square metres in area. Distances between islands average 100 metres. Designed by Creative Kingdom Dubai, the development is an area that covers 6 by 9 kilometres and is surrounded by an oval-shaped breakwater island. 232 km of shoreline was created. The World's overall development costs were estimated at $13 billion CAD in 2005; the archipelago consists of seven sets of islands, representing the continents of Europe, Asia, North America, South America and Oceania. Each artificial islands is named for its representative regions, including those representing countries and regions such as the United Kingdom, Mount Everest, New Mexico, Buenos Aires, New York, Mexico, St. Petersburg and India; the project was unveiled in May 2003 by Sheikh Mohammed and dredging began four months in September 2003. By January 2008, 60% of the islands were sold, 20 of which were bought in the first four months of 2007.
On 10 January 2008 the final stone on the breakwater was laid, completing development of the archipelago. As of July 2012, a second island, the Lebanon Island was developed and was'the only island that has so far been developed commercially, is used for private corporate events and public parties.' The Times Online reported in September 2009 that work on The World had been suspended due to the effects of the global financial crisis. And in February 2010 the Daily Mail reported; this was denied by Nakheel and independent technical reports as wholly inaccurate. Despite the denial, The Daily Telegraph reported in January 2011 that an independent company, Penguin Marine, provided verification on the erosion of the islands and the silting of the passageways between the islands. Due to finance and technical problems, Penguin Marine, the company contracted to provide transportation to the archipelago, is attempting to get out of the annual fees of $1.6 million paid to Nakheel properties. As of early 2011, only one of the islands had been occupied by a building on it, commercial or residential properties were not being constructed on any of the other islands.
Property prices in the Emirates had fallen 58 percent from their peak in the fourth quarter of 2008. The world economic recovery from the Great Recession has resulted in a rebound for the Dubai real estate market: it has been reported that "residential prices rose by 17.9% from August 2012 to 2013, while rents soared by 14.9% in the same period." Irish investor/businessman John O'Dolan, who purchased the "Ireland" island, committed suicide in February 2009, after his consortium fell into financial difficulty. The World was supposed to be serviced by four major transportation hubs linked by waterways. Land parcels are zoned for various uses: estate, mid density, high density and commercial. A Dubai Infinity Holdings construction planner has stated that developers have been negotiating with Nakheel about temporary siting of a cement batching plant on one of the islands to supply subdivided construction; the plan was for utilities to be routed under water, with water plants at each of the hubs pumping fresh water to the islands.
Power was to be supplied by the Dubai Grid and distributed through underwater cables, however as of February 2015 no cables had been laid, so that developers have to provide their own power from diesel generators. Wastewater and refuse systems are an individual concern for each island. Nakheel Group is itself further developing a resort named Coral Island over 20 islands that make up the North American part of The World; the low-rise development will include a hotel village. The second largest confirmed development is the purchase of 14 islands that make up Australia and New Zealand by Investment Dar of Kuwait; the islands are being terraformed to be developed as a resort named OQYANA. Irish business consortium Larionovo had plans to develop the Ireland island into an Irish-themed resort; the plans include a large internal marina, apartments and vi
A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words, in which parts of multiple words or their phones are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel. In linguistics, a portmanteau is defined as a single morph; the definition overlaps with the grammatical term contraction, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as do and not to make don't, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept. A portmanteau differs from a compound, which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, starfish is not a portmanteau, of star and fish; the word portmanteau was first used in this sense by Lewis Carroll in the book Through the Looking-Glass, in which Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the coinage of the unusual words in "Jabberwocky", where slithy means "slimy and lithe" and mimsy is "miserable and flimsy".
Humpty Dumpty explains to Alice the practice of combining words in various ways: You see it's like a portmanteau—there are two meanings packed up into one word. In his introduction to The Hunting of the Snark, Carroll uses portmanteau when discussing lexical selection: Humpty Dumpty's theory, of two meanings packed into one word like a portmanteau, seems to me the right explanation for all. For instance, take the two words "fuming" and "furious." Make up your mind that you will say both words, but leave it unsettled which you will say first … if you have the rarest of gifts, a balanced mind, you will say "frumious." In then-contemporary English, a portmanteau was a suitcase. The etymology of the word is the French porte-manteau, from porter, "to carry", manteau, "cloak". In modern French, a porte-manteau is a clothes valet, a coat-tree or similar article of furniture for hanging up jackets, hats and the like. An occasional synonym for "portmanteau word" is frankenword, an autological word exemplifying the phenomenon it describes, blending "Frankenstein" and "word".
Many neologisms are examples of blends. In Punch in 1896, the word brunch was introduced as a "portmanteau word." In 1964, the newly independent African republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar chose the portmanteau word Tanzania as its name. Eurasia is a portmanteau of Europe and Asia; some city names are portmanteaus of the border regions they straddle: Texarkana spreads across the Texas-Arkansas border, while Calexico and Mexicali are the American and Mexican sides of a single conurbation. A scientific example is a liger, a cross between a male lion and a female tiger. Many company or brand names are portmanteaus, including Microsoft, a portmanteau of microcomputer and software. "Jeoportmanteau!" is a recurring category on the American television quiz show Jeopardy!. The category's name is itself a portmanteau of the words "Jeopardy" and "portmanteau." Responses in the category are portmanteaus constructed by fitting two words together. Portmanteau words may be produced by joining together proper nouns with common nouns, such as "gerrymandering", which refers to the scheme of Massachusetts Governor Elbridge Gerry for politically contrived redistricting.
The term gerrymander has itself contributed to portmanteau terms playmander. Oxbridge is a common portmanteau for the UK's two oldest universities, those of Oxford and Cambridge. In 2016, Britain's planned exit from the European Union became known as "Brexit". David Beckham's English mansion Rowneybury House was nicknamed "Beckingham Palace", a portmanteau of his surname and Buckingham Palace. Many portmanteau words do not appear in all dictionaries. For example, a spork is an eating utensil, a combination of a spoon and a fork, a skort is an item of clothing, part skirt, part shorts. On the other hand, turducken, a dish made by inserting a chicken into a duck, the duck into a turkey, was added to the Oxford English Dictionary in 2010; the word refudiate was first used by Sarah Palin when she misspoke, conflating the words refute and repudiate. Though a gaffe, the word was recognized as the New Oxford American Dictionary's "Word of the Year" in 2010; the business lexicon is replete with newly coined portmanteau words like "permalance", "advertainment", "advertorial", "infotainment", "infomercial".
A company name may be portmanteau as well as a product name. Two proper names can be used in creating a portmanteau word in r