Afro-Guyanese people are descended from slaves brought to the Guianas from the coast of West Africa to work on sugar plantations After the abolition of slavery in the British Empire, Afro-Guyanese people came together to develop small villages. They were not given land to compensate for their labor, unlike future immigrant groups; when planters made land or passage home available to East Indians as part of the terms of indentured labour in the late 19th century, given that they had denied land to the Africans as emancipated slaves several decades earlier, it created tension among the ethnic groups. By the early twentieth century, the majority of the urban population of the country was Afro-Guyanese. Many Afro-Guyanese people living in villages had migrated to the towns in search of work; until the 1930s, Afro-Guyanese people those of mixed descent, comprised the bulk of the non-white professional class. During the 1930s, as Indo-Guyanese began to enter the middle class in large numbers, they began to compete with Afro-Guyanese for professional positions.
The Dutch West India Company turned to the importation of African slaves, who became a key element in the colonial economy. By the 1660s, the slave population numbered about 2,500. Although African slaves were considered an essential element of the colonial economy, their working conditions were brutal; the mortality rate was high, the dismal conditions led to more than half a dozen slave rebellions. The most famous slave uprising, the Berbice Slave Uprising, began in February 1763. On two plantations on the Canje River in Berbice, slaves rebelled; as plantation after plantation fell to the slaves, the European population fled. Led by Cuffy, the African freedom fighters came to number about 3,000 and threatened European control over the Guianas; the freedom fighters were defeated with the assistance of troops from neighboring French and British colonies and from Europe. Colonial life was changed radically by the demise of slavery. Although the international slave trade was abolished in the British Empire in 1807, slavery itself continued.
In what is known as the Demerara rebellion of 1823 10–13,000 slaves in Demerara-Essequibo rose up against their masters. Although the rebellion was crushed, the momentum for abolition remained, by 1838 total emancipation had been effected; the end of slavery had several ramifications. Most many former slaves departed the plantations; some ex-slaves moved to towns and villages, feeling that field labor was degrading and inconsistent with freedom, but others pooled their resources to purchase the abandoned estates of their former masters and created village communities. Establishing small settlements provided the new Afro-Guyanese communities an opportunity to grow and sell food, an extension of a practice under which slaves had been allowed to keep the money that came from the sale of any surplus produce; the emergence of an independent-minded Afro-Guyanese peasant class, threatened the planters' political power, inasmuch as the planters no longer held a near-monopoly on the colony's economic activity.
Emancipation resulted in the introduction of new ethnic and cultural groups into British Guiana. The departure of the Afro-Guyanese from the sugar plantations soon led to labor shortages. After unsuccessful attempts throughout the 19th century to attract Portuguese workers from Madeira, the estate owners were again left with an inadequate supply of labor; the Portuguese had not taken to plantation work and soon moved into other parts of the economy retail business, where they became competitors with the new Afro-Guyanese middle class. Many East Indian immigrants arrived as indentured, would grow into a thriving and competitive class. Akara, leader of the Berbice slave rebellion at Plantation Lilienburg John Agard, playwright and children's writer Clifford Anderson, former British Empire featherweight contender Forbes Burnham, President of Guyana, 1980–1985 Basil Butcher, former Guyanese and West Indian Cricketer Hubert Nathaniel Critchlow, father of the trade union movement in British Guyana.
Colin Croft, former Guyanese and West Indian cricketer Cuffy, leader of the Berbice slave rebellion at Plantation Lilienburg Karen de Souza and children's activist Roy Fredericks, former Guyanese and West Indian Cricketer. Highest average for Guyana Lance Gibbs, former Guyanese and West Indian cricketer Jack Gladstone, leader of the 1821 Demerara Slave Rebellion David A. Granger, President of Guyana Eddy Grant, popular musician Roger Harper and West Indian Cricketer - former Kenyan cricket coach Ram John Holder and musician Desmond Hoyte, President of Guyana, 1985-1992 Sam Hinds, former President of Guyana, Prime Minister of Guyana Carl Hooper, former West Indian Cricket Captain Ezekiel Jackson, professional wrestler Eusi Kwayana, former Guyanese cabinet member and veteran politician Clayton Lambert, American and West Indian cricketer. Scored the most runs for Guyana. Lincoln Lewis, trade union leader Clive Lloyd, former Guyanese and West Indian cricketer P. Reign, Canadian rapper. Alana Shipp - American/Israeli IFBB professional bodybuilder Quamina, leader of the 1823 Demerara Slave Rebellion.
Red Cafe, American rapper. Ptolemy Reid, former Prime Minister of Guyana Walter Rodney and political activist Ivan Gladstone Van Sertima, associate professor of Africana Studies at Rutgers University in the United States. Red Cafe, Brooklyn rapper. Deborah Cox, Canadian R&B singer-songwriter with longest-running #1
The Giske Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the Makkevika inlet on Giiske island in the municipality of Giske in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. The area received protection in 1988 "to preserve an important wetland area with its habitat, bird life and other wildlife," according to the conservation regulations; the inlet is a resting place for wetland birds waders, it is an important overwintering place and has a strong nesting population. Six of the bird species that have been observed here are of internationational importance, 21 species are of national importance, 35 are of regional importance; the landscape consists of varied seaside vegetation with wash margins and salt pans. Beach meadows and ponds lie inland from the beach. A pebble beach is of geological interest. Makkevika is one of the best-described bird locations in Norway; the area borders cultivated land, it is surrounded by a buffer area measuring 13.8 square kilometers that received protection at the same time. The wildlife sanctuary is one of six natural areas that were included in the Giske Wetlands System Ramsar site, established in 1996.
Mijlø-direktoratet: Giske. Map and description of the nature reserve. Miljøverndepartementet. 1987. Giske fuglefredningsområde, Giske kommune. 1:5,000 map of the wildlife sanctuary. Miljøverndepartementet. 1987. Giske fuglefredningsområde med tilgrensande dyrelivsfreding, Giske kommune, Møre og Romsdal fylke. 1:20,000 map of the wildlife sanctuary. Forskrift om vern av Giske fuglefredingsområde med tilgrensande dyrelivsfreding, Giske kommune, Møre og Romsdal. 1988
Josée Grand'Maître is a Canadian retired racquetball player from Hull, Quebec. Grand'Maître won the Canadian Women's Singles title three times, the Canadian Women's Doubles title 15 times, her last title came in doubles in May 2014 with Jennifer Saunders as her partner. Grand'Maître's 15 doubles titles are the most and her 18 combined titles place her third on the all time list behind Saunders and Mike Green. Grand'Maître was Canadian Women's Singles Champion three times: in 1996, 1999, 2001, her first title in 1996 came over Christie Van Hees, while in 1999 Grand'Maître defeated Lucie Guillemette, her doubles partner that year. In the 2001, she defeated Jennifer Saunders, she was the Canadian Women's Doubles Champion on 15 occasions with six different playing partners. Grand'Maître's most successful partnership was with Jennifer Saunders, as they won ten titles together, including five consecutive titles from 2003 to 2007, as well as wins in 2009, 2011 to 2014. Grand'Maître's other five doubles titles were with five different partners.
Her first title was in 1990 with Nadia Verilli, when they defeated Linda Ellerington and Lori Johnstone. In 1993, Grand ` Maître teamed with Vicki Shanks to win the title over Debbie Ward, she won the next year with Carol McFetridge, as they beat Cindy MacTaggart. In 1998, Grand ` Maître partnered with Guillemette to beat Ward in the final. In the 2001 final Grand'Maître and Lori-Jane Powell defeated Amanda MacDonald and Karina Odegard to take the title. Grand'Maître has competed for Canada on 37 occasions, the most by any Canadian racquetball player. She's earned two silver medals in singles, her first was at the 2001 Pan American Championships, when she defeated American Kersten Hallander in the semi-finals before losing to American Cheryl Gudinas in the final. The following year, Grand'Maître beat American Rhonda Rajsich in the semi-finals of the Pan American Championships only to lose to American Laura Fenton in the final. Grand'Maître was a silver medalist in her first three appearances at the World Championships.
She played doubles in each of those tournaments and reached the finals in 1988 with Nadia Verilli, 1990 and 1992 with Vicky Shanks. She reached the doubles final in 1998 with Debbie Ward. Most Grand'Maître was a bronze medalist in doubles with Frédérique Lambert at the 2012 World Championships in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, as they reached the semi-finals but lost to eventual champions Paola Longoria and Samantha Salas, she was part of the Canadian women's team that got bronze in the team event in 2012. Grand'Maître played both singles and doubles at the 1994 Pan American Championships and got bronze and silver, respectively. In the 1998 Pan Am Championships, Grand'Maître was a silver medalist in doubles with Debbie Ward, she played doubles at the Pan Am Championships the next year, in 1999, but with Lucie Guillemette as her partner, they were bronze medalists. Grand'Maître was a bronze medalist at the 2002 World Championships in singles, as she lost to American Cheryl Gudinas in the semi-finals.
She played doubles with Saunders at the next World Championships in 2004, when they got bronze medals after losing in the semi-finals to Mexicans Susana Acosta and Rosy Torres. In the 2003 Pan American Championships, Grand'Maître lost to Fenton in the semi-finals, resulting in a bronze medal. Grand'Maître was a bronze medalist at the 2006 World Championships in doubles with Lori-Jane Powell, as they lost to Chileans Angela Grisar and Fabiola Marquez; that year the Canadian women's team took silver, Grand'Maître and Powell won their match in the final against Americans Laura Fenton and Aimee Ruiz. Grand'Maître may be the only player to participate in the first four Pan American Games that included racquetball, she was a bronze medalist at the 2003 Pan Am Games with Julie Neubauer, but played singles in the 1996 Pan Am Games, singles at the 1999 Pan Am Games, doubles at the 2011 Pan Am Games with Brandi Jacobson Prentice. Grand'Maître played at the 2009 World Games. Grand'Maître did not play many tournaments on the women's pro tour, so she was never ranked in the Top 10.
But she did make the semi-finals of the 2009 Miami tournament, when she defeated Kerri Wachtel in the Round of 16 and Diane Moore in the quarter finals before losing to Rhonda Rajsich in the semi-finals. Grand ` Maître lives in Québec and works at the National Sport Centre in Montreal, she has an undergraduate degree in kinesiology and a certificate in administration from the University of Ottawa. Grand'Maître is married to Michel Gagnon, one of Canada's national team coaches, they have one son together, Mathieu Grand'Maître, she is a step mother to racquetball player Vincent Gagnon. List of racquetball players Canadian Olympic Page for Josée Grand'Maître