Kim Harrison is a pen name of American author Dawn Cook. Kim is best known as the author of the New York Times #1 best selling Hollows series, but she has written more than urban fantasy and has published over two dozen books spanning the gamut from young adult, accelerated-science thriller, a unique, full-color world book, has scripted two original graphic novels set in the Hollows universe, she has published traditional fantasy under the name Dawn Cook. The Rachel Morgan urban fantasy series is set in an alternate history in which a worldwide pandemic caused by genetically modified tomatoes led to the death of a large portion of the world's human population. Under the name of Dawn Cook, she writes the Decoy Princess and Truth series, published in the first few years of the 21st century. Harrison has received praise from fellow authors, has reached the #1 spot on the New York Times Best Seller list. Kim Harrison was raised in the Midwest. A self-proclaimed "former tomboy," she grew up the only girl in a family of boys.
Despite her love of writing, she took an unorthodox approach to it, claims to have avoided English courses beyond the basic requirements in high school and college. Harrison began her career with writing traditional science fiction, but began writing contemporary fantasy after deciding to focus more on character development, she spent the better part of a decade struggling as an aspiring author before meeting her current agent at a writing convention. He introduced her to Diana Gill, who became Harrison's editor. Together, they produced Dead Witch Walking, her first book was published in paperback by HarperTorch in 2004. Since she has written twelve more books, two graphic novels, extensive world book in the Hollows series called the Rachel Morgan series, contributed to multiple anthologies, with prequels to the Hollows books, one with a young adult story. After the success of her first novel, Harrison was able to resign from her day job, devoting herself to writing full-time, her favorite author is Ray Bradbury.
She references music as one of her strongest writing influences, providing song lists for several of her characters. In her spare time, she communicates with fans via her self-maintained blog. Harrison is a member of the International Thriller Writers; the first two Truth books were one book, split into two separate books for publishing. That the two are the same, that Cook was Harrison, was disclosed in a May 2009 Locus magazine article. "I'm glad it's out in the open, because it is hard to maintain these two separate identities, remind your friends or family when you go out,'I'm Kim today, so don't call me Dawn.' The division has served its purpose. I'm still going to be Kim, but now if somebody calls me Dawn I won't have to say'Shut your mouth!'" Harrison has reached #1 on the New York Times Best Seller list and is recognized as one of the most successful and influential creators of urban fantasy. Her writing has garnered praise from numerous peers. Authors Kelly Gay and Courtney Allison Moulton have cited her as an inspiration.
The Hollows series has gained recognition from The New York Times and Amazon.com. In 2007, Amazon.com noted that Harrison had become "one of the hottest authors in the popular genre of sexy supernaturalism." The Turn: Hollows begins with Death Dead Witch Walking The Good, the Bad, the Undead Every Which Way But Dead A Fistful of Charms For a Few Demons More The Outlaw Demon Wails White Witch, Black Curse Black Magic Sanction Pale Demon A Perfect Blood Ever After The Undead Pool The Witch with No Name Blood Work: An Original Hollows Graphic Novel —Illustrated by Pedro Maia and Gemma Magno. Blood Crime —Illustrated by Gemma Magno; the Hollows Insider: New fiction, maps and more in the world of Rachel Morgan The Turn Novels The Turn: Hollows begins with Death —Simon & Schuster Audio, Read By Marguerite GavinThe Hollows Novels Dead Witch Walking —Tantor Media, Read By Marguerite Gavin The Good, the Bad, the Undead —Tantor Media, Read By Marguerite Gavin Every Which Way But Dead —Tantor Media, Read By Marguerite Gavin A Fistful of Charms —Tantor Media, Read By Marguerite Gavin For a Few Demons More —Tantor Media, Read By Marguerite Gavin The Outlaw Demon Wails —HarperAudio, Read By Gigi Bermingham White Witch, Black Curse —HarperAudio, Read By Marguerite Gavin Black Magic Sanction —HarperAudio, Read By Marguerite Gavin Pale Demon —HarperAudio, Read By Marguerite Gavin A Perfect Blood —HarperAudio, Read By Marguerite Gavin Ever After —HarperAudio, Read By Marguerite Gavin Undead P
Massively multiplayer online role-playing game
Massively multiplayer online role-playing games are a combination of role-playing video games and massively multiplayer online games in which a large number of players interact with one another within a virtual world. As in all RPGs, the player assumes the role of a character and takes control over many of that character's actions. MMORPGs are distinguished from single-player or small multi-player online RPGs by the number of players able to interact together, by the game's persistent world, which continues to exist and evolve while the player is offline and away from the game. MMORPGs are played throughout the world. Worldwide revenues for MMORPGs exceeded half a billion dollars in 2005, Western revenues exceeded a billion dollars in 2006. In 2008, the spending on subscription MMORPGs by consumers in North America and Europe grew to $1.4 billion. World of Warcraft, a popular MMORPG, has over 10 million subscribers as of November 2014. World of Warcraft's total revenue was $1.04 billion US dollars in 2014.
Star Wars: The Old Republic, released in 2011, became the world's'Fastest-Growing MMOG Ever' after gaining more than 1 million subscribers within the first three days of its launch. Although modern MMORPGs sometimes differ from their predecessors, many of them share the same basic characteristics; these include several common features: persistent game environment, some form of level progression, social interaction within the game, in-game culture, system architecture, membership in a group, character customization. The majority of popular MMORPGs are based on traditional fantasy themes occurring in an in-game universe comparable to that of Dungeons & Dragons; some employ hybrid themes that either merge or replace fantasy elements with those of science fiction and sorcery, or crime fiction. Still, others draw thematic material from American comic books, the occult, other genres; these elements are developed using similar tasks and scenarios involving quests and loot. In nearly all MMORPGs, the development of the player's character is the primary goal.
Nearly all MMORPGs feature a character progression system, in which players earn experience points for their actions and use those points to reach character "levels", which makes them better at whatever they do. Traditionally, combat with monsters and completing quests for non-player characters, either alone or in groups, are the primary ways to earn experience points; the accumulation of wealth is a way to progress in many MMORPGs. This is traditionally best accomplished via combat; the cycle produced by these conditions, combat leading to new items allowing for more combat with no change in gameplay, is sometimes pejoratively referred to as the level treadmill, or "grinding". The role-playing game Progress Quest was created as a parody of this trend. Eve Online trains skills in real time rather than using experience points as a measure of progression. In some MMORPGs, there is no limit to a player's level, allowing the grinding experience to continue indefinitely. MMORPGs that use this model glorify top ranked players by displaying their avatars on the game's website or posting their stats on a high score screen.
Another common practice is to enforce a maximum reachable level for all players referred to as a level cap. Once reached, the definition of a player's progression changes. Instead of being awarded with experience for completing quests and dungeons, the player's motivation to continue playing will be replaced with collecting money and equipment; the widened range of equipment available at the maximum level will have increased aesthetic value to distinguish high ranking players in game between lower ranked players. Colloquially known as endgame gear, this set of empowered weapons and armor adds a competitive edge to both scripted boss encounters as well as player vs player combat. Player motivation to outperform others is fueled by acquiring such items and is a significant determining factor in their success or failure in combat-related situations. MMORPGs always have tools to facilitate communication between players. Many MMORPGs offer support for in-game guilds or clans, though these will form whether the game supports them or not.
In addition, most MMOGs require some degree of teamwork in parts of the game. These tasks require players to take on roles in the group, such as protecting other players from damage, "healing" damage done to other players or damaging enemies. MMORPGs have Game Moderators or Game Masters, who may be paid employees or unpaid volunteers who attempt to supervise the world; some GMs may have additional access to features and information related to the game that are not available to other players and roles. Relationships formed in MMORPGs can be just as intense as relationships formed between friends or partners met outside the game, involve elements of collaboration and trust between players. Most MMORPGs provide different types of classes. Among those classes, a small portion of players choose to roleplay their characters, there are rules that provide functionality and content to those who do. Community resources such as forums and guides exist in support of this play style. For example, if a player wants to play a priest role in his MMORPG world, he might buy a cope from a shop and learn priestly skills, proceeding to speak and interact with others as their character would.
This may not include pursuing other goals such as wealth or experience. Guilds or similar groups with a focus on roleplaying may develop extended in-depth n
Level 9 Computing
Level 9 was a British developer of computer software, active between 1981 and 1991. Founded by Mike and Pete Austin, the company produced software for the BBC Micro, Nascom, ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Atari, Lynx 48k, RML 380Z, Amstrad CPC, MSX, Apple II, Memotech MTX, Enterprise platforms and is best known for its successful text adventure games until a general decline in the text adventure market forced their closure in June 1991. Level 9's first release was an extension to Nascom BASIC called Extension Basic; the first game for the Nascom, was called Fantasy and was similar to Valhalla, but with no graphics. Other products from that era were Missile Defence and Space Invasion — all for the Nascom; the tapes were duplicated and sent out by mail order by the brothers based on orders generated by the classified advertisements they ran in the Computing Today magazine. They were based in High Wycombe, Bucks before moving to the West Country. Level 9 devised their own interpretation language, A-code, around 1979.
It was memory efficient due to the advanced text compression routines which could compress texts to about 50%. The game data, which were identical for all platforms, were incorporated into the executable file for specific machines, together with the interpreter part. A-code underwent a couple of revisions: there are three distinct versions in all, plus a couple of extensions which form new A-code versions of their own. In some ways A-code and the A-machine virtual machine were more impressive than rival Infocom's ZIL and Z-machine, but Infocom products of the era required a disk drive, alleviating the memory restrictions of the platforms of the time. Level 9 due to different dynamics in the British market had to deliver their text adventures on cassette tapes, which meant that programs had to be loaded in one go and that they had to fit into memory. Andrew Deeley, who worked for Level 9 on Software Development, recalls how the use of the A-Code interpreter enabled L9 to produce hundreds of cross platform versions of their entire catalogue in the space of 18 months, "with so many 8 bit computers on the markets and the introduction of Macs and Atari STs, developing for cross platform versions of a game was becoming prohibitive in cost back in the late 1980s / early 1990s.
Level 9 were able to hold their own as a small developer because they were able to optimise cross platform production of their games". The first game to use this system was Colossal Adventure in early 1982, a faithful conversion of Adventure by Will Crowther and Don Woods, but with 70 extra locations to the end game to fulfill Level 9's preexisting claim in advertisements of "over 200" locations; that year the company produced two sequels, Adventure Quest and Dungeon Adventure, both of which featured the Demon Lord Agaliarept. The three titles became known as the Middle-earth trilogy, with a reference in the instructions to Dungeon Adventure to the city of Minas Tirith, which features in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings; when enhanced versions of the three games were published by Rainbird Software, the reference to Middle-earth was deleted. In 1985 Level 9 started to develop their games for disk based systems also. Snowball was the first adventure in the Silicon Dreams trilogy, followed by Return to Eden and The Worm in Paradise.
Red Moon and its sequel The Price of Magik were bundled together with Lords of Time by Mandarin Software to create yet another trilogy: Time and Magik. "Lancelot" was published by Mandarin Software, a division of Europress Software in 1988. The first person to solve the puzzle in the game won a replica of the Holy Grail, made of solid silver, encrusted with semi-precious stones, with the inside plated in 22-carat gold. Colossal Adventure Adventure Quest Dungeon Adventure Snowball Lords of Time Return to Eden Emerald Isle Red Moon The Worm in Paradise The Secret Diary of Adrian Mole Aged 13¾ The Archers The Saga of Erik the Viking The Price of Magik Jewels of Darkness trilogy Colossal Adventure Adventure Quest Dungeon Adventure Silicon Dreams trilogy Snowball Return to Eden The Worm in Paradise Knight Orc The Growing Pains of Adrian Mole Gnome Ranger Time and Magik trilogy Lords of Time Red Moon The Price of Magik Lancelot Ingrid's Back: Gnome Ranger 2 Scapeghost The Legend of Billy the Kid Champion of the Raj It Came from the Desert Level 9 Memorial Level 9 Computing at Curlie Level 9 Fact Sheet Level 9 - Past Masters of the adventure game by Richard Hewison "On the level" by Chris Bourne History of Time and Magik and Lancelot at Mandarin Software Level 9 - Masters of Adventure from Page 6 magazine
Daemon (classical mythology)
Daemon is the Latin word for the Ancient Greek daimon, which referred to a lesser deity or guiding spirit such as the daemons of ancient Greek religion and mythology and of Hellenistic religion and philosophy. The word is derived from Proto-Indo-European *daimon "provider, divider", from the root *da- "to divide". Daimons were seen as the souls of men of the golden age acting as tutelary deities, according to entry δαίμων at Liddell & Scott. Daemons are benevolent or benign nature spirits, beings of the same nature as both mortals and deities, similar to ghosts, chthonic heroes, spirit guides, forces of nature, or the deities themselves. According to Hesiod's myth, "great and powerful figures were to be honoured after death as a daimon…" A daimon is not so much a type of quasi-divine being, according to Burkert, but rather a non-personified "peculiar mode" of their activity. In Hesiod's Theogony, Phaëton becomes an incorporeal daimon or a divine spirit, for example, the ills released by Pandora are deadly deities, not daimones.
From Hesiod the people of the Golden Age were transformed into daimones by the will of Zeus, to serve mortals benevolently as their guardian spirits. The daimones of venerated heroes were localized by the construction of shrines, so as not to wander restlessly, were believed to confer protection and good fortune on those offering their respects. One tradition of Greek thought, which found agreement in the mind of Plato, was of a daimon which existed within a person from their birth, that each individual was obtained by a singular daimon prior to their birth by way of lot. In the Old Testament, evil spirits appear in Kings. In the Septuagint, made for the Greek-speaking Jews of Alexandria, the Greek ángelos translates the Hebrew word mal'ak, while daimoníos, which carries the meaning of a natural spirit, less than divine, translates the Hebrew word shedim as well as the word se'irim in some verses and words for idols, describes the being Asmodeus in the Book of Tobit; the use of daimōn in the New Testament's original Greek text caused the Greek word to be applied to the Judeo-Christian concept of an evil spirit by the early second century AD.
Homer's use of the words theoí and daímones suggests. Writers developed the distinction between the two. Plato in Cratylus speculates that the word daimōn is synonymous to daēmōn, however, it is more daiō. In Plato's Symposium, the priestess Diotima teaches Socrates that love is not a deity, but rather a "great daemon", she goes on to explain that "everything daemonic is between divine and mortal", she describes daemons as "interpreting and transporting human things to the gods and divine things to men. In Plato's Apology of Socrates, Socrates claimed to have a daimonion that warned him—in the form of a "voice"—against mistakes but never told him what to do; the Platonic Socrates, never refers to the daimonion as a daimōn. By this term he seems to indicate the true nature of the human soul, his newfound self-consciousness. Paul Shorey sees the daimonion not as an inspiration but as "a kind of spiritual tact checking Socrates from any act opposed to his true moral and intellectual interests."Regarding the charge brought against Socrates in 399, Plato surmised "Socrates does wrong because he does not believe in the gods in whom the city believes, but introduces other daemonic beings…" Burkert notes that "a special being watches over each individual, a daimon who has obtained the person at his birth by lot, is an idea which we find in Plato, undoubtedly from earlier tradition.
The famous, paradoxical saying of Heraclitus is directed against such a view:'character is for man his daimon'". In the ancient Greek religion, daimon designates not a specific class of divine beings, but a peculiar mode of activity: it is an occult power that drives humans forward or acts against them. Since daimon is the veiled countenance of divine activity, every deity can act as daimon. A special knowledge of daimones is claimed by Pythagoreans, whereas for Plato, daimon is a spiritual being who watches over each individual, is tantamount to a higher self, or an angel. While Plato is called ‘divine’ by Neoplatonists, Aristotle is regarded as daimonios, meaning ‘an intermediary to deities' – therefore Aristotle stands to Plato as an angel to a deity. For Proclus, daimones are the intermediary beings located between the celestial objects and the terrestrial inhabitants; the Hellenistic Greeks divided daemons into good and evil categories: agathodaímōn, from agathós, kakodaímōn, from kakós.
They resemble the jinni of Arab folklore, in their humble efforts to help mediate the good and ill fortunes of human life, they resemble the Christian guardian angel and adversarial demon, respectively. Eudaimonia, the state of having a eudaemon, came to mean "well-being" or "happiness"; the comparable Roman concep
Ultima Online is a massively multiplayer online role-playing game, released on September 24, 1997, by Origin Systems. Ultima Online is a fantasy role-playing game set in the Ultima universe, it is known for its extensive player versus player combat system. Since its release, it has added eight expansion packs, a booster pack and dozens of free content updates; the release of Ultima Online: Kingdom Reborn in 2007 brought a new game engine with upgraded visuals. Ultima Online continued the tradition of previous Ultima games in many ways, but due to advancing technology and the simple fact that it was Origin's first persistent online game, many new game mechanics appeared. Designed as a social and economic experiment, the game had to account for widespread player interaction as well as deal with the tradition of players feeling as if they were the center of attention, as had been the case in single-player games. Ultima Online began with a single world, with specific expansion packs adding additional territory and new worlds.
The second world was the "Lost Lands", with additional land, dungeons and terrain. The third was Trammel; this led the developers to distinguish the original world by making the environment more grim, naming it "Felucca". The two kinds of servers were "normal" servers with both Trammel and Felucca ruleset and "siege" servers with non-consensual PVP and no item insurance. Siege servers support one character slot on an account, limits to ways of traveling and other limits; the worlds in Ultima Online include: Felucca — The original world, which evolved to include dead trees and tombstones to distinguish. It has a harsher rule set. Trammel — Supported a rule set that does not allow non-consensual PVP and additional open land for player housing. Ilshenar — Added dungeons and monsters and evolved to include new land, as well as more than 30 new creatures. Malas — Included a Player versus Player arena and space for 1500 new homes, it featured Dungeon Doom, the then-largest dungeon, two cities: Luna and Umbra.
Malas is a series of islands floating in a starry void and is distinguished by a darker artistic style. Malas was praised for its variety of geographic features. Tokuno — Group of islands based on Feudal Japan. Ter Mur — Land of the Gargoyles; the capital, Ter Mur, features space for player homes. Valley of Eodon - A primitive, prehistoric style land-mass with dinosaurs and giant apes. Ultima Online is the product of Richard Garriott's idea for a fantasy game involving several thousand people who can all play in a shared fantasy world. Prior games allowed hundreds of people to play at the same time, including Habitat, The Realm Online, Neverwinter Nights and Meridian 59. Garriott commented that "it was important to us that Ultima Online be a game with a theme, story, quest - and support larger, grander activity. We don't want it to be just player dominated. Ultima Online will be, I believe, the first completely virtual world for the mass public to go live out alternate lives in." The goal was to offer the player as much freedom as possible.
The initial team was composed of Garriott, Starr Long, Rick Delashmit, Scott Phillips and, a bit Raph Koster, who became the lead designer. Koster wrote public "designer letters" and went by his nickname of Designer Dragon. Koster drew inspiration from prior online games, such as DartMUD; the project started in 1995 and was presented to the public at E3 as "Ultima Online: Shattered Legacy" in May 1996. Origin claimed to have more than 3,000 participants in the preliminary alpha testing; the development cost was much greater than traditional computer games. Ultima Online's initial features included persistent player housing, skill-based character progression, a craft-based and player-driven economy, unrestricted player-versus-player combat. An artificial life engine was supposed to be implemented into the game. A preview announced that ecological events in the game would affect animal behavior creating new adventure possibilities in an organic manner. However, this feature never made it beyond the game's beta stage.
Richard Garriott explained: We thought it was fantastic. We'd spent an enormous amount of effort on it, but what happened was all the players went in and just killed everything. And so, this thing that we'd spent all this time on no-one noticed – – and we just ripped it out of the game, you know, with some sadness. Lord British was Garriot's in-game alter ego, killed during an in-game appearance at Ultima Online's beta test on August 9, 1997. During a server population stress test, a player character known as Rainz cast the "fire field" spell, killing Lord British. Producer Starr Long blamed it on human error: Lord British's character, like others, had been made invulnerable to this kind of attack, but by design the invulnerability did not persist over several game sessions; when the server crashed shortly before the incident, Garriott forgot to reset his invulnerability status. Shortly after, administrators banned Rainz's account from the beta test for exploiting, rather than reporting, bugs.
According to Origin, he was not banned for the assassination but rather for prior complaints against his
A demon is a supernatural and malevolent being prevalent in religion, literature, fiction and folklore. The original Greek word daimon does not carry negative connotations; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. In Ancient Near Eastern religions and in the Abrahamic traditions, including ancient and medieval Christian demonology, a demon is considered a harmful spiritual entity which may cause demonic possession, calling for an exorcism. In Western occultism and Renaissance magic, which grew out of an amalgamation of Greco-Roman magic, Jewish Aggadah and Christian demonology, a demon is believed to be a spiritual entity that may be conjured and controlled; the Ancient Greek word δαίμων daimōn denotes a spirit or divine power, much like the Latin genius or numen. Daimōn most came from the Greek verb daiesthai.
The Greek conception of a daimōn notably appears in the works of Plato, where it describes the divine inspiration of Socrates. To distinguish the classical Greek concept from its Christian interpretation, the former is anglicized as either daemon or daimon rather than demon; the original Greek word daimon does not carry the negative connotation understood by implementation of the Koine δαιμόνιον, ascribed to any cognate words sharing the root. The Greek terms do not have any connotations of malevolence. In fact, εὐδαιμονία eudaimonia, means happiness. By the early Roman Empire, cult statues were seen, by pagans and their Christian neighbors alike, as inhabited by the numinous presence of the gods: "Like pagans, Christians still sensed and saw the gods and their power, as something, they had to assume, lay behind it, by an easy traditional shift of opinion they turned these pagan daimones into malevolent'demons', the troupe of Satan..... Far into the Byzantine period Christians eyed their cities' old pagan statuary as a seat of the demons' presence.
It was no longer beautiful, it was infested." The term had first acquired its negative connotations in the Septuagint translation of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, which drew on the mythology of ancient Semitic religions. This was inherited by the Koine text of the New Testament; the Western medieval and neo-medieval conception of a demon derives seamlessly from the ambient popular culture of Late Antiquity. The Hellenistic "daemon" came to include many Semitic and Near Eastern gods as evaluated by Christianity; the supposed existence of demons remains an important concept in many modern religions and occultist traditions. Demons are still feared due to their alleged power to possess living creatures. In the contemporary Western occultist tradition, a demon is a useful metaphor for certain inner psychological processes, though some may regard it as an objectively real phenomenon; some scholars believe that large portions of the demonology of Judaism, a key influence on Christianity and Islam, originated from a form of Zoroastrianism, were transferred to Judaism during the Persian era.
Both deities and demons can act as intermediaries to deliver messages to humans. Thus they share some resemblance to the Greek daimonion; the exact definition of "demon" in Egyptology posed a major problem for modern scholarship, since the borders between a deity and a demon are sometimes blurred and the ancient Egyptian language lacks a term for the modern English "demon". However, magical writings indicate that ancient Egyptians acknowledged the existence of malevolent demons by highlighting the demon names with red ink. Demons in this culture appeared to be subordinative and related to a specific deity, yet they may have acted independent from the divine will; the existence of demons can be related beyond the created world. But this negative connotation cannot be denied in light of the magical texts; the role of demons in relation to the human world remains ambivalent and depends on context. Ancient Egyptian demons can be divided into two classes: "guardians" and "wanderers." "Guardians" are tied to a specific place.
Demons protecting the underworld may prevent human souls from entering paradise. Only by knowing right charms is the deceased able to enter the Halls of Osiris. Here, the aggressive nature of the guardian demons is motivated by the need to protect their abodes and not by their evil essence. Accordingly, demons guarded the gates to the netherworld. During the Ptolemaic and Roman period, the guardians shifted towards the role of Genius loci and they were the focus of local and private cults; the "wanderers" are associated with possession, mental illness and plagues. Many of them serve as executioners for the major deities, such as Ra or Osiris, when ordered to punish humans on earth or in the netherworld. Wanderers can be agents of chaos, arising from the world beyond creation to bring about misfortune and suffering without any divine instructions, led only by evil motivations; the influences of the wanderers can be warded off and kept at the borders on the human world by the use of magic, but they can never be destroyed.
A sub-category of "wanderers" are nightmare demons, which were believed to ca