Monocotyledons referred to as monocots, are flowering plants whose seeds contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon. They constitute one of the major groups into which the flowering plants have traditionally been divided, the rest of the flowering plants having two cotyledons and therefore classified as dicotyledons, or dicots. However, molecular phylogenetic research has shown that while the monocots form a monophyletic group or clade, the dicots do not. Monocots have always been recognized as a group, but with various taxonomic ranks and under several different names; the APG III system of 2009 recognises a clade called "monocots" but does not assign it to a taxonomic rank. The monocots include about 60,000 species; the largest family in this group by number of species are the orchids, with more than 20,000 species. About half as many species belong to the true grasses, which are economically the most important family of monocots. In agriculture the majority of the biomass produced; these include not only major grains, but forage grasses, sugar cane, the bamboos.
Other economically important monocot crops include various palms and plantains, gingers and their relatives and cardamom, pineapple, water chestnut, leeks and garlic. Many houseplants are monocot epiphytes. Additionally most of the horticultural bulbs, plants cultivated for their blooms, such as lilies, irises, cannas and tulips, are monocots; the monocots or monocotyledons have, as the name implies, a single cotyledon, or embryonic leaf, in their seeds. This feature was used to contrast the monocots with the dicotyledons or dicots which have two cotyledons. From a diagnostic point of view the number of cotyledons is neither a useful characteristic, nor is it reliable; the single cotyledon is only one of a number of modifications of the body plan of the ancestral monocotyledons, whose adaptive advantages are poorly understood, but may have been related to adaption to aquatic habitats, prior to radiation to terrestrial habitats. Monocots are sufficiently distinctive that there has been disagreement as to membership of this group, despite considerable diversity in terms of external morphology.
However, morphological features that reliably characterise major clades are rare. Thus monocots are distinguishable from other angiosperms both in terms of their uniformity and diversity. On the one hand the organisation of the shoots, leaf structure and floral configuration are more uniform than in the remaining angiosperms, yet within these constraints a wealth of diversity exists, indicating a high degree of evolutionary success. Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including and succulent epiphytes, all in the lilioid monocots, major cereal grains in the grass family and forage grasses as well as woody tree-like palm trees, bamboo and bromeliads, bananas and ginger in the commelinid monocots, as well as both emergent and aroids, as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass. Organisation and life formsThe most important distinction is their growth pattern, lacking a lateral meristem that allows for continual growth in diameter with height, therefore this characteristic is a basic limitation in shoot construction.
Although herbaceous, some arboraceous monocots reach great height and mass. The latter include agaves, palms and bamboos; this creates challenges in water transport. Some, such as species of Yucca, develop anomalous secondary growth, while palm trees utilise an anomalous primary growth form described as establishment growth; the axis undergoes primary thickening, that progresses from internode to internode, resulting in a typical inverted conical shape of the basal primary axis. The limited conductivity contributes to limited branching of the stems. Despite these limitations a wide variety of adaptive growth forms has resulted from epiphytic orchids and bromeliads to submarine Alismatales and mycotrophic Burmanniaceae and Triuridaceae. Other forms of adaptation include the climbing vines of Araceae which use negative phototropism to locate host trees, while some palms such as Calamus manan produce the longest shoots in the plant kingdom, up to 185 m long. Other monocots Poales, have adopted a therophyte life form.
LeavesThe cotyledon, the primordial Angiosperm leaf consists of a proximal leaf base or hypophyll and a distal hyperphyll. In monocots the hypophyll tends to be the dominant part in contrast to other angiosperms. From these, considerable diversity arises. Mature monocot leaves are narrow and linear, forming a sheath
The Amaryllidaceae are a family of herbaceous perennial and bulbous flowering plants in the monocot order Asparagales. The family takes its name from the genus Amaryllis and is known as the amaryllis family; the leaves are linear, the flowers are bisexual and symmetrical, arranged in umbels on the stem. The petals and sepals are undifferentiated as tepals, which may be fused at the base into a floral tube; some display a corona. Allyl sulfide compounds produce the characteristic odour of the onion subfamily; the family, created in 1805, now contains about 1600 species, divided into about 75 genera, 17 tribes and three subfamilies, the Agapanthoideae and Amaryllidoideae. Over time, it has seen much reorganisation and at various times was combined with the related Liliaceae. Since 2009, a broad view has prevailed based on phylogenetics, including a number of other former families; the family is found in tropical to subtropical areas of the world and includes many ornamental garden plants and vegetables.
The Amaryllidaceae are terrestrial flowering plants that are herbaceous or succulent geophytes that are perennial, with the exception of four species. Most genera grow from bulbs, but a few such as Agapanthus and Scadoxus develop from rhizomes; the leaves are simple rather two-ranked with parallel veins. Leaf shape may be linear, strap like, elliptic, lanceolate or filiform; the leaves which are either grouped at the base or arranged alternatively on the stem may be sessile or petiolate and possess a meristem. The flowers, which are hermaphroditic, are actinomorphic zygomorphic, pedicellate or sessile, are arranged in umbels at the apex of leafless flowering stems, or scapes and associated with a filiform bract; the perianth consists of six undifferentiated tepals arranged in two whorls of three. The tepals are similar in shape and size, may be free from each other or fused at the base to form a floral tube. In some genera, such as Narcissus, this may be surmounted by cup or trumpet shaped projection, the corona.
This may be reduced to a mere disc in some species. The position of the ovary varies by subfamily, the Agapanthoideae and Allioideae have superior ovaries, while the Amaryllidoideae have inferior ovaries; the six stamens are arranged in two whorls of three more as in Gethyllis. The fruit is fleshy and berry-like; the Allioideae produce allyl sulfide compounds. Linnaeus described the type genus Amaryllis, from which the family derives its name, in his Species Plantarum in 1753, with nine species, in the Hexandria monogynia containing 51 genera in all in his sexual classification scheme; the name Amaryllis had been applied to a number of plants over the course of history. Hexandria monogynia has come to be treated as either amaryllidaceaous over time. From 1763, when Adanson conceived of these genera as'Liliaceae' it was included in this family, placing Amaryllis in Section VII, Narcissi. of his scheme, in which the Liliaceae had eight sections. With de Jussieu came the formal establishment of organising genera into families in 1789.
De Jussieu established the hierarchical system of taxonomy, placing Amaryllis and 15 related genera within a division of monocotyledons, a class of Stamina Perigynia and'order' Narcisse, divided into three subfamilies. This system formally described the Liliaceae, which were a separate order within the Stamina perigynia; the use of the term Ordo at that time was closer to what we now understand as family, rather than order. In creating his scheme, De Jussieu used a modified form of Linnaeus' sexual classification, but with the respective topography of stamens to carpels rather than just their numbers; the Amaryllidaceae family was formally named as'Amaryllidées' in 1805, by Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire. In 1810 Brown proposed that a subgroup of Liliaceae be distinguished on the basis of the position of their ovaries and be referred to as Amaryllideae and in 1813 de Candolle described Liliacées Juss. and Amaryllidées Brown as two quite separate families. The literature on the organisation of genera into families and higher ranks became available in the English language with Samuel Frederick Gray's A natural arrangement of British plants.
Gray used a combination of Linnaeus' sexual classification and Jussieu's natural classification to group together a number of families having in common six equal stamens, a single style and a perianth, simple and petaloid, but did not use formal names for these higher ranks. Within the grouping, he separated families by the characteristics of their seed, he treated groups of genera with these characteristics as separate families, such as Amaryllideae, Liliaceae and Asparageae. John Lindley was the other important British taxonomist of the early 19th century. In his first taxonomic work, An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany he followed De Jussieu by describing a subclass he called'Endogenae, or Monocotyledonous Plants' divided into two tribes, the Petaloidea and Glumaceae, he divided the former referred to as petaloid monocots, into 32 orders, including the Amaryllideae. He defined the lat
Agapanthus praecox is a popular garden plant around the world in Mediterranean climates. It is native of Natal and Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, local names include agapant, bloulelie and ubani. Most of the cultivated plants of the genus Agapanthus are cultivars of this species, it is divided into three subspecies: subsp.. Orientalis and subsp. Minimus. Agapanthus praecox is a variable species with open-faced flowers, it is a perennial plant. Its deciduous leaves are 50 cm long, its inflorescence is in umbel. The flowers of the agapanthus are purple or white and bloom in the summer, they give capsules filled with fine black seeds. Its stem reaches one meter high, its roots are powerful and can break concrete. Agapanthus praecox subsp. PraecoxThis subspecies occurs in Eastern Cape province of South Africa, it grows to between 0.8 and 1 metre tall and has 10-11 leathery leaves. The blue flowers, appear from December to February; these have perianth segments. Agapanthus praecox subsp. OrientalisThis subspecies occurs in southern KwaZulu-Natal.
Although it is about the same height as subsp. Praecox, it has up to 20 poisonous, strap-like leaves per plant which are arching and are not leathery; these range in length from 20 to 70 cm 3 to 5 cm wide. Flower colour ranges from blue to white. Shiny black seeds are produced in three-sided capsules; these have perianth segments. Agapanthus praecox subsp. MinimusOccurring in the southeastern Western Cape and Eastern Cape, this subspecies is the smallest, ranging in height from 300 to 600 mm, it has a longer flowering season, from November to March. Flower colour includes various shades of blue; the plant supports a poor soil. Exposure to full sun is preferable but it supports partial shade, she does not like to be moved. It can be multiplied by division of tufts, it tolerates drought once well installed. It overwinters as a stump and therefore disappears during the cold months. Contrary to popular belief, this species can withstand wind and cold up to -15 ° C provided that the strains are protected for the first two years with mulching.
Young shoots need to be protected from snails. A contribution of 2 or 3 handfuls of wood ash around the stump in the spring will push the gastropods a few days and make a good contribution of potash; the species is naturalised in New Zealand and the Isles of Scilly. It is naturalized in Madeira, the Canary Islands, Ethiopia, St. Helena, Norfolk Island, Honduras, Costa Rica and Tristan da Cunha. Agapanthus praecox subsp. Orientalis is regarded for being tough in sun and heat, long-flowering, is a favourite for many councils in Australia for the landscaping of roads and other public areas which do not get watered; the plant is still planted but in some areas it is considered a weed, planting has been discontinued, although it is not regarded as invasive. Agapanthus in New Zealand PlantZAfrica.com - Agapanthus praecox
Plants are multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants and other gymnosperms and their allies, liverworts and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae. Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria, their chloroplasts contain b, which gives them their green color. Some plants are parasitic or mycotrophic and have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to photosynthesize. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and alternation of generations, although asexual reproduction is common.
There are about 320 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants. Green plants provide a substantial proportion of the world's molecular oxygen and are the basis of most of Earth's ecosystems on land. Plants that produce grain and vegetables form humankind's basic foods, have been domesticated for millennia. Plants have many cultural and other uses, as ornaments, building materials, writing material and, in great variety, they have been the source of medicines and psychoactive drugs; the scientific study of plants is known as a branch of biology. All living things were traditionally placed into one of two groups and animals; this classification may date from Aristotle, who made the distincton between plants, which do not move, animals, which are mobile to catch their food. Much when Linnaeus created the basis of the modern system of scientific classification, these two groups became the kingdoms Vegetabilia and Animalia. Since it has become clear that the plant kingdom as defined included several unrelated groups, the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.
However, these organisms are still considered plants in popular contexts. The term "plant" implies the possession of the following traits multicellularity, possession of cell walls containing cellulose and the ability to carry out photosynthesis with primary chloroplasts; when the name Plantae or plant is applied to a specific group of organisms or taxon, it refers to one of four concepts. From least to most inclusive, these four groupings are: Another way of looking at the relationships between the different groups that have been called "plants" is through a cladogram, which shows their evolutionary relationships; these are not yet settled, but one accepted relationship between the three groups described above is shown below. Those which have been called "plants" are in bold; the way in which the groups of green algae are combined and named varies between authors. Algae comprise several different groups of organisms which produce food by photosynthesis and thus have traditionally been included in the plant kingdom.
The seaweeds range from large multicellular algae to single-celled organisms and are classified into three groups, the green algae, red algae and brown algae. There is good evidence that the brown algae evolved independently from the others, from non-photosynthetic ancestors that formed endosymbiotic relationships with red algae rather than from cyanobacteria, they are no longer classified as plants as defined here; the Viridiplantae, the green plants – green algae and land plants – form a clade, a group consisting of all the descendants of a common ancestor. With a few exceptions, the green plants have the following features in common, they undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, have mitochondria with flat cristae. The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. Two additional groups, the Rhodophyta and Glaucophyta have primary chloroplasts that appear to be derived directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria, although they differ from Viridiplantae in the pigments which are used in photosynthesis and so are different in colour.
These groups differ from green plants in that the storage polysaccharide is floridean starch and is stored in the cytoplasm rather than in the plastids. They appear to have had a common origin with Viridiplantae and the three groups form the clade Archaeplastida, whose name implies that their chloroplasts were derived from a single ancient endosymbiotic event; this is the broadest modern definition of the term'plant'. In contrast, most other algae not only have different pigments but have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes, they are not close relatives of the Archaeplastida having acquired chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae. They are thus not included in the broadest modern definition of the plant kingdom, although they were in the past; the green plants or Viridiplantae were traditionally divided into the green algae (including
Missouri Botanical Garden
The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden located at 4344 Shaw Boulevard in St. Louis, Missouri, it is known informally as Shaw's Garden for founder and philanthropist Henry Shaw. Its herbarium, with more than 6.6 million specimens, is the second largest in North America, behind only that of the New York Botanical Garden. Founded in 1859, the Missouri Botanical Garden is one of the oldest botanical institutions in the United States and a National Historic Landmark, it is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Garden is a center for botanical research and science education of international repute, as well as an oasis in the city of St. Louis, with 79 acres of horticultural display, it includes a 14-acre Japanese strolling garden named Seiwa-en. It is adjacent to another of Shaw's legacies. In 1983, the Botanical Garden was added as the fourth subdistrict of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District. For part of 2006, the Missouri Botanical Garden featured "Glass in the Garden", with glass sculptures by Dale Chihuly placed throughout the garden.
Four pieces were purchased to remain at the gardens. In 2008 sculptures of the French artist Niki de Saint Phalle were placed throughout the garden. In 2009, the 150th anniversary of the Garden was celebrated, including a floral clock display. After 40 years of service to the Garden, Dr. Peter Raven retired from his presidential post on September 1, 2010. Dr. Peter Wyse Jackson replaced him as President; the Garden is a place for many annual cultural festivals, including the Japanese Festival and the Chinese Culture Days by the St. Louis Chinese Culture Days Committee. During this time, there are showcases of the culture's botanics as well as cultural arts, crafts and food; the Japanese Festival features sumo wrestling, taiko drumming, koma-mawashi top spinning, kimono fashion shows. The Garden is known for its bonsai growing, which can be seen all year round, but is highlighted during the multiple Asian festivals. Major garden features include: Tower Grove House and Herb Garden - Shaw's Victorian country house designed by prominent local architect George I.
Barnett in the Italianate style. Victory of Science Over Ignorance - Marble statue by Carlo Nicoli. Linnean House - Said to be the oldest continually operated greenhouse west of the Mississippi River. Shaw's orangery, in the late 1930s it was converted to house camellias. Gladney Rose Garden - Circular rose garden with arbors. Climatron and Reflecting Pools - the world's first geodesic dome greenhouse designed by architect and engineer Thomas C. Howard of Synergetics, Inc. English Woodland Garden - aconite, bluebells, hosta and others beneath the tree canopy. Seiwa-en Japanese Garden - is a 14-acre chisen kaiyu-shiki with lawns and path set around a 4-acre central lake, it is the largest Japanese Garden in North America. Grigg Nanjing Friendship Chinese Garden - Designed by architect Yong Pan. Blanke Boxwood Garden - walled parterre with a fine boxwood collection. Strassenfest German Garden - flora native to Germany and Central Europe. Ottoman garden with water xeriscape. Douglas Trumbull, director of the 1972 science fiction classic film Silent Running, stated that the geodesic domes on the spaceship Valley Forge were based on the Missouri Botanical Garden's Climatron dome.
Missouri Botanical Garden operates the Sophia M. Sachs Butterfly House in Chesterfield; the Butterfly House includes an 8,000-square-foot indoor butterfly conservatory as well as an outdoor butterfly garden. The EarthWays Center is a group at the Missouri Botanical Garden that provides resources on and educates the public about green practices, renewable energy, energy efficiency, other sustainability matters; the Shaw Nature Reserve was started by the Missouri Botanical Garden in 1925 as a place to store plants away from the pollution of the city. The air in St. Louis cleared up, the reserve has continued to be open to the public for enjoyment and education since; the 2,400-acre reserve is located in Missouri, 35 miles away from the city. The Plant List is an Internet encyclopedia project to compile a comprehensive list of botanical nomenclature, created by the Royal Botanic Gardens and the Missouri Botanical Garden; the Plant List has 1,040,426 scientific plant names of species rank, of which 298,900 are accepted species names.
In addition, the list has 16,167 plant genera. Monsanto has donated $10 million to the Missouri Botanical Garden since the 1970s, which named its 1998 plant science facility the'Monsanto Center'. List of botanical gardens in the United States Peter F. Stevens, a biologist working in the Missouri Botanical Garden Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, journal St. Louis Chinese Culture Day List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri N
Cape of Good Hope
The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. A common misconception is; this misconception was based on the misbelief that the Cape was the dividing point between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Contemporary geographic knowledge instead states the southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas about 150 kilometres to the east-southeast; the currents of the two oceans meet at the point where the warm-water Agulhas current meets the cold-water Benguela current and turns back on itself. That oceanic meeting point fluctuates between Cape Point; when following the western side of the African coastline from the equator, the Cape of Good Hope marks the point where a ship begins to travel more eastward than southward. Thus, the first modern rounding of the cape in 1488 by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias was a milestone in the attempts by the Portuguese to establish direct trade relations with the Far East. Dias called the cape Cabo das Tormentas, the original name of the "Cape of Good Hope".
As one of the great capes of the South Atlantic Ocean, the Cape of Good Hope has long been of special significance to sailors, many of whom refer to it as "the Cape". It is a waypoint on the Cape Route and the clipper route followed by clipper ships to the Far East and Australia, still followed by several offshore yacht races; the term Cape of Good Hope is used in three other ways: It is a section of the Table Mountain National Park, within which the cape of the same name, as well as Cape Point, falls. Prior to its incorporation into the national park, this section constituted the Cape Point Nature Reserve, it was the name of the early Cape Colony established by the Dutch on the Cape Peninsula. Just before the Union of South Africa was formed, the term referred to the entire region that in 1910 was to become the Cape of Good Hope Province. Eudoxus of Cyzicus was a Greek navigator for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt, who found the wreck of a ship in the Indian Ocean that appeared to have come from Gades, rounding the Cape.
When Eudoxus was returning from his second voyage to India, the wind forced him south of the Gulf of Aden and down the coast of Africa for some distance. Somewhere along the coast of East Africa, he found the remains of the ship. Due to its appearance and the story told by the natives, Eudoxus concluded that the ship was from Gades and had sailed anti-clockwise around Africa, passing the Cape and entering the Indian Ocean; this inspired him to attempt a circumnavigation of the continent. Organising the expedition on his own account he set sail from Gades and began to work down the African coast; the difficulties were too great, he was obliged to return to Europe. After this failure he again set out to circumnavigate Africa, his eventual fate is unknown. Although some, such as Pliny, claimed that Eudoxus did achieve his goal, the most probable conclusion is that he perished on the journey. In the 1450 Fra Mauro map, the Indian Ocean is depicted as connected to the Atlantic. Fra Mauro puts the following inscription by the southern tip of Africa, which he names the "Cape of Diab", describing the exploration by a ship from the East around 1420: "Around 1420 a ship, or junk, from India crossed the Sea of India towards the Island of Men and the Island of Women, off Cape Diab, between the Green Islands and the shadows.
It sailed for 40 days in a south-westerly direction without finding anything other than wind and water. According to these people themselves, the ship went some 2,000 miles ahead until - once favourable conditions came to an end - it turned round and sailed back to Cape Diab in 70 days". "The ships called junks that navigate these seas carry four masts or more, some of which can be raised or lowered, have 40 to 60 cabins for the merchants and only one tiller. They can navigate without a compass, because they have an astrologer, who stands on the side and, with an astrolabe in hand, gives orders to the navigator". Fra Mauro explained that he obtained the information from "a trustworthy source", who traveled with the expedition the Venetian explorer Niccolò da Conti who happened to be in Calicut, India at the time the expedition left: "What is more, I have spoken with a person worthy of trust, who says that he sailed in an Indian ship caught in the fury of a tempest for 40 days out in the Sea of India, beyond the Cape of Soffala and the Green Islands towards west-southwest.
Thus one can believe and confirm what is said by both these and those, that they had therefore sailed 4,000 miles". Fra Mauro comments that the account of the expedition, together with the relation by Strabo of the travels of Eudoxus of Cyzicus from Arabia to Gibraltar through the southern Ocean in Antiquity, led him to believe that the Indian Ocean was not a closed sea and that Africa could be circumnavigated by her southern end; this knowledge, together with the map depiction of the African continent encouraged the Portuguese to intensify their effort to round the tip of Africa. I
Agapanthoideae is a subfamily of monocot flowering plants in the family Amaryllidaceae, order Asparagales. It is one of three subfamilies of Amaryllidaceae, it was treated as a separate family, Agapanthaceae. The subfamily name is derived from the generic name of Agapanthus, it consists of a single genus, is endemic to South Africa