American comic book
An American comic book is a thin periodical originating in the United States 32 pages, containing comics content. While the form originated in 1933, American comic books first gained popularity after the 1938 publication of Action Comics, which included the debut of the superhero Superman; this was followed by a superhero boom that lasted until the end of World War II. After the war, while superheroes were marginalized, the comic book industry expanded and genres such as horror, science fiction and romance became popular; the 1950s saw a gradual decline, due to a shift away from print media in the wake of television and the impact of the Comics Code Authority. The late 1950s and the 1960s saw a superhero revival and superheroes remain the dominant character archetype in the 21st century; some fans collect comic books. Some have sold for more than US $1 million. Comic shops cater to fans, selling comic books, plastic sleeves and cardboard backing to protect the comic books. An American comic book is known as a floppy comic.
It is thin and stapled, unlike traditional books. American comic books are one of the three major comic book schools globally, along with Japanese manga and the Franco-Belgian comic books; the typical size and page count of comics have varied over the decades trending toward smaller formats and fewer pages. In recent decades, standard comics have been about 6.625 inches × 10.25 inches, 32 pages long. While comics can be the work of a single creator, the labor of making them is divided between a number of specialists. There may be a separate writer and artist, or there may be separate artists for the characters and backgrounds. In superhero comic books, the art may be divided between: a writer, who creates the stories. A penciller, who lays out the artwork in pencil. An inker, who finishes the artwork in ink. A colorist, who adds color to the comics a letterer, who adds the captions and speech balloons; the process begins with the creator coming up with an idea or concept working it into a plot and story, finalizing the preliminary writing with a script.
After the art production, letters are placed on the page and an editor may have the final say before the comic is sent to the printer. The creative team, the writers and artists, may work with a comic book publisher for help with marketing and other logistics. A distributor like Diamond Comic Distributors, the largest in the U. S. helps to distribute the finished product to retailers. Another part of the process involved in successful comics is the interaction between the readers/fans and the creator. Fan art and letters to the editor were printed in the back of the book until the early 21st century when various Internet forms started to replace them. Comic specialty stores did help encourage several waves of independently-produced comics, beginning in the mid-1970s; some of the early example of these - referred to as "independent" or "alternative" comics - such as Big Apple Comix, continued somewhat in the tradition of underground comics, while others, such as Star Reach, resembled the output of mainstream publishers in format and genre but were published by smaller artist-owned ventures or by a single artist.
The "small press" scene continued to grow and diversify, with a number of small publishers in the 1990s changing the format and distribution of their books to more resemble non-comics publishing. The "minicomics" form, an informal version of self-publishing, arose in the 1980s and became popular among artists in the 1990s, despite reaching an more limited audience than the small presses; the development of the modern American comic book happened in stages. Publishers had collected comic strips in hardcover book form as early as 1842, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, a collection of English-language newspaper inserts published in Europe as the 1837 book Histoire de M. Vieux Bois by Rodolphe Töpffer; the G. W. Dillingham Company published the first known proto-comic-book magazine in the U. S; the Yellow Kid in McFadden's Flats, in 1897. A hardcover book, it reprinted material—primarily the October 18, 1896 to January 10, 1897 sequence titled "McFadden's Row of Flats"—from cartoonist Richard F. Outcault's newspaper comic strip Hogan's Alley, starring the Yellow Kid.
The 196-page, square-bound, black-and-white publication, which includes introductory text by E. W. Townsend, measured 5×7 inches and sold for 50 cents; the neologism "comic book" appears on the back cover. Despite the publication of a series of related Hearst comics soon afterward, the first monthly proto-comic book, Embee Distributing Company's Comic Monthly, did not appear until 1922. Produced in an 8½-by-9-inch format, it reprinted black-and-white newspaper comic strips and lasted a year. In 1929, Dell Publishing published The Funnies, described by the Library of Congress as "a short-lived newspaper tabloid insert" and not to be confused with Dell's 1936 comic-book series of the same name. Historian Ron Goulart describes the 16-page, four-color periodical as "more a Sunday comic section without the rest of the newspaper than a true comic book, but it did offer all original material and was sold on newsstands". The Funnies ran for 36 issues, published Saturdays through October 16, 1930. In 1933, salesperson Maxwell Gaines, sales manager Harry I.
Wildenberg, owner George Janosik of the Waterbury, Connecticut company Eastern Color Printing—which printed, among other things, Sunday-paper comic-strip sections – produced Funnies on Parade as a way to keep their presses running. Like The Funnies, but only eight pages, this appeared as a newsprint magazine
Mister Fantastic is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character is a founding member of the Fantastic Four. Richards possesses a mastery of mechanical and electrical engineering, all levels of physics, human and alien biology. BusinessWeek listed Mr. Fantastic as one of the top ten most intelligent fictional characters in American comics, he is the inventor of the spacecraft, bombarded by cosmic radiation on its maiden voyage, granting the Fantastic Four their powers. Richards gained the ability to stretch his body into any shape. Mister Fantastic acts as the leader and father figure of the Fantastic Four, although in recent years he has been portrayed as being cold and distant towards his teammates due to his scientific, methodical nature; this is true with his best friend, Ben Grimm, who blames Richards for his transformation into a large, rocky creature called the Thing. Whenever Richards is confronted with a challenge, his attention can be so focused that he can neglect his own family.
Regardless, he is the loving husband of Susan Storm, father of son Franklin Richards and daughter Valeria Richards, mentor of his brother-in-law, Johnny Storm. He was first speculated, confirmed that he had diagnosed himself to be on the autism spectrum; the character of Reed Richards was portrayed by actors Alex Hyde-White in the 1994 The Fantastic Four film, Ioan Gruffudd in the 2005 film Fantastic Four and its 2007 sequel Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer, Miles Teller in the 2015 film Fantastic Four. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, the character first appeared in The Fantastic Four #1, he was one of the four main characters in the title. Lee has stated the stretch powers were inspired by DC's Plastic Man, which had no equivalent in Marvel. Reed Richards has continued to appear in the Fantastic Four comic for the majority of its publication run. Born in Central City, Reed Richards is the son of Evelyn and Nathaniel Richards. Nathaniel was a scientific genius, Reed inherited a similar level of intellect and interests.
A child prodigy with special aptitude in mathematics and mechanics, Reed Richards was taking college-level courses when he was 14 He attended such prestigious universities as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Columbia University, the fictional Empire State University. By the age of 20, he had several degrees in the sciences under his belt, it was at Empire State University. Reed had begun designing a starship capable of traveling in hyperspace. Sharing his plans with his new roommate, Grimm jokingly volunteered to pilot the craft. While at State U he met a brilliant fellow student, Victor Von Doom. In Richards, Doom met the first person. Determined to prove he was better, Doom conducted reckless experiments which scarred his face and would lead him to become Doctor Doom. During the summer months, Reed rented a room in a boarding house owned by the aunt of a young woman named Susan Storm, an undergraduate student at the time. Reed fell in love with Sue and began courting her.
Reed was too distracted from his work on his dissertation due to his romance with Sue and decided that the best thing for the both of them was to move out of Marygay's home. Moving on to Harvard, Reed earned Ph. D.s in Physics and Electrical Engineering while working as a military scientist, all this by the age of 22. He worked in communications for the Army. Three years in his mid-20s, Reed used his inheritance, along with government funding, to finance his research. Determined to go to Mars and beyond, Richards based the fateful project in Central City. Susan Storm moved into the area, within a short time, found herself engaged to Reed. Reed's old college roommate, Ben Grimm, now a successful test pilot and astronaut, was indeed slated to pilot the craft. All seemed well, they knew they had not completed all the testing, planned, but Reed was confident they would be safe. Ben was skeptical about the unknown effects of radiation, while Reed theorized that their ship's shielding would be adequate to protect them.
It was on Reed's initiative that the fateful mission which had Susan Storm, Johnny Storm and Ben Grimm accompanying him into space took place. When their ship passed through the Van Allen belt they found their cockpit bombarded with nearly lethal doses of cosmic radiation. Reed had neglected to account for the abnormal radiation levels in the belt's atmosphere; the cosmic rays wreaked havoc on the starship's insufficient shielding and they were forced to return to Earth immediately. When they crash-landed they found. Reed's body was elastic and he could reshape any portion of his body at will. At his suggestion, they decided to use their new abilities to serve mankind as the Fantastic Four. Reed was chosen to lead the group, under the name "Mr. Fantastic", he told his daughter, by way of a bedtime story, that the reason he suggested they become adventurers and gave them such outlandish costumes and names as "Mister Fantastic" and "The Thing" was that he knew they would be hated and feared for their powers without such an over-the-top public image.
This history has been changed over the years in order to
Fantastic Four (comic book)
Fantastic Four is the name of several comic book titles featuring the team Fantastic Four and published by Marvel Comics, beginning with the original Fantastic Four comic book series which debuted in 1961. As the first superhero team title produced by Marvel Comics, it formed a cornerstone of the company's 1960s rise from a small division of a publishing company to a pop culture conglomerate; the title would go on to showcase the talents of comics creators such as Roy Thomas, John Buscema, John Byrne, Steve Englehart, Walt Simonson, Tom DeFalco, Mark Waid, Jonathan Hickman. The Fantastic Four is one of several Marvel titles originating in the Silver Age of Comic Books, continuously published through 2015 before returning to monthly publication in 2018. Magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of strong sales on Justice League of America, directed his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes. According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most.
It was a book called The Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes....'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he,'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'" The release of The Fantastic Four #1 was an unexpected success. Lee had felt ready to leave the comics field at the time, but the positive response to Fantastic Four persuaded him to stay on; the title began to receive fan mail and Lee started printing the letters in a letter column with issue #3. With the third issue, Lee created the hyperbolic slogan "The Greatest Comic Magazine in the World!!" With the following issue, the slogan was changed to "The World's Greatest Comic Magazine!" and became a fixture on the issue covers into the 1990s, on numerous covers in the 2000s. Issue #4 reintroduced Namor the Sub-Mariner, an aquatic antihero, a star character of Marvel's earliest iteration, Timely Comics, during the late 1930s and 1940s period that historians and fans call the Golden Age of Comics.
Issue # 5 introduced Doctor Doom. These earliest issues were published bimonthly. With issue #16, the cover title dropped its The and became Fantastic Four. Kirby left Marvel in mid-1970, having drawn the first 102 issues plus an unfinished issue published in Fantastic Four #108, with alterations, completed and published as Fantastic Four: The Lost Adventure, Fantastic Four continued with Lee, Roy Thomas, Gerry Conway and Marv Wolfman as its consecutive regular writers, working with artists such as John Romita Sr. John Buscema, Rich Buckler and George Pérez, with longtime inker Joe Sinnott adding some visual continuity. Jim Steranko contributed several covers during this time. A short-lived series titled Giant-Size Super-Stars starring the team began in May 1974 and changed its title to Giant-Size Fantastic Four with issue #2. John Byrne joined the title with issue # 209. Bill Mantlo followed Wolfman as writer of the series and wrote a crossover with Peter Parker, The Spectacular Spider-Man #42.
Byrne wrote and drew a giant-sized Fantastic Four promotional comic for Coca-Cola, rejected by Coca-Cola as being too violent and published as Fantastic Four #220-221 instead. Writer Doug Moench and penciller Bill Sienkiewicz took over for 10 issues. With issue #232, the aptly titled "Back to the Basics", Byrne began his run as writer and inker, the last under the pseudonym Bjorn Heyn for this issue only. Byrne revitalized the slumping title with his run. Byrne was slated to write with Sienkiewicz providing the art. Sienkiewicz left to do Moon Knight, Byrne ended up as writer and inker. Various editors were assigned to the comic. Byrne told Jim Shooter that he could not work with Budiansky, although they continued to work together. In 2006, Byrne said. I look back and I think, Shooter trying to force me off the book". Byrne left following issue #293 in the middle of a story arc, explaining he could not recapture the fun he had had on the series. Byrne was followed by a quick succession of writers: Roger Stern, Tom DeFalco, Roy Thomas.
Steve Englehart took over as writer for issues 304–332. The title had been struggling, so Englehart decided to make radical changes, he felt the title had become stale with the normal makeup of Reed, Sue and Johnny, so in issue #308 Reed and Sue retired and were replaced with the Thing's new girlfriend, Sharon Ventura, Johnny Storm's former love, Crystal. The changes increased readership through issue #321. At this point, Marvel made decisions about another Englehart comic, West Coast Avengers, that he disagreed with, in protest he changed his byline to S. F. X. Englehart. In issue # 326, Englehart was told to undo the other changes he had made; this caused Englehart to take his name off the book. He used the pseudonym John Harkness, which he had created years before for work he didn't want to be associated with. According to Englehart, the run from #326 through his last issue, #332, was "one of the most painful stretches of career." Writer-artist Walt Simonson took over as writer with #334, three issues began pencilling and inking as well.
With brief inking exceptions, two fill-in issues, a three-issue stint drawn by A
Humans are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae. A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect bipedal locomotion. Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, gave rise to anatomically modern Homo sapiens in Africa about 315,000 years ago. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago, in several waves of migration, they ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world; the spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, problem solving and culture through social learning.
Humans use tools better than any other animal. Humans uniquely use such systems of symbolic communication as language and art to express themselves and exchange ideas, organize themselves into purposeful groups. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states. Social interactions between humans have established an wide variety of values, social norms, rituals, which together undergird human society. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, mythology, religion and numerous other fields of knowledge. Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization; these human societies subsequently expanded, establishing various forms of government and culture around the world, unifying people within regions to form states and empires.
The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of fuel-driven technologies and increased lifespans, causing the human population to rise exponentially. The global human population was estimated to be near 7.7 billion in 2015. In common usage, the word "human" refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of "hominid" and "hominin" have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery and study of the fossil ancestors of modern humans; the clear boundary between humans and apes has blurred, resulting in now acknowledging the hominids as encompassing multiple species, Homo and close relatives since the split from chimpanzees as the only hominins. There is a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species; the English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain from Latin hūmānus, the adjective form of homō "man."
The word's use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex; the species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae. The generic name "Homo" is a learned 18th-century derivation from Latin homō "man," "earthly being"; the species-name "sapiens" means "wise" or "sapient". Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, that "sapiens" is the singular form; the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. Modern humans, defined as the species Homo sapiens or to the single extant subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, proceeded to colonize all the continents and larger islands, arriving in Eurasia 125,000–60,000 years ago, Australia around 40,000 years ago, the Americas around 15,000 years ago, remote islands such as Hawaii, Easter Island and New Zealand between the years 300 and 1280.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas. With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the technique called a molecular clock which estimates the time required for the number of divergent mutations to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate date for the split between lineages can be calculated; the gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the line leading to the h
The Avengers are a fictional team of superheroes appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The team made its debut in The Avengers #1, created by writer-editor Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby; the Avengers is Lee and Kirby's renovation of a previous superhero team, All-Winners Squad, who appeared in comic books series published by Marvel Comics' predecessor Timely Comics. Labeled "Earth's Mightiest Heroes", the Avengers consisted of Ant-Man, the Hulk, Iron Man and the Wasp. Ant-Man had become Giant-Man by issue #2; the original Captain America was discovered trapped in ice in issue #4, joined the group after they revived him. A rotating roster became a hallmark of the series, although one theme remained consistent: the Avengers fight "the foes no single superhero can withstand." The team, famous for its battle cry of "Avengers Assemble!", has featured humans, Inhumans, aliens, supernatural beings, former villains. The team has appeared in a wide variety of media outside of comic books, including a number of different animated television series and direct-to-video films.
The 2012 live-action feature film The Avengers, directed by Joss Whedon, set numerous records during its box office run, including one of the biggest opening debuts in North America, with a weekend gross of $207.4 million. A second Avengers film titled Avengers: Age of Ultron was released on May 1, 2015, followed by Avengers: Infinity War, which became the first superhero film to gross over $2 billion and was released on April 27, 2018. A fourth film, Avengers: Endgame, is scheduled for release on April 26, 2019; the team debuted in The Avengers #1. Much like the Justice League, the Avengers were an assemblage of pre-existing superhero characters created by Lee and Jack Kirby; this initial series, published bi-monthly through issue #6 and monthly thereafter ran through issue #402, with spinoffs including several annuals, miniseries and a giant-size quarterly sister series that ran in the mid-1970s. Other spinoff series include West Coast Avengers published as a four-issue miniseries in 1984, followed by a 102-issue series, retitled Avengers West Coast with #47.
Between 1996 and 2004, Marvel relaunched the primary Avengers title three times. In 1996, the "Heroes Reborn" line took place in an alternate universe, with a revamped history unrelated to mainstream Marvel continuity; the Avengers vol. 3 relaunched and ran for 84 issues from February 1998 to August 2004. To coincide with what would have been the 500th issue of the original series, Marvel changed the numbering, The Avengers #500–503, the one-shot Avengers Finale became the "Avengers Disassembled" storyline and final issues. In January 2005, a new version of the team appeared in the ongoing title The New Avengers, followed by The Mighty Avengers, Avengers: The Initiative, Dark Avengers. Avengers vol. 4 debuted in July 2010 and ran until January 2013. Vol. 5 was launched in February 2013. After Secret Wars, a new Avengers team debuted, dubbed the All-New, All-Different Avengers, starting with a Free Comic Book Day preview. Following Civil War II, the book was relaunched in 2016 as Avengers, while retaining the same writer and much of the cast from the All-New, All-Different run.
The series ran for 11 issues before reverting to the numbering of the original Avengers series with issue #672. Starting with issue #675, all four Avengers titles being published at the time were merged into a single weekly series dubbed Avengers: No Surrender, designed to close out this era of the team's history. Following the conclusion of No Surrender in 2018, the series will be relaunched again as Avengers; when the Asgardian god Loki seeks revenge against his brother Thor, his machinations unwittingly lead teenager Rick Jones to collect Ant-Man, the Wasp, Iron Man to help Thor and the Hulk, whom Loki used as a pawn. After the group vanquished Loki, Ant-Man stated that the five worked well together and suggested they form a team; the roster changed immediately. Captain America soon joined the team in issue #4, he was given "founding member" status in the Hulk's place; the Avengers went on to fight foes such as Baron Zemo, who formed the Masters of Evil, Kang the Conqueror, Wonder Man, Count Nefaria.
The next milestone came. Giant-Man, now calling himself Goliath, the Wasp rejoined. Hercules became part of the team, while the Black Knight, the Black Widow, abetted the Avengers but did not become members until years later. Spider-Man did not join the group; the Black Panther joined after rescuing the team from Klaw. The X-Men #45 featured a crossover with The Avengers #53; this was followed by the introduction of the android the Vision. Pym assumed the new identity of Yellowjacket in issue #59, married the Wasp the following month; the Avengers headquarters was in a New York City building called Avengers Mansion, courtesy of Tony Stark. The mansion was serviced by Edwin Jarvis, the Avengers' faithful butler, furnished with state of the art technology and defense systems, included the Avengers' primary mode of transport: the five-engine Quinjet. The
Hawkeye is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Stan Lee and artist Don Heck, the character first appeared as a villain in Tales of Suspense #57 and joined the Avengers in The Avengers #16, he has been a prominent member of the team since. He was ranked at #44 on IGN's Top 100 Comic Book Heroes list. Hawkeye is portrayed by Jeremy Renner in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, a shared fictional universe, the setting of films produced by Marvel Studios. Renner first made an uncredited cameo appearance in Thor and played a larger role in The Avengers, Avengers: Age of Ultron, Captain America: Civil War and Avengers: Endgame. Hawkeye was introduced as a reluctant villain in Tales of Suspense #57. After two more appearances as a villain in Tales of Suspense #60 and #64, Hawkeye joins the ranks of the Avengers in Avengers #16, he became a perennial member of the team and has made numerous appearances in all five volumes, including specials and annuals, as well as in The Ultimates.
However, Hawkeye's presence in the Avengers - both the team and the series - would be sporadic for nearly a decade starting in early 1973. Steve Englehart, the Avengers writer at the time of Hawkeye's departure, explained, "When I had Hawkeye quit the Avengers, I liked him, but I wanted to try a different approach, so his leaving fit in with what I was trying to do."Hawkeye featured prominently in the limited series West Coast Avengers #1–4 as founder and team leader, before appearing in the ongoing title, which ran for 102 issues from October 1985–January 1994. The title was renamed Avengers West Coast from #46. Hawkeye starred concurrently in every issue of Solo Avengers which ran for 40 issues from December 1987–January 1991. From 1998 to 2002, Hawkeye featured as team leader in issues #20–75 and Annual #2000 of the title Thunderbolts, written by Kurt Busiek and Fabian Nicieza, he appeared as a supporting character in Avengers Academy from issue #21 through its final issue #39 and as team leader in Secret Avengers from issue #22 through its final issue, #37.
Hawkeye appeared in Vol. 2 of Secret Avengers by Nick Spencer and Luke Ross. Hawkeye appeared as a regular character in the 2010-2013 Secret Avengers series, from issue #21.1 through its final issue #37. Hawkeye featured in the Marvel crossover event House of M, he appeared in the New Avengers series from issues #26–64 plus New Avengers Annual #2 and Annual #3. Continuing as Ronin, the character played an important part in the crossover event Secret Invasion #1–8; the company wide crossover event Dark Reign saw Hawkeye feature prominently in New Avengers: The Reunion #1–4 and Dark Reign: The List - New Avengers #1. He went on to feature in the Siege #1–4 crossover event. Hawkeye has appeared in numerous solo adventures over the years, he appeared in Hawkeye #1–4, written by Mark Gruenwald. Hawkeye appeared in Hawkeye Vol.2 #1–4 and Hawkeye: Earth's Mightiest Marksman #1. In 2003, Hawkeye had a short lived on-going series, Hawkeye Vol. 3, #1–8, soon cancelled. Writer Jim McCann and artist David Lopez had another unsuccessful attempt at an ongoing series with Hawkeye & Mockingbird #1–6.
The series did however spin into two limited series, beginning with Widowmaker #1–4 and Hawkeye: Blindspot #1–4. A fourth volume of Hawkeye began in August 2012 by the creative team of writer Matt Fraction and artist David Aja, which features a partnership with his protege, Kate Bishop, met with critical acclaim; as part of the All-New, All-Different Marvel relaunch, a new series entitled All-New Hawkeye began in March 2015, written by Jeff Lemire with art by Ramon Perez, which only lasted 5 issues a second volume which continued the previous story ended after 6 issues. Over the years, Hawkeye has made guest appearances in numerous Marvel titles, the most notable being Daredevil #99, Incredible Hulk #166, Marvel Team-Up #22, Ghost Rider #27, Marvel Team-Up #92, Marvel Fanfare #3, Captain America #317, Contest of Champions II #3-5, Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America #3, War Machine Vol.2 #8-10, Young Avengers Presents #6 and Captain America: Reborn #3-6. Post Civil War II, Hawkeye will star in new solo series called Occupy Avengers written by David Walker and penciled by Carlos Pacheco.
Kate Bishop had starred in the 5th Volume of Hawkeye. However, the book had been cancelled with its 16th and final issue in early 2018. Clint Barton was born in Iowa. At a young age he lost both of his parents in a car accident. After six years in an orphanage and his brother Barney ran away to join the Carson Carnival of Travelling Wonders. Clint soon caught the eye of the Swordsman. Along with the help of Trick Shot, the Swordsman trained Clint to become a master archer. Clint found the Swordsman embezzling money from the carnival. Before he could turn his mentor over to the authorities, Clint was beaten and left for dead, allowing the Swordsman to escape town. Clint's relationship with his brother Barney and Trick
Stan Lee was an American comic book writer, editor and producer. He rose through the ranks of a family-run business to become Marvel Comics' primary creative leader for two decades, leading its expansion from a small division of a publishing house to a multimedia corporation that dominated the comics industry. In collaboration with others at Marvel—particularly co-writer/artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko—he co-created numerous popular fictional characters, including superheroes Spider-Man, the X-Men, Iron Man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Scarlet Witch and Ant-Man. In doing so, he pioneered a more naturalistic approach to writing superhero comics in the 1960s, in the 1970s he challenged the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, indirectly leading to changes in its policies. In the 1980s he pursued development of Marvel properties with mixed results. Following his retirement from Marvel in the 1990s, he remained a public figurehead for the company, made cameo appearances in films and television shows based on Marvel characters, on which he received an executive producer credit.
Meanwhile, he continued independent creative ventures into his 90s, until his death in 2018. Lee was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995, he received the NEA's National Medal of Arts in 2008. Lee was raised in a Jewish family. In a 2002 survey of whether he believed in God, he stated, "Well, let me put it this way... No, I'm not going to try to be clever. I don't know. I just don't know."From 1945 to 1947, Lee lived in the rented top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan. He married Joan Clayton Boocock from Newcastle, England, on December 5, 1947, in 1949, the couple bought a house in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952, their daughter Joan Celia "J. C." Lee was born in 1950. Another daughter, Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953; the Lees resided in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, from 1952 to 1980. They owned a condominium on East 63rd Street in Manhattan from 1975 to 1980, during the 1970s owned a vacation home in Remsenburg, New York.
For their move to the West Coast in 1981, they bought a home in West Hollywood, California owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer Don Wilson. In September 2012, Lee underwent an operation to insert a pacemaker, which required cancelling planned appearances at conventions. On July 6, 2017, his wife of 69 years, died of complications from a stroke, she was 95 years old. In April 2018, The Hollywood Reporter published a report that claimed Lee was a victim of elder abuse. In August 2018, Morgan was issued a restraining order to stay away from Lee, his daughter, or his associates for three years. Stanley Martin Lieber was born on December 28, 1922, in Manhattan, New York City, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents and Jack Lieber, at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan, his father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue, in Washington Heights, Manhattan.
Lee had one younger brother named Larry Lieber. He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles. By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in an apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back". Lee and his brother shared the bedroom. Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx. In his youth, Lee enjoyed writing and entertained dreams of writing the "Great American Novel" one day, he said that in his youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center. At fifteen, Lee entered a high school essay competition sponsored by the New York Herald Tribune, called "The Biggest News of the Week Contest." Lee claimed to have won the prize for three straight weeks, goading the newspaper to write him and ask him to let someone else win. The paper suggested he look into writing professionally, which Lee claimed "probably changed my life."
He graduated from high school early, aged sixteen and a half, in 1939 and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project. The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy and the arts, its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy and the arts. Lee donated portions of his personal effects to the University of Wyoming at various times, between 1981 and 2001. Lee died at the age of 95 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, on November 12, 2018, after being rushed there in a medical emergency earlier in the day. Earlier that year, Lee revealed to the public that he had been battling pneumonia and in February was rushed to the hospital for worsening conditions at around the same time; the immediate cause