Agatharchides or Agatharchus of Cnidus was a Greek historian and geographer. Agatharchides is believed to have been born at Cnidus, hence his appellation; as Stanley M. Burstein notes, the "evidence for Agatharchides' life is meagre." Photius describes him as a threptos, a kind of assistant of servile origin, to Cinnaeus and states that he was a secretary to Heraclides Lembus. Cinnaeus served as a counselor to Ptolemy VI. Agatharchides furnishes few clues about his own life. At the conclusion of his On the Erythraean Sea, he apologizes for being unable to complete his work "since our age is unable to bear the toil" and "as a result of the disturbances in Egypt" he could no longer access the official records. There are two possible occasions when this could have happened: the first was in 145 BC, when Ptolemy VIII purged Alexandria of the intellectuals who supported his rivals for the throne. While most scholars have favored the date, Burstein argues for the earlier one. Extracts from the first book of his Erythraean Sea, written in the first person and advocating a military campaign into the lands south of Egypt, led early scholars to deduce that Agatharchides was an important political figure of his time, served as a guardian to one of the sons of Ptolemy VIII.
Dodwell endeavored to show that it the younger son and objects to Soter, that he reigned conjointly with his mother. This, was the case with Alexander likewise. Wesseling and Henry Fynes Clinton think the elder brother to be the one meant, for Soter was more to have been a minor on his accession in 117 BC than Alexander in 107 BC, ten years after their father's death. Moreover, Dodwell's date would leave too short an interval between the publication of Agatharchides's work on the Erythraean Sea, the work of Artemidorus; however at least as early as 1810, when B. G. Niebuhr pointed out that these excerpts were from a speech, not part of the narrative of his book, this theory has been recognized as conflicting with other known historical facts. Agatharchides was not well known in ancient times. Of his two major works, Affairs in Asia in ten books, Affairs in Europe in forty-nine books, only a few fragments survive, too few to provide us with any sense of the contents of either work. However, for his On the Erythraean Sea in five books the entire fifth book, a geographical treatise on the Horn of Africa and the lands around the Red Sea, has survived intact.
According to Burstein, "the comparative soberness of Agatharchides' treatment compared to previous accounts and the wealth of information contained in it led to a quick recognition... a valuable summary of the results of Ptolemaic exploration." In the first book of On the Erythraean Sea was a discussion respecting the origin of the name. In the fifth Agatharchides described the mode of life amongst the Sabaeans in Arabia, the Ichthyophagi, or fish-eaters, the way in which elephants were caught by the elephant-eaters, the mode of working the gold mines in the mountains of Egypt, near the Red Sea, his account of the Ichthyophagi and of the mode of working the gold mines, has been copied by Diodorus. Amongst other extraordinary animals he mentions the camelopard, found in the country of the Troglodytae, the rhinoceros. Material from this book is quoted directly or indirectly by Diodorus Siculus, Pliny the Elder, Aelian and other authors. Although Agatharchides' work was superseded by more detailed accounts in the 2nd century AD, Photius found a copy of Erythraean Sea in the 9th century, from which he preserved extensive extracts in his Bibliotheca.
Photius states that Agatharchides wrote in the Attic dialect, with a style, dignified and perspicuous, abounded in sententious passages—inspiring a favorable opinion from Photius. In the composition of his speeches Agatharchides was an imitator of Thucydides, whom he equalled in dignity and excelled in clearness, he was acquainted with the language of the Aethiopians, appears to have been the first who discovered the true cause of the yearly inundations of the Nile. An Agatharchides, of Samos, is mentioned by Plutarch, as the author of a work on Persia, one περὶ λίθων. J. A. Fabricius, conjectures that the true reading is Agathyrsides, not Agatharchides; the crater Agatharchides on the Moon is named in his honour. Periplus of the Erythraean Sea This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Agatharchides". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Burstein, Stanley M. translator and editor. Works Issued by the Hakluyt Society: Agatharchides of Cnidus, On the Erythraean Sea.
Second series, no. 172. London: Hakluyt Society, 1989. Huntingford, G. W. B. Ed.. The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, by an unknown author: With some Extracts from Agatharkhides'On the Erythraean Sea'. London: Hakluyt Society. ISBN 978-0-904180-05-3. Greek text and latin translation of the On the Erythraean Sea in Karl Müller's Geographi Graeci Minores, Vol.1, Paris, 1855
The Tangle Lakes are a 16-mile long chain of lakes connected by streams in interior Alaska. They form the headwaters for the Delta River; the main public access to the Lakes is from a Bureau of Land Management maintained campground and boat launch at Round Tangle Lake, about 20 miles from Paxson on the Denali Highway. The boat launch is the upper terminus of the Delta River Canoe Trail, a 2-3 day route to the Gulkana River and the Richardson Highway; the lakes support many species of fish, including lake trout and Arctic grayling. The area around the lakes consists of tundra due to the high elevation; the Tangle Lakes area has been the subject of extensive archaeological exploration. Prior to 1976 150 sites had been discovered showing that The Tangle Lakes have been populated intermittently since the settlement of the New World; the sites are concentrated to the lakes in a range covering about 80 square kilometers and the attraction of the location was most that the windswept hills surrounding the lakes would have attracted caribou seeking to graze on the exposed lichen.
Part of the Tangle Lakes area has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places as an archaeological district in 1971. National Register of Historic Places listings in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Matanuska-Susitna Borough, Alaska Pellerin, L.. Magnetotelluric data in the Delta River Mining District, near the Tangle Lakes area of south-central Alaska. Denver, CO: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey. Fish Alaska Magazine Lonely Planet Alaska BLM Alaska Unofficial Guide to Adventure Travel in Alaska Archaeology of Prehistoric Native Alaska BLM Tangle Lakes Archaeological District trail brochure
The Armenia School Connectivity Program is a program which provides training and internet access for schools in Armenia. It is implemented by Project Harmony and funded by the US Department of State Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs through the 1992 Freedom Support Act; the program allows the students and community members of Armenia to access and share information. It is meant to increase the U. S-Armenian partnership at the schools and within the community, increase interaction between schools and the community, civic engagement on the local and international levels; the Armenian School Connectivity Program supports the integration of educational technologies, supposed to strengthen democracy and support civil society and cultural understanding. The schools recruited to the ASCP went through a competition completed on October 15, 2004. During the site set-up of the ASCP, local schools were affected by the rearrangements initiated within the framework of Armenia Education Quality and Relevance Project.
The school building maintenance funds increased, becoming higher than the staff/student number involved in the ASCP network. A program assessment had a few more schools removed from the network for not having an adequate level of participation in the program. In the end, 330 schools were selected from all over Armenia to be a part of the Program network; the recruitment process for the ASCEP was held under the Program Promotion and Enrollment Competition. Project Harmony announced the launching of the recruitment along with a program introductory highlighting the principals and specifics about the recruitment requirements and process that were distributed to all schools within the region. There was a Q&A session; the selected schools that were part of the ASCP program were chosen based on the following criteria implemented by Project Harmony: The principal of the school had to support the program and be willing to share the Internet Computer Center classroom with the community and other schools The school’s academic background had to meet certain quantitative and qualitative measures There had to be a high motivation within the school for academics and administrative staff to use the classroom The community was involved in the school activities The school participated in any U.
S. government programs The school participated in any improvement programs organized by either NGOs, the ministry of education, other related organizations. The school's geographic location The online scrapbook is a competition meant to assess the development of the Armenian School Connectivity Program within its first six years running; the responsibility of Project Harmony was the long-term sustainability of the program. From the years 2000-2007, Project Harmony completed 3 interrelated school connectivity programs in Armenia; the first program implemented by PH, is referred to as Armenia connectivity 2000, outlined the expansion of Internet access through assessing the information and communication technology needs within the education system. Project harmony brought together organizations and private donors to invest in ICT projects for Armenia; these projects were meant to help build a demonstration network of 24-internet- connected secondary schools from the city of Yerevan and a few regions close to the capital.
This led to two following grants in support of the Armenia School Connectivity Program reaching across Armenia, creating a network of 330 secondary schools with an Internet Computer Center. The program hired and appropriately trained 600 ICC staff; the people responsible for the ICC program created outreach activities and information literacy programs for the local community. For the isolated and under-served communities of Armenia, project harmony expanded Internet accessibility through the Mobile Internet Lab project; the purpose of the Mobile Internet Lab was to ride through Armenia, offering basic computer and Internet literacy to the school and community members in remote villages. The Mobile Internet Lab was an altered flatbed truck with 5 workstations, a printer, a scanner, a digital camera and satellite connection. On May 2007, Project Harmony announced the final step to transfer the Armenian School Connectivity Program from the U. S government to the Government of Armenia. From the years 2005-2007, Project Harmony and the Armenian government worked together on the transfer of the ASCP to the Ministry of Education and Science.
The Ministry of Education and Science, a financial co-sponsor of the ASCP sought to adopt the ASCP infrastructure and the systems and strategies employed to deliver ICT-enhanced educational activities. The completion of the transfer was anticipated on June 30, 2007; until Project Harmony is responsible for sustaining the ASCEP. The National Center for Educational Technologies was authorized the responsibility of completing the agency after the official transfer on July 1, 2007. Armenia School Connectivity Program
Raphael Maltinsky is a Brazilian-Israeli professional association football player without a club. Maltinsky arrived in Israel for the second time in order to sign with Hapoel Petah Tikva while holding an offer from Brazilian club Vitória, he was wanted by Maccabi Netanya but no deal could be brokered and he returned to his native Brazil. During a training session on 6 October 2009, Maltinsky got into a heated war of words with Kobi Dajani. After some physical play, Dajani walked over to Maltinsky and headbutted him in the face requiring Maltinsky to be taken to a hospital where he had four stitches put in. Dajani apologized the following day to Maltinsky but both were not allowed back in to train with the club without going before a tribunal. Raphael Maltinsky – Israel Football Association league player details
Una O'Dwyer is a camogie player, winner of the Texaco Player of the Year award in 2004, an All-Star award in 2004, a Lynchpin award, predecessor of the All Star awards, in 2003 and All Ireland medals in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2003 and 2004. She played in eight successive All Ireland finals for Tipperary winning five All Ireland medals in 1999, 2000, 2001, captaining the team in 2003 and winning the Irish Independent player of the match award in 2004, she won her first All Ireland senior club medal with Cashel in 2007 and captained the team to victory against Athenry in 2009. She captained the UCC team to Ashbourne Cup success in 2003. In 2003, she was named as Irish Tatler magazine's'Woman of the Year Highly Commended Sports Star'. Profile in Cúl4kidz magazine Profile in Sunday Independent September 15 2002 Profile in Sunday Independent September 21 2003
Enrico Dandolo was Patriarch of Grado, from 1134 to 1182. A member of a noble Venetian family, after his appointment he put the interests of the church ahead of all other concerns. Dandolo supported reform of the clergy along the lines laid down by Bernard of Clairvaux, he was engaged in a long-running dispute over jurisdiction with Giovanni Polani, the Bishop of Castello. He became involved in a dispute with the doge of Venice over lay involvement in church affairs; the dispute with the doge escalated when the doge supported the Byzantine Empire when it was invaded by the Normans. Venice had critically important economic ties with the empire. Dandolo was exiled, he was restored to authority and gained most of his objectives including recognition of the separation of church from state and of the supremacy of the Patriarchate of Grado over Venice. Enrico Dandolo was the uncle of the famous Doge of Venice called Enrico Dandolo, he grew up in the small parish of San Luca, where his contemporary the future doge Pietro Polani lived.
In 1122 the doge Domenico Michiel launched a seaborne crusade to help Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Enrico Dandolo participated in the Venetian Crusade while in his early twenties; the Venetian fleet left on 8 August 1122, invested Corfu a possession of the Byzantine Empire, with which Venice had a dispute over privileges. They abandoned the siege when they heard news that King Baldwin II had been taken prisoner, reached the Palestinian coast in May 1123. On 15 February 1124 the Venetians began the siege of Tyre, which fell on 7 July 1124; the fleet passed through the Aegean Sea on the return voyage, pillaging Greek islands and forcing the Greeks to abandon the dispute and confirm their privileges. On his return Dandalo embarked on a career as a legal advocate. Dandalo was appointed Patriarch of Grado in 1134, nominated by his boyhood friend the doge Pietro Polani and accepted by the bishops of the lagoon. Dandolo succeeded Giovanni Gradenigo. Dandolo was thrown into the centuries-old dispute over jurisdiction with the Patriarchate of Aquileia.
In 1132 Pope Innocent II had restored many of the traditional episcopates to Aquileia, including the Diocese of Istria, reducing Grado to the Venetian Lagoon. Dandalo went to the Council of Pisa in June 1135; the pope confirmed Grado's traditional rights and privileges, but would not restore the lost dioceses. Dandalo became a lifetime supporter of reform and a strong advocate for the freedom and rights of the church. On his return to Venice, Dandalo introduced a chapter of Cistercians to the monastery of San Giorgio di Pineto, the first of their order in the lagoon. Dandalo became involved in a dispute with the Bishop of Castello. One of the sources of tension was that by this time the patriarchs of Grado spent little time in Grado itself, but made their base the church of San Silvestro in Venice, within the jurisdiction of the diocese of Castello. In 1139, encouraged by Dandolo, the clergy of the ancient church of San Salvatore in central Venice decided to become canons regular under the rule of St. Augustine.
The diocese had less control over such semi-monastic communities, some of which were directly linked to Rome. The clergy failed to confirm their subordination to the diocese. Polani was furious at what he saw as an attempt to take this important parish away from his control, placed it under interdict. In response, Dandolo placed it under his metropolitan protection. On 13 May 1141 Pope Innocent II lifted the interdict, placed San Salvatore under his personal protection and sent two canons to instruct the congregation in the rule. In 1141 Dandolo placed and blessed the foundation stone of the complex holding a church and hostel for pilgrims on the Isola di San Clemente; the island was given to canons regular. Dandolo expected it would come under the patriarchate of Grado, this became a long-running cause of dispute with Polani. In August 1143 the cardinal-priest Goizo of Santa Cecilia visited Venice, following this visit Pope Lucius II published clear definitions of the jurisdictions of Castello and Grado.
Sometime between 1141 and 1145 the doge nominated a new abbess for the convent of San Zaccaria to replace Nella Michiel, who had died. Dandolo condemned this lay interference in election of the abbess, disputed the doge's right to invest her. A new abbess was only confirmed in 1151, was not a member of a leading Venetian family, it is not clear whether this was a victory for Dandalo, but he had alienated the doge as well as the bishop. In 1147 a Norman fleet captured the island of Corfu from the Byzantines began to attack and loot the coastal towns of Greece, facing little serious resistance. In October 1147 the Emperor Manuel I Comnenus sent an urgent request for help to Venice; the Doge Pietro Polani called for all Venetians to help prepare a fleet to attack the Normans in the spring. The trade with Byzantium was crucial to the Venetian economy, Corfu commanded the trade route to the east, but Dandalo opposed coming to the aid of the Greeks on the grounds that they were schismatic. Dandalo went against his family interests in this, took a position that the Pope could not support.
The papacy was in a state of war with the Normans, although temporarily at truce, the Byzantine emperor was providing valuable support for the Second Crusade. This dispute culminated in the exile of the patriarch. In 1147 the doge had Dandolo expelled from Venice. All the houses of the Dandolo family were levelled. Dandolo fled to Rome, where Pope Eugene III excommunicated the doge and placed an inderdict on the whole city of Venice; the doge went ahead with