Tsukuyomi-no-mikoto or Tsukuyomi, is the moon god in Shinto and Japanese mythology. The -no-mikoto ending is a common honorific suffix for the names of gods, of similar meaning to "the grand, the great, the exalted"; the name "Tsukuyomi" is a compound of yomi. The Nihon Shoki mentions this name spelled as Tsukuyumi, but this yumi is a variation in pronunciation of yomi. An alternate interpretation is that his name is a combination of mi. "Yomi" may refer to the Japanese underworld, though this interpretation is unlikely. Unlike the myths of ancient Greece or Rome, the Japanese moon deity is male; this is clear in the earliest mentions in sources such as the Kojiki and the Man'yōshū, where Tsukuyomi's name is sometimes rendered as Tsukuyomi Otoko or as Tsukihito Otoko. Tsukuyomi was the second of the "three noble children" born when Izanagi-no-Mikoto, the god who created the first land of Onogoro-shima, was cleansing himself of his sins while bathing after escaping the underworld and the clutches of his enraged dead wife, Izanami-no-Mikoto.
Tsukuyomi was born. However, in an alternate story, Tsukuyomi was born from a mirror made of white copper in Izanagi's right hand. After climbing a celestial ladder, Tsukuyomi lived in the heavens known as Takamagahara, with his sister Amaterasu Ōmikami, the sun goddess, who later became his wife. Tsukuyomi angered Amaterasu when he killed the goddess of food. Amaterasu once sent Tsukuyomi to represent her at a feast presented by Uke Mochi; the goddess created the food by turning to the ocean and spitting out a fish facing a forest and spitting out game, turning to a rice paddy and coughing up a bowl of rice. Tsukuyomi was utterly disgusted by the fact that, although it looked exquisite, the meal was made in a disgusting manner, so he killed her. Soon, Amaterasu learned what happened and she was so angry that she refused to look at Tsukuyomi again, forever moving to another part of the sky; this is the reason that night are never together. In versions of this story, Uke Mochi is killed by Susanoo instead.
Media related to Tsukuyomi-no-Mikoto at Wikimedia Commons
Emperor of Japan
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan. Under the 1947 constitution, he is defined as "the symbol of the State and of the unity of the people." He was the highest authority of the Shinto religion. In Japanese, the Emperor is called Tennō "heavenly sovereign". In English, the use of the term Mikado for the Emperor was once common, but is now considered obsolete; the Emperor of Japan is the only head of state in the world with the English title of "Emperor". The Imperial House of Japan is the oldest continuing monarchical house in the world; the historical origins of the Emperors lie in the late Kofun period of the 3rd–7th centuries AD, but according to the traditional account of the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded in 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu, said to be a direct descendant of the sun-goddess Amaterasu. The current Emperor is Akihito, he acceded to the Chrysanthemum Throne upon the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa, in 1989. The Japanese government announced in December 2017 that Akihito will abdicate on 30 April 2019.
The role of the Emperor of Japan has alternated between a ceremonial symbolic role and that of an actual imperial ruler. Since the establishment of the first shogunate in 1199, the Emperors of Japan have taken on a role as supreme battlefield commander, unlike many Western monarchs. Japanese Emperors have nearly always been controlled by external political forces, to varying degrees. In fact, between 1192 and 1867, the shōguns, or their shikken regents in Kamakura, were the de facto rulers of Japan, although they were nominally appointed by the Emperor. After the Meiji Restoration in 1867, the Emperor was the embodiment of all sovereign power in the realm, as enshrined in the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Since the enactment of the 1947 Constitution, he has been a ceremonial head of state without nominal political powers. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Imperial Palace has been called Kyūjō Kōkyo, is on the former site of Edo Castle in the heart of Tokyo. Earlier, Emperors resided in Kyoto for nearly eleven centuries.
The Emperor's Birthday is a national holiday. Unlike most constitutional monarchs, the Emperor is not the nominal chief executive. Article 65 explicitly vests executive power in the Cabinet, of which the Prime Minister is the leader; the Emperor is not the commander-in-chief of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. The Japan Self-Defense Forces Act of 1954 explicitly vests this role with the Prime Minister; the Emperor's powers are limited only to important ceremonial functions. Article 4 of the Constitution stipulates that the Emperor "shall perform only such acts in matters of state as are provided for in the Constitution and he shall not have powers related to government." It stipulates that "the advice and approval of the Cabinet shall be required for all acts of the Emperor in matters of state". Article 4 states that these duties can be delegated by the Emperor as provided for by law. While the Emperor formally appoints the Prime Minister to office, Article 6 of the Constitution requires him to appoint the candidate "as designated by the Diet", without giving the Emperor the right to decline appointment.
Article 6 of the Constitution delegates the Emperor the following ceremonial roles: Appointment of the Prime Minister as designated by the Diet. Appointment of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet; the Emperor's other duties are laid down in article 7 of the Constitution, where it is stated that "the Emperor, with the advice and approval of the Cabinet, shall perform the following acts in matters of state on behalf of the people." In practice, all of these duties are exercised only in accordance with the binding instructions of the Cabinet: Promulgation of amendments of the constitution, cabinet orders, treaties. Convocation of the Diet. Dissolution of the House of Representatives. Proclamation of general election of members of the Diet. Attestation of the appointment and dismissal of Ministers of State and other officials as provided for by law, of full powers and credentials of Ambassadors and Ministers. Attestation of general and special amnesty, commutation of punishment and restoration of rights.
Awarding of honors. Attestation of instruments of ratification and other diplomatic documents as provided for by law. Receiving foreign ambassadors and ministers. Performance of ceremonial functions. Regular ceremonies of the Emperor with a constitutional basis are the Imperial Investitures in the Tokyo Imperial Palace and the Speech from the Throne ceremony in the House of Councillors in the National Diet Building; the latter ceremony opens extra sessions of the Diet. Ordinary sessions are opened each January and after new elections to the House of Representatives. Extra sessions convene in the autumn and are opened then. Although the Emperor has been a symbol of continuity with the past, the degree of power exercised by the Emperor has varied throughout Japanese history. In the early 7th century, the Emperor had begun to be called the "Son of Heaven"; the title of Emperor was borrowed from China, being derived from Chinese characters and was retroactively applied to the legendary Japanese rulers who reigned before the 7th–8th centuries AD.
According to the traditional account of the Nihon Shoki, Japan was founded by Emperor Jimmu in 660 BC. Modern historians agree that the Emperors before the possible late 3rd century AD ruler known traditionally as Emperor Ōjin are legendary. Emperor Ank
Kojiki sometimes read as Furukotofumi, is the oldest extant chronicle in Japan, dating from the early 8th century and composed by Ō no Yasumaro at the request of Empress Genmei. The Kojiki is a collection of myths, early legends, genealogies, oral traditions and semi-historical accounts down to 641 concerning the origin of the Japanese archipelago, the Kami; the myths contained in the Kojiki as well as the Nihon Shoki are part of the inspiration behind many practices. The myths were re-appropriated for Shinto practices such as the misogi purification ritual. Emperor Tenmu ordered Hieda no Are to memorize stories and texts from history, many of which appear to have been, until the creation of the Kojiki known oral traditions. Beyond this memorization, nothing occurred until after Empress Jitō and Emperor Monmu had both passed and Empress Genmei came to reign. According to the Kojiki, Empress Genmei on the 18th of the 9th month of 711 ordered the courtier Ō no Yasumaro to record what had been learned by Hieda no Are.
He finished and presented his work to Empress Genmei on the 28th of the 1st month of 712. The Kojiki could be made to further the Imperial right to rule; this historical narrative is broken into the Age of Gods and the Age of Humans, wherein the mythology of the gods which gave birth to the land is told and transitioned in a chronological fashion to the reign of the Emperors. This narrative sets forth the divine mandate by which the Yamato line has right to rule, through the rhetoric used in the Age of Humans, the historical and military qualifications were established. Several of the narratives which give support to the imperial line, such as the subjugation of certain Korean kingdoms, have been confirmed as false and were included to erase failures and bolster reputations of Emperors past. Vast amounts of the Age of Humans is spent recounting genealogies, which served not only to give age to the imperial family, much newer than the Kojiki claims as little evidence has been found to support the existence of early Emperors, but served to tie, whether true or not, many existing clan's genealogies to their own.
Regardless of the original intent of the Kojiki, it finalized and even formulated the framework by which Japanese history was examined in terms of the reign of Emperors. The Kojiki contains various poems. While the historical records and myths are written in a form of Chinese with a heavy mixture of Japanese elements, the songs are written with Chinese characters, though only used phonetically; this special use of Chinese characters is called Man'yōgana, a knowledge of, critical to understanding these songs, which are written in Old Japanese. The Kojiki is divided into three parts: the Nakatsumaki and the Shimotsumaki; the Kamitsumaki known as the Kamiyo no Maki, includes the preface of the Kojiki, is focused on the deities of creation and the births of various deities of the kamiyo period, or Age of the Gods. The Kamitsumaki outlines the myths concerning the foundation of Japan, it describes how Ninigi-no-Mikoto, grandson of Amaterasu and great-grandfather of Emperor Jimmu, descended from heaven to Takachihonomine in Kyūshū and became the progenitor of the Japanese Imperial line.
The Nakatsumaki begins with the story of Emperor Jimmu, the first Emperor, his conquest of Japan, ends with the 15th Emperor, Emperor Ōjin. The second through ninth Emperors' reigns are recorded in a minimum of detail, with only their names, the names of their various descendants, the place-names of their palaces and tombs listed, no mention of their achievements. Many of the stories in this volume are mythological, the historical information in them is suspect; the Shimotsumaki covers the 16th to 33rd Emperors and, unlike previous volumes, has limited references to the interactions with deities. These interactions are prominent in the first and second volumes. Information about the 24th to the 33rd Emperors is missing, as well. What follows is a condensed summary of the contents of the text, including many of the names of gods and locations as well as events which took place in association to them; the original Japanese is included in parentheses where appropriate. The handing down of old folklore and its significance Emperor Tenmu and setting out the Kojiki Ō no Yasumaro compiling the Kojiki In the Edo period, Motoori Norinaga studied the Kojiki intensively.
He produced. Chamberlain, Basil Hall. 1882. A translation of the "Ko-ji-ki" or Records of ancient matters. Yokohama, Japan: R. Meiklejohn and Co. Printers. Philippi, Donald L. 1968/1969. Kojiki. Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press and Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. Heldt, Gustav. 2014. The Kojiki: An Account of Ancient Matters. New York: Columbia University Press. There are two major branches of Kojiki manuscripts: Urabe; the extant Urabe branch consists of 36 existing manuscripts all based on the 1522 copies by Urabe Kanenaga. The Ise branch may be subdivided into the Shinpukuji-bon manuscript of 1371–1372 and the Dōka-bon manuscripts; the Dōka sub-branch consists of: the Dōka-bon manuscript of 1381.
Takemikazuchi is a deity in Japanese mythology, considered a god of thunder and sword god. He competed in what is considered the first sumo wrestling match recorded in history, he is otherwise known as Kashima-no-kami, the chief deity revered of the Kashima Shrine at Kashima, Ibaraki. In the namazu-e or catfish pictures of the Edo period, Takemikazuchi/Kashima is depicted attempting to subdue the giant catfish dwelling at the kaname-ishi of the Japanese land-mass and causing its earthquakes.. In the Kojiki the god's name is sometimes written in the full-blown form 建御雷之男神 "Brave-Awful-Possessing-Male-Deity", he bears the alternate names Takefutsu and Toyofutsu In the Nihon Shoki different sets of characters are used to represent the name. Its early translator Aston styled the name as Ikazuchi no Kami or "The Thunder-God". A more simple notation is employed as well. In the Kamiumi episodes of the Kojiki, the god of creation Izanagi severs the head of the fire deity Kagu-tsuchi, whereupon the blood from the "ten-grasp sabre" or "ten-fist sword" splattered the rocks and gave birth to several deities.
The blood from the sword-tip engendered one triad of deities, the blood from near the base of the blade produced another triad that included Takemikazuchi. The name of the ten-fist sword wielded by Izanagi is given postscripturally as Ame-no-ohabari, otherwise known as Itsu-no-ohabari.. The Nihon Shoki gives the same episode in the same general gist, albeit more vaguely regarding this deity. In the episodes where the gods of the heavenly plains contemplate and execute the conquest of the terrestrial world known as Middle Country, Takemikazuchi is one of the chief delegates sent down to subjugate the terrestrial deities. In the Kojiki, the heavenly deities Amaterasu and Takamusubi decreed that either Takemikazuchi or his father Itsu-no-ohabari must be sent down for the conquest. Itsu-no-ohabari here has the mind and speech of a sentient god, he volunteered his son Takemikazuchi for the subjugation campaign. Takemikazuchi was accompanied by Ame-no-torifune "Deity Heavenly-Bird-Boat" The two deities reached the land of Izumo at a place called "the little shore of Izasa/Inasa", stuck a "ten-fist sword" upside-down on the crest of the wave, sat atop it, while demanding the local god Ōkuninushi to relinquish the Izumo province over to them.
Ōkuninushi replied he would defer the decision to his children deities, would follow suit in their counsel. One of them, Kotoshironushi or Yae-Kotoshironushi, out fishing, was persuaded to forfeit his authority and retire into seclusion; the other, Takeminakata would not concede without testing his feats of strength against Takemikazuchi. When the challenger grabbed Takemikazuchi's hand it turned as if into icicle and a sword, making him cringe. Takemikazuchi grabbed Takeminakata's hand, crushing it like a young reed; the challenger, chased to the sea near Suwa of Shinano, asked for clemency on his life, promising to hold himself in exile in that region. The hand-to-hand bout between the two deities is considered the mythical origin of sumo wrestling; the Nihon shoki names a different partner for Takemikazuchi in the task of conquering lands of the Middle Country. That partner is Futsunushi. Just as Takemikazuchi was chief deity of Kashima Shrine, this Futsunushi was the chief of the Katori Shrine.
In the early centuries, when the Yamato rulers campaigned in the Kantō and Tōhoku regions, they would pray to these to war gods for military success, so that subsidiary shrines of the two gods are scattered all over these regions. The enshrinement of the deities at Kashima and Katori is mentioned in the Kogo Shūi; the Nihon shoki account has other discrepancies. The beach where the gods stuck the "ten-fist sword" is here called "Itasa"; the chief god of Izumo is called by the name of Ōanamuchi. The wrestling match with Takeminakata is missing. In the end, Ōanamuchi/Ōkuninushi gave sign of his obeisance by presenting the broad spear he used to pacified the land with. Jumping to a passage, the Nihon shoki retells Takemikazuchi and Futsunushi's landing on the beach, this time stating that Ōanamuchi verbally expressed resistance to relinquish his rule, until the heavenly gods promised him palatial residence to recompense his abdication. Appended to the two passages is mention of a star deity named Amatsu-Mikaboshi who resisted till the end, whom Takemikazuchi and Futsunushi were eager to vanquish.
The latter passage states that the being who subdued the star god, referred to as Iwai no nushi is enshrined at Katori, hinting that it might be Futsunushi. However, the earlier passage says. Takemikazuchi's sword aided Jimmu in his subjugat
Tsushima Island is an island of the Japanese archipelago situated in-between the Tsushima Strait and Korea Strait halfway between the Japanese mainland and the Korean Peninsula. The main island of Tsushima was once a single island but was divided into two in 1671 by the Ōfunakoshiseto canal and into three in 1900 by the Manzekiseto canal; these canals were driven through isthmuses in the center of the island, creating "North Tsushima Island" and "South Tsushima Island". Tsushima incorporates over 100 smaller islands; the name Tsushima refers to all the islands collectively. The island group measures about 70 km by 15 km and had a population of about 34,000 as of 2013; the main islands are the largest coherent satellite island group of Nagasaki Prefecture and the fourth largest in Japan. The city of Tsushima lies on the Tsushima islands, is divided into six boroughs. Tsushima Island is located west of the Kanmon Strait at a latitude between Honshu and Kyushu of the Japanese mainland; the Korea Strait splits at the Tsushima Island Archipelago into two channels.
Ōfunakoshi-Seto and Manzeki-Seto, the two canals built in 1671 and 1900 connect the deep indentation of Asō Bay to the east side of the island. The archipelago comprises over 100 smaller islets in addition to the main island. Tsushima is the closest Japanese territory to the Korean Peninsula, lying 50 km from Busan. On a clear day, the hills and mountains of the Korean peninsula are visible from the higher elevations on the two northern mountains; the nearest Japanese port, situated on Iki Island within the Tsushima Basin, is 50 km away. Tsushima Island and Iki Island are collectively within the borders of the Iki–Tsushima Quasi-National Park, designated as a nature preserve and protected from further development. Much of Tsushima is covered by natural mountains. Tsushima Island has many mountains such as the Mt. Ohira, Mt. Yatate, Mt. Hokogatake, Mt. Koyasan, Mt. Ontake, Mt. Gogen; the Japanese government administers Tsushima Island as a single entity despite the artificial waterways that have separated it into two islands.
The northern area is known as Kamino-shima, the southern island as Shimono-shima. Both sub-islands have a pair of mountains. Shimo-no-shima has Mount Yatate, standing 649 m high, Ariake-yama, at 558 m high. Kami-no-shima has 487 m; the two main sections of the island are now joined by causeway. The island has a total area of 696.26 km2. Tsushima has a marine subtropical climate influenced by monsoon winds; the average temperature is 15.8 °C, the average yearly precipitation is 2,132.6 mm. The highest temperature recorded on the island is 36.6 °C, on August 20, 2013, the lowest –8.6 °C, in 1895. Throughout most of the year, Tsushima is 1 – 2 °C cooler than the city of Nagasaki; the island's rainfall is higher than that of the main islands of Japan. Because Tsushima is small and isolated, it is exposed on all sides to moist marine air, which releases precipitation as it ascends the island's steep slopes. Continental monsoon winds cool the island in the winter; the rainy season begins and ends than in other areas in Nagasaki Prefecture, Tsushima suffers direct hits by typhoons.
The island is inhabited by the Tsushima cat, wild boar, deer and mice. Otters were discovered to be living in Tsushima in February 2017. Migrating birds that make stops on the island include hawks, harriers and black-throated loons. Forests, covering 90% of the island, consist of broad-leafed evergreens and deciduous trees including cypress. Honey bees are common, with many used to produce commercial honey. Tsushima Island pitviper is a venomous snake endemic to the Tsushima Island. Tsushima Reef, in the bay between Tsushima and Iki Island, is the northernmost coral reef in the world, surpassing the Iki Island reef discovered in 2001, it is dominated by cool-tolerant stony or Scleractinian Favia corals but the observed settling of tropical Acropora coral is expected to provide an ongoing indicator for continuing global warming. According to a 2000 census, 23.9% of the local population is employed in primary industries while 19.7% and 56.4% of the population are employed in secondary and tertiary industries, respectively.
Of these economic activities, fishing amounts to 82.6% of the primary industry, with much of it dedicated to catching squid on the eastern coast of the island. The number of employees in the primary industries has been decreasing, while employee growth in the secondary and tertiary industries has been increasing. Tourism, targeting South Koreans, has made a great contribution to the islands' economy; the number of Korean tourists to the island increased after the launching of a high-speed ferry service from Busan to the island in 1999. In 2008, 72,349 Koreans visited the island. Due to a drop in the value of the won, the number fell to 45,266 in 2009. Korean tourists generate an estimated ¥2.1 billion in revenue for the local economy and generate about 260 jobs on the island. The island will see around 200,000 visitors from Korea in 2013, surpassing the number of visitors from other parts of Japan for the first time. Tsushima Airport serves the island, and the festival to interchange with Korea was aborted.
EBSCO Information Services
EBSCO Information Services, headquartered in Ipswich, Massachusetts, is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc. the third largest private company in Birmingham, with annual sales of nearly $2 billion according to the BBJ's 2013 Book of Lists. EBSCO offers library resources to customers in academic, medical, K–12, public library, law and government markets, its products include EBSCONET, a complete e-resource management system, EBSCOhost, which supplies a fee-based online research service with 375 full-text databases, a collection of 600,000-plus ebooks, subject indexes, point-of-care medical references, an array of historical digital archives. In 2010, EBSCO introduced its EBSCO Discovery Service to institutions, which allows searches of a portfolio of journals and magazines. EBSCO Information Services is a division of EBSCO Industries Inc. a family owned company since 1944. "EBSCO" is an acronym for Elton B. Stephens Co. According to Forbes Magazine, EBSCO is one of the largest held companies in Alabama and one of the top 200 in the United States, based on revenues and employee numbers.
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Shikoku is one of the four main islands of Japan. Shikoku is the smallest and least populous of the main islands, located south of Honshu and east of Kyushu. Shikoku's ancient names include Iyo-no-futana-shima, Iyo-shima, Futana-shima, its current name refers to the four former provinces that made up the island: Awa, Tosa and Iyo. Shikoku island, comprising Shikoku and its surrounding islets, covers about 18,800 square kilometres and consists of four prefectures: Ehime, Kagawa, Kōchi, Tokushima. Across the Inland Sea lie Wakayama, Osaka, Hyōgo, Okayama and Yamaguchi Prefectures on Honshu. To the west lie Ōita and Miyazaki Prefectures on Kyushu; the 50th largest island by area in the world, Shikoku is smaller than Sardinia and Bananal, but larger than Halmahera and Seram. By population, it ranks 23rd, having fewer inhabitants than Sicily or Singapore, but more than Puerto Rico or Negros. Mountains running east and west divide Shikoku into a narrow northern subregion, fronting on the Inland Sea, a southern part facing the Pacific Ocean.
The Hydrangea hirta species can be found in these mountain ranges. Most of the 3.8 million inhabitants live in the north, all but one of the island's few larger cities are located there. Mount Ishizuchi in Ehime at 1,982 m is the highest mountain on the island. Industry is moderately well developed and includes the processing of ores from the important Besshi copper mine. Land is used intensively. Wide alluvial areas in the eastern part of the zone, are planted with rice and subsequently are double cropped with winter wheat and barley. Fruit is grown throughout the northern area in great variety, including citrus fruits, persimmons and grapes; because of wheat production Sanuki udon became an important part of the diet in Kagawa Prefecture in the Edo period. The larger southern area of Shikoku is sparsely populated; the only significant lowland is a small alluvial plain at the prefectural capital. The area's mild winters stimulated some truck farming, specializing in growing out-of-season vegetables under plastic covering.
Two crops of rice can be cultivated annually in the southern area. The pulp and paper industry took advantage of hydroelectric power; the major river in Shikoku is the Yoshino River. It runs 196 km from its source close to Mount Ishizuchi, flowing west to east across the northern boundaries of Kōchi and Tokushima Prefectures, reaching the sea at the city of Tokushima; the Yoshino is famous for Japan's best white-water rafting, with trips going along the Oboke Koboke sections of the river. Shikoku has four important capes. Gamōda in Anan, Tokushima is the easternmost point on the island, Sada in Ikata, Ehime the westernmost. Muroto in Muroto, Kōchi and Ashizuri, the southern extreme of Shikoku, in Tosashimizu, Kōchi, jut into the Pacific Ocean; the island's northernmost point is in Kagawa. Unlike the other three major islands of Japan, Shikoku has no volcanoes. Shikoku is connected to Honshu by three expressways, which together form the Honshū–Shikoku Bridge Project. Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway Seto-Chūō Expressway Nishiseto Expressway The eastern gateway to Shikoku, Naruto in Tokushima Prefecture has been linked to the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway since 1998.
This line connects Shikoku to the Kansai area which has a large population, including the large conurbations of Osaka and Kobe. Therefore, the Kobe-Awaji-Naruto Expressway carries a large traffic volume. Many highway buses are operated between Tokushima Prefecture; the central part of Shikoku is connected to Honshu by ferry, – since 1988 – by the Great Seto Bridge network. Until completion of the bridges, the region was isolated from the rest of Japan; the freer movement between Honshuū and Shikoku was expected to promote economic development on both sides of the bridges, which has not materialized yet. Within the island, a web of national highways connects the major population centers; these include Routes 11, 32, 33, 55, 56. The Shikoku Railway Company connects to Honshu via the Great Seto Bridge. JR lines include: Yosan Line Dosan Line Kōtoku Line Tokushima Line Mugi Line Naruto Line Uchiko Line Yodo Line Honshi Bisan Line Seto Ōhashi LinePrivate railway lines operate in each of the four prefectures on Shikoku.
Shikoku has four regional/domestic airports. All of these airports have flights to Tokyo and other major Japanese cities such as Osaka, Nagoya and Fukuoka. International flights to Seoul, South Korea are serviced by Asiana Airlines from Matsuyama and Takamatsu. There are periodic international charter flights as well. Ferries link Shikoku to destinations including Honshu, Kyūshu, islands around Shikoku. Pioneering natural farmer Masanobu Fukuoka, author of The One-Straw Revolution, developed his methods here on his family's farm. Shikoku is famous for its 88-temple pilgrimage of temples associated with the priest Kūkai. Most modern-day pilgrims travel by bus choosing the old-fashioned method of going by foot, they are seen wearing white jackets emblazoned with the characters reading dōgyō ninin meaning "two traveling together". Tokushima Prefecture has its annual Awa Odori running in August at the time of the Obon festival, which attracts thousands of tourists each year from all over Japan and from abroad.
Kōchi Prefecture is home to the