Agence France-Presse is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France. Founded in 1835 as Agence Havas, it is the world's oldest news agency. AFP has regional headquarters in Nicosia, Hong Kong, Washington, D. C. and news bureaux in 151 countries in 201 locations. AFP transmits stories, photos, graphics in French, Arabic, Portuguese and German. Agence France-Presse has its origins in the Agence Havas, founded in 1835 in Paris by Charles-Louis Havas, making it the world's oldest news service; the agency pioneered the collection and dissemination of news as a commodity, had established itself as a global concern by the late 19th century. Two Havas employees, Paul Julius Reuter and Bernhard Wolff, set up their own news agencies in London and Berlin respectively. In 1940, when German forces occupied France during World War II, the news agency was taken over by the authorities and renamed "Office français d'information". On 20 August 1944, as Allied forces moved on Paris, a group of journalists in the French Resistance seized the offices of the FIO and issued the first news dispatch from the liberated city under the name of Agence France-Presse.
Established as a state enterprise, AFP devoted the post-war years to developing its network of international correspondents. One of them was the first Western journalist to report the death of the Soviet leader Joseph Stalin on 6 March 1953. AFP was keen to shake off its semi-official status, on 10 January 1957, the French Parliament passed a law establishing its independence. Since that date, the proportion of the agency's revenues generated by subscriptions from government departments has declined; such subscriptions represented 115 million Euros in 2011. In 1982, the agency began to decentralize its editorial decision-making by setting up the first of its five autonomous regional centres, in Hong Kong a British Crown colony; each region has administrative director and chief editor. In September 2007, the AFP Foundation was launched to promote higher standards of journalism worldwide; the Mitrokhin Archive identified six agents and two confidential KGB contacts inside Agence France-Presse who were used in Soviet operations in France.
In 1991, AFP set up a joint venture with Extel to create AFX News. It was sold in 2006 to Thomson Financial. In October 2008, the Government of France announced moves to change AFP's status, including the involvement of outside investors. On 27 November of that year, the main trade unions represented in the company's home base of France – the CGT, Force Ouvrière, Syndicat national des journalistes, Union syndicale des journalistes CFDT and SUD, launched an online petition to oppose what they saw as an attempt to privatise the agency. On 10 December 2009, the French Culture Minister Frédéric Mitterrand announced that he was setting up a Committee of Experts under former AFP CEO Henri Pigeat to study plans for the agency's future status. On February 24, 2010, Pierre Louette unexpectedly announced his intention to resign as CEO by the end of March, move to a job with France Télécom. In November 2013, AFP and Getty Images were ordered to pay $1.2 million compensation to freelance photojournalist Daniel Morel for using his images posted on Twitter related to the 2010 Haiti earthquake without his permission, in violation of copyright and Twitter's terms of service.
The current CEO and chairman is Fabrice Fries and the Global News Director is Phil Chewynd. AFP operates under a 1957 law as a commercial business independent of the French government. AFP is administered by a CEO and a board comprising 15 members: Eight representatives of the French press. One is named by the prime minister, another by the minister of finance, a third by the minister of foreign affairs; the mission of AFP is defined in its statute: Agence France-Presse may under no circumstances take account of influences or considerations liable to compromise the exactitude or the objectivity of the information it provides. The board elects the CEO for a renewable term of three years; the AFP has a council charged with ensuring that the agency operates according to its statutes, which mandate absolute independence and neutrality. Editorially, AFP is governed by a network of senior journalists; the primary client of AFP is the French government, which purchases subscriptions for its various services.
In practice, those subscriptions are an indirect subsidy to AFP. The statutes of the agency prohibit direct government subsidies. Based in Paris, AFP covers 151 countries, with 201 offices, 50 local correspondents and five regional centers: Washington Hong Kong Montevideo Nicosia Paris AFP says it employs 2,400 people of 100 different nationalities, including 1,700 journalists, it provides information in 24 hours a day. Notable investments include: thAFP GmbH AFP GmbH is the subsidiary of AFP in Germany
3D cell culture by the magnetic levitation method is the application of growing 3D tissue by inducing cells treated with magnetic nanoparticle assemblies in spatially varying magnetic fields using neodymium magnetic drivers and promoting cell to cell interactions by levitating the cells up to the air/liquid interface of a standard petri dish. The magnetic nanoparticle assemblies consist of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, the polymer polylysine. 3D cell culturing is scalable, with the capability for culturing 500 cells to millions of cells or from single dish to high-throughput low volume systems. Once magnetized cultures are generated, they can be used as the building block material, or the "ink", for the magnetic 3D bioprinting process. Standard monolayer cell culturing on tissue culture plastic has notably improved our understanding of basic cell biology, but it does not replicate the complex 3D architecture of in vivo tissue, it can modify cell properties; this compromises experiments in basic life science, leads to misleading drug-screening results on efficacy and toxicity, produces cells that may lack the characteristics needed for developing tissue regeneration therapies.
The future of cell culturing for fundamental studies and biomedical applications lies in the creation of multicellular structure and organization in three-dimensions. Many schemes for 3D culturing are being developed or marketed, such as bio-reactors or protein-based gel environments. A 3D cell culturing system known as the Bio-Assembler™ uses biocompatible polymer-based reagents to deliver magnetic nanoparticles to individual cells so that an applied magnetic driver can levitate cells off the bottom of the cell culture dish and bring cells together near the air-liquid interface; this initiates cell-cell interactions in the absence of any artificial matrix. Magnetic fields are designed to form 3D multicellular structures in as little as a few hours, including expression of extracellular matrix proteins; the morphology, protein expression, response to exogenous agents of resulting tissue show great similarity to in vivo results. 3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation method was developed from collaboration between scientists at Rice University and University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in 2008.
Since this technology has been licensed and commercialized by Nano3D Biosciences. Above is a picture showing 3D cell culturing through magnetic levitation with the Bio-Assembler cell culturing system. A magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle assembly known as Nanoshuttle is added and dispersed over cells and the mixture is incubated. After incubation with Nanoshuttle, cells are transferred to a petri dish. A magnetic drive is placed on top of a petri dish top; the magnetic field causes cells to rise to the air–medium interface. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells levitated for 4 hours; the onset of cell-cell interaction takes place as soon as cells levitate, 3D structures start to form. At 1 hour, the cells are still dispersed, but they are showing some signs of stretching. Formation of 3D structures is visible after 4 hours of levitation. Protein expression in levitated cultures shows striking similarity to in vivo patterns. N-cadherin expression in levitated human glioblastoma cells was identical to the expression seen in human tumor xenografts grown in immunodeficient mice, while standard 2D culture showed much weaker expression that did not match xenograft distribution as shown in the picture below.
The transmembrane protein N-cadherin is used as an indicator of in-vivo-like tissue assembly in 3D culturing. In the picture above, distribution of N-cadherin and nuclei in human brain cancer mouse xenograft, brain cancer cells cultured by 3D magnetic levitation for 48 h. and cells cultured on a glass slide cover slip. The 2D system shows N-cadherin in the cytoplasm and nucleus and notably absent from the membrane, while in the levitated culture and mouse, N-cadherin is concentrated in the membrane, present in cytoplasm and cell junctions. One of the challenges in generating in vivo like cultures or tissue in vitro is the difficulty in co-culturing different cell types; because of the ability of 3D cell culturing by magnetic levitation to bring cells together, co-culturing different cell types is possible. Co-culturing of different cell types can be achieved at the onset of levitation, by mixing different cell types in before levitation or by magnetically guiding 3D cultures in an invasion assay format.
The unique ability to manipulate cells and shape tissue magnetically offers new possibilities for controlled co-culturing and invasion assays. Co-culturing in a realistic tissue architecture is critical for modeling in vivo conditions, such as for increasing the accuracy of cellular assays as shown in the figure below. Shown in the picture above is an invasion assay of magnetically levitated multicellular spheroids. Fluorescence images of human glioblastoma cells and normal human astrocytes cultured separately and magnetically guided together. Invasion of GBM into NHA in 3D culture provides a powerful new assay for basic cancer biology and drug screening. By facilitating assembly of different populations of cells using the MLM, consistent generation of organoids termed adipospheres capable of simulating the complex intercellular interactions of endogenous white adipose tissue can be achieved. Co-culturing 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes in 3D with murine
Vyner Street is a cobblestone canal-side walkway in Bethnal Green in the East End of London, England. It was once called John Street in the 1830s; the street is known for its galleries. The warehouse buildings rose from the Regents Canal without a towpath to interrupt development, giving direct access to the canal. On Wadeson Street, a row of Victorian workshops were built in what was a Jewish area; this became overcrowded with 572 inhabitants living in 125 houses by the 1930s. The stretch was redeveloped with warehouses and factories by 1937. Vyner Street had been transformed into a hub of the East London art scene by 2005; the Wilkinson Gallery opened on Cambridge Heath Road in 1998 and moved into Vyner Street in 2007. The gallery became known as one of the first in London to have exhibitions by major female artists such as Joan Jonas, Dara Birnbaum, Laurie Simmons. From 2005 to 2008 the EEL organised the Vyner Street Festival with the Victory Pub; this was a two-day family festival featuring local bands and market traders with a different theme each year, with the Royal Air Force Red Arrows performing an impromptu flyover in 2008.
By 2012, many local residents and workers had moved out due to the effects of the Great Recession and the impact of the 2012 Olympics. A documentary film titled Vyner Street was released in the same year as a short observational piece chronicling the two different worlds living side-by-side in the same street. By 2017, Amanda and Anthony Wilkinson said they were dissolving their partnership for personal reasons and thus closing Wilkinson Gallery. Commercial galleries were starting to make a return, with the Stuart Shave Modern Art reopening in October 2017 and the Tungsten Gallery opening in January 2018. Fourthspace are working on a new studio and apartment building on Vyner Street for artists Michael Landy and Gillian Wearing. Finnish designer Heikki Salonen announced. Vyner Street is part of the wider Regents Canal Conservation Area, established in 2008. To the south of Vyner Street is Wadeson Street, which contains a row of three-storey Victorian workshops converted to residential use. Both types contribute to the character of the area.
No London Buses routes operate on or in Vyner Street but some do call on nearby Cambridge Heath Road and Mare Street. These include the 26, 48, 55, 106, 254, 388, D6 and night buses N26, N55 and N253; the D6 terminates near Ash Grove since 2014