SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Agenda 21

Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development. It is a product of the Earth Summit held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992, it is an action agenda for the UN, other multilateral organizations, individual governments around the world that can be executed at local and global levels. The "21" in Agenda 21 refers to the 21st century, it had a few modifications at subsequent UN conferences. Its aim is achieving global sustainable development. One major objective of the Agenda 21 initiative is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21. Since 2015, Sustainable Development Goals are included in the Agenda 2030. Agenda 21 is a 351-page document divided into 40 chapters that have been grouped into 4 sections: Section I: Social and Economic Dimensions is directed toward combating poverty in developing countries, changing consumption patterns, promoting health, achieving a more sustainable population, sustainable settlement in decision making.

Section II: Conservation and Management of Resources for Development includes atmospheric protection, combating deforestation, protecting fragile environments, conservation of biological diversity, control of pollution and the management of biotechnology, radioactive wastes. Section III: Strengthening the Role of Major Groups includes the roles of children and youth, women, NGOs, local authorities and industry, workers. Section IV: Means of Implementation includes science, technology transfer, international institutions, financial mechanisms; the full text of Agenda 21 was made public at the UN Conference on Environment and Development, held in Rio de Janeiro on 13 June 1992, where 178 governments voted to adopt the program. The final text was the result of drafting and negotiation, beginning in 1989 and culminating at the two-week conference. In 1997, the UN General Assembly held a special session to appraise the status of Agenda 21; the Assembly recognized progress as "uneven" and identified key trends, including increasing globalization, widening inequalities in income, continued deterioration of the global environment.

A new General Assembly Resolution promised further action. The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, agreed to at the World Summit on Sustainable Development, affirmed UN commitment to "full implementation" of Agenda 21, alongside achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and other international agreements; the first World Public Meeting on Culture, held in Porto Alegre, Brazil, in 2002, came up with the idea to establish guidelines for local cultural policies, something comparable to what Agenda 21 was for the environment. They are to be included in various subsections of Agenda 21 and will be carried out through a wide range of sub-programs beginning with G8 countries. In 2012, at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development the attending members reaffirmed their commitment to Agenda 21 in their outcome document called "The Future We Want". Leaders from 180 nations participated. Agenda 2030 known as the Sustainable Development Goals, was a set of goals decided upon at the UN Sustainable Development Summit in 2015.

It takes all of the goals set by Agenda 21 and re-asserts them as the basis for sustainable development, saying, "We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development…” Adding onto those goals from the original Rio document, a total of 17 goals have been agreed on, revolving around the same concepts of Agenda 21. The Commission on Sustainable Development acts as a high-level forum on sustainable development and has acted as preparatory committee for summits and sessions on the implementation of Agenda 21; the UN Division for Sustainable Development acts as the secretariat to the Commission and works "within the context of" Agenda 21. Implementation by member states remains voluntary, its adoption has varied; the implementation of Agenda 21 was intended to involve action at international, national and local levels. Some national and state governments have legislated or advised that local authorities take steps to implement the plan locally, as recommended in Chapter 28 of the document.

These programs are known as "Local Agenda 21" or "LA21". For example, in the Philippines, the plan is "Philippines Agenda 21"; the group, ICLEI-Local Governments for Sustainability, formed in 1990. Europe turned out to be the continent where LA21 was most implemented. In Sweden, for example, all local governments have implemented a Local Agenda 21 initiative; the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs' Division for Sustainable Development monitors and evaluates progress, nation by nation, towards the adoption of Agenda 21, makes these reports available to the public on its website. Australia is a signatory to Agenda 21 and 88 of its municipalities subscribe to ICLEI, an organization that promotes Agenda 21 globally. Australia's membership is second only to that of the United States. In Africa, national support for Agenda 21 is strong and most countries are signatories, but support is closely tied to environmental challenges specific to each country.

Heading Home

Heading Home: The Tale of Team Israel is a 2018 documentary film about the underdog Israel national baseball team competing for the first time in the World Baseball Classic. The 87-minute film was directed by Seth Kramer, Daniel A. Miller, Jeremy Newberger, the three of whom produced it along with Jonathan Mayo, starred baseball player Ike Davis and other baseball players. Heading Home follows Team Israel’s surprising success in the World Baseball Classic in March 2017; every player on the team was either an Israeli or a Jewish American eligible for Israeli citizenship under Israel's Law of Return. Ryan Lavarnway, the Team Israel catcher, referring to the Nazi “mischling” law that defined a Jew by one grandparent mused: “Two generations ago, the way this team was put together would have meant that we were being rounded up to be killed… For us to be able to stand up here and have the Israel flag and Jewish star hanging in the stadium, it we’re here.”The documentary follows the team winning the qualifier, practicing before hundreds of local baseball players in Israel, seeing Israeli sites such as the Western Wall, Yad Vashem, the Dead Sea, Masada, taking part in a groundbreaking ceremony for a new baseball field in Bet Shemesh, Israel.

It chronicles the team's performance at the 2017 World Baseball Classic in South Korea and Japan--as they sweep the first round, play well into the second round. The odds against Israel were 200-1, it was ranked 41st in the world - while the other teams were the top 15 ranked teams in the world. ESPN compared Team Israel to the Jamaican bobsled team. Israel beat top-ranked teams from Cuba, South Korea, China and the Netherlands, all ranked in the top 10 in the world, came in 6th in the tournament; the movie was the idea of MLB.com reporter Jonathan Mayo, who wanted to create a movie that reflected both his affection for baseball and his Jewish background by creating a documentary about Jewish major leaguers traveling to discover their roots, ended up with a documentary, about the team's "Cinderella Story" run in the World Baseball Classic. Mayo and three friends of his from Jewish summer camp -- Daniel Miller, Jeremy Newberger, Seth Kramer, of Ironbound Films -- were the producers; the producers raised $73,000 through Kickstarter.

Heading Home was first released in the United States on August 5, 2018. The Atlanta Jewish Times in its review opined that the documentary "is just as inspirational and exciting as Team Israel's run in the World Baseball Classic." The Israeli newspaper Haaretz said that Heading Home "is at the same time emotional and entertaining." The Florida Sun Sentinel called it a "moving underdog story that should inspire people." Heading Home won the Audience Award for Best Documentary at the 2018 Gold Coast International Film Festival, the Audience Award for Documentary at the 2018 Washington Jewish Film Festival, the Audience Award for Best Documentary Feature at the 2018 Philadelphia Jewish Film Festival, the Best Documentary Film Award at the 2018 Boca Raton Jewish Film Festival, the Best Documentary Award at the 2018 Jewish Arts and Film Festival of Fairfield County. Official trailer Heading Home: The Tale of Team Israel on IMDb Heading Home: The Tale of Team Israel at AllMovie Heading Home: The Tale of Team Israel at Metacritic Heading Home: The Tale of Team Israel on Twitter

Kyushu Shinkansen

The Kyushu Shinkansen is a Japanese high-speed railway line between the cities of Fukuoka and Kagoshima in Kyushu, running parallel to the existing Kagoshima Main Line and operated by JR Kyushu. It is an extension of the San'yō Shinkansen from Honshu; the southern 127 km was constructed first because the equivalent section of the former Kagoshima Main Line is single track, thus a significant improvement in transit time was gained when this dual track section opened on 13 March 2004, despite the need for passengers to change to a Relay Tsubame narrow gauge train at Shin-Yatsushiro for the remainder of the journey to Hakata. The northern 130 km section opened on 12 March 2011; the construction of the first section of the West Kyushu Shinkansen route to Nagasaki 45.7 km in length, began in 2008, with construction of the 21 km section from Isahaya to Nagasaki commencing in 2012. The entire line is due to open by March 2023. Service was proposed to be provided by Gauge Change Train trainsets, which are designed to operate on both existing narrow gauge lines and standard gauge Shinkansen lines.

Construction of the Kagoshima Route began in 1991, the first segment between Kagoshima and Shin-Yatsushiro opened on 13 March 2004. This initial section cut travel times between the two cities from 130 minutes to 35 minutes, reduced the time between Hakata and Kagoshima from 4 hours to 2 hours; when the entire line was completed, the travel time from Hakata to Kagoshima was further reduced to about an hour and 20 minutes. Like all Shinkansen lines, the Kyushu Shinkansen is standard gauge; the line's Sakura and Mizuho services operate through to Shin-Ōsaka Station via the San'yō Shinkansen. In September 2011, six months after the line's completion, JR Kyushu reported a year-over-year increase in ridership of 64 percent to the southern part of Kyushu surpassing the 40 percent increase projected by the company. By the one-year anniversary, ridership had increased from tourists from Kansai and Chugoku. However, in northern Kyushu, where there is fierce competition with conventional JR rapid service, the private Nishi-Nippon Railroad, expressway buses, Shinkansen ridership increased by only 38 percent, falling short of estimates.

On the evening of 14 April 2016, the entire length of the Kagoshima Route was shut down after the first of two powerful earthquakes struck Kumamoto prefecture. There was extensive damage along the route, including cracks in elevated support structures at 25 locations and collapsed sound insulation walls at around 80 locations. A 800 Series consist, deadheading derailed near Kumamoto Station after the first tremor. On 18 April, JR Kyushu began attempts to return the derailed train to the tracks. On 27 April the line reopened with reduced service frequency. A Shinkansen line from Fukuoka to Nagasaki known as the Nagasaki Shinkansen, was laid out in the 1973 Basic Plan. Renamed as the Nagasaki Route changed to the West Kyushu Route in 1995, the planning of the line had been slowed down by concerns over the necessity of duplicating the existing narrow-gauge Nagasaki Main Line and Sasebo Line between Shin-Tosu and Takeo-Onsen, local opposition over the final section in Nagasaki city; the current plan is to continue using the existing narrow gauge track from Shin-Tosu to Takeo-Onsen and build a new Shinkansen line from Takeo-Onsen to Nagasaki.

Proposed to be operated by Gauge Change Trains from opening, technical issues with the development of the GCT has required consideration of other options. The GCT was expected to allow a travel time of around 1 hour 12 minutes between the two cities, versus 1 hour 45 minutes however with its introduction now delayed until at least 2025, options such as "relay" services are being considered. If the entire route was constructed to Shinkansen standard, travel time would be 41 minutes. Construction of the first 45.7 km segment between Takeo-Onsen and Isahaya began on 28 April 2008. Debate over the final section between Isahaya and Nagasaki continued for several years, before construction was approved by the government in December 2011; the scheduled completion date is 2023. According to the Shinkansen Basic Plan laid out in 1973, the Kagoshima and West Kyushu routes would be accompanied by two other routes: the East Kyushu Shinkansen, from Hakata to Kagoshima-chūō via Ōita and Miyazaki, paralleling the Nippō Main Line.

These plans have been shelved indefinitely, are unlikely to be reconsidered until the completion of Shinkansen lines under construction. Tsubame trains stop at all stations. For Mizuho and Sakura, all trains stop at stations marked "●", while some trains stop at those marked "△". Services are operated with a maximum speed of 260 kilometres per hour; the trains were developed by Hitachi, based on the 700 series trains in service on the Tokaido/Sanyo Shinkansen line. Individual trains are named Tsubame, the name of the form