Agent (video game)
Agent is an upcoming stealth action video game developed by Rockstar North and published by Rockstar Games. Announced in July 2007 and formally revealed in June 2009, little has been made public about the game, except for its 1970's Cold War setting. Agent is to be set during the Cold War in the late 1970s. According to a press release, the game is set to "take players into the world of counter-intelligence and political assassinations"; the title Agent referred to a game, in development at Rockstar San Diego around 2003, set to be released for PlayStation 2 and Xbox. A former artist for the studio stated that they, alongside three co-workers, had travelled to Cairo, where they took "over 10,000 photographs" as reference images; the project was postponed indefinitely for unknown reasons. In July 2007, at that year's Electronic Entertainment Expo, Sony Computer Entertainment announced that Rockstar Games was working on a new franchise for the PlayStation 3 in July 2007. Michael Shorrock, Sony Computer Entertainment America's director of third-party relations, wrote on the official U.
S. PlayStation Blog: "As part of our long standing relationship with Rockstar, the incredible success for both companies with the cultural icon, Grand Theft Auto we've agreed to the PlayStation exclusive rights of the next great franchise from the Rockstar studios." Nothing more was revealed about the new franchise except the clarification that it would not be L. A. Noire. According to Shorrock, "Rockstar wanted to make a game that you can only do on PS3" and added that the reason Sony locked the intellectual property down as an exclusive deal was because Sony believed the franchise would "set the bar for the rest of the industry". Ben Feder, former president of Take-Two Interactive, Rockstar Games' parent company, said that the game would be "genre-defining" and "a whole new way of experiencing videogames that we haven't seen before". Details of the project, including its title, were not announced until June 2009, when an announcement was made during the Sony press conference at the Electronic Entertainment Expo.
Sam Houser, one of the founders of Rockstar Games, described Agent as a game the company had been wanting to make for some time, had set out to create a unique experience for the player. Feder professed his belief that the game could achieve the same level of success as the Grand Theft Auto series and become "yet another great Rockstar North franchise title", given that its development is being overseen by Rockstar Games co-founders Sam and Dan Houser. Speaking with GameSpot on the E3 2009 show floor, Feder explained the decision to develop the game for Sony's console as stemming from the increased support from Sony as an exclusive title rather than developing the game across platforms. On 7 September 2009, in a Question and Answer section on their blog, Rockstar Games stated that Agent could be released as early as 2010, though Take-Two Interactive did not comment on the subject until March 2010, when it confirmed that Agent was still in development. On 9 June 2010, Take-Two Interactive confirmed that Agent was still planned as a PS3-exclusive title.
On 24 May 2011, after nearly two years since Agent was announced at E3 2009, Take-Two Interactive confirmed the title was still in active development though it had never been seen by the public up to that time. However, Sony Computer Entertainment America's chief executive officer, Jack Tretton, said at E3 2011 that he was unsure over Agent's PlayStation 3 exclusivity and that it was a decision for Rockstar Games to make. On 15 August 2011, Leigh Donoghue, a former Rockstar North environmental artist, who had worked on Grand Theft Auto IV and Agent, posted the first images of Agent in his online resume; the shots show a character as well as various indoor environments from the game. Both of the images mention that they were made in 2009. On 1 August 2012, when asked about Agent at Take-Two Interactive's financial report for the first quarter of 2013, chairman and CEO Strauss Zelnick said "we haven't announced anything about that title". With the announcement of the PlayStation 4 on 20 February 2013, there was an expectation that Agent may have moved to become a PlayStation 4-exclusive title.
However, there was no mention of the game at the launch, while developer Rockstar North had signed up to support the PlayStation 4. When asked whether Agent was still a PlayStation 3 title, during a roundtable media session that followed the press conference for the PlayStation 4's reveal, Sony Worldwide Studios boss Shuhei Yoshida said: "You are asking the wrong person. I have some knowledge, but I'm not in a position to talk about it."In July 2013, Take-Two Interactive renewed its trademarks for the "Agent" name. In December 2015, a few new screenshots from between 2009 and 2010 were leaked by former Rockstar North artist Darren Charles Hatton on his online portfolio; the artist said that the art team was taken off the Agent project and reassigned to Grand Theft Auto V, adding that he was "not sure if this project will be published". On 5 December 2016, Take-Two Interactive again renewed the "Agent" trademark. On 27 August 2017, images of concept art were leaked online, including depictions of a snowy alpine setting and apparent character sketches.
On 19 November 2018, the United States Patent and Trademark Office declared the "Agent" trademark as abandoned. Official website
A chemical weapon is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans. According to the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, "the term chemical weapon may be applied to any toxic chemical or its precursor that can cause death, temporary incapacitation or sensory irritation through its chemical action. Munitions or other delivery devices designed to deliver chemical weapons, whether filled or unfilled, are considered weapons themselves."Chemical weapons are classified as weapons of mass destruction, though they are distinct from nuclear weapons, biological weapons, radiological weapons. All may be used in warfare and are known by the military acronym NBC. Weapons of mass destruction are distinct from conventional weapons, which are effective due to their explosive, kinetic, or incendiary potential. Chemical weapons can be dispersed in gas and solid forms, may afflict others than the intended targets. Nerve gas, tear gas and pepper spray are three modern examples of chemical weapons.
Lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are volatile and they constitute a class of hazardous chemical weapons that have been stockpiled by many nations. Unitary agents do not require mixing with other agents; the most dangerous of these are nerve agents and vesicant agents, which include formulations of sulfur mustard such as H, HT, HD. They all become gaseous when released. Used during the First World War, the effects of so-called mustard gas, phosgene gas and others caused lung searing, blindness and maiming; the Nazi Germans during WW-II committed genocide against Jews but included other targeted populations in the Holocaust, a commercial hydrogen cyanide blood agent trade named Zyklon B discharged in large gas chambers was the preferred method to efficiently murder their victims in a continuing industrial fashion, this resulted in the largest death toll to chemical weapons in history. As of 2016, CS gas and pepper spray remain in common use for riot control. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention, there is a binding, worldwide ban on the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Notwithstanding, large stockpiles of chemical weapons continue to exist justified as a precaution against putative use by an aggressor. International law has prohibited the use of chemical weapons since 1899, under the Hague Convention: Article 23 of the Regulations Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land adopted by the First Hague Conference "especially" prohibited employing "poison and poisoned arms". A separate declaration stated that in any war between signatory powers, the parties would abstain from using projectiles "the object of, the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases"; the Washington Naval Treaty, signed February 6, 1922 known as the Five-Power Treaty, aimed at banning CW but did not succeed because France rejected it. The subsequent failure to include CW has contributed to the resultant increase in stockpiles; the Geneva Protocol known as the Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, is an International treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons.
It was signed at Geneva June 17, 1925, entered into force on February 8, 1928. 133 nations are listed as state parties to the treaty. Ukraine is the newest signatory; this treaty states that chemical and biological weapons are "justly condemned by the general opinion of the civilised world". And while the treaty prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons, it does not address the production, storage, or transfer of these weapons. Treaties that followed the Geneva Protocol did have been enacted; the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention is the most recent arms control agreement with the force of International law. Its full name is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction; that agreement outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons. It is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, an independent organization based in The Hague; the OPCW administers the terms of the CWC to 192 signatories, which represents 98% of the global population.
As of June 2016, 66,368 of 72,525 metric tonnes, have been verified as destroyed. The OPCW has conducted 6,327 inspections at 235 chemical weapon-related sites and 2,255 industrial sites; these inspections have affected the sovereign territory of 86 States Parties since April 1997. Worldwide, 4,732 industrial facilities are subject to inspection under provisions of the CWC. Chemical warfare involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons; this type of warfare is distinct from nuclear warfare and biological warfare, which together make up NBC, the military initialism for Nuclear and Chemical. None of these fall under the term conventional weapons, which are effective because of their destructive potential. Chemical warfare does not depend upon explosive force to achieve an objective, it depends upon the unique properties of the chemical agent weaponized. A lethal agent is designed to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opposing force, or deny unhindered use of a particular area of terrain.
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Agents (Finnish band)
Agents is a Finnish band formed in 1979, playing rautalanka and rock'n'roll music. The head figure and musical director of the band is solo guitarist Esa Pulliainen. Agents was founded in 1979 on the ruins of Tuomari Nurmio's band Köyhien ystävät. All former members of Köyhien ystävät, with the exception of Tuomari Nurmio, played in the original Agents; the band recruited Esa's brother Kai Pulliainen and keyboard player Jukka Ollila. The lead singer was Pekka Rytkönen, nicknamed Beat-Pete. With this configuration Agents started co-operation with Rauli "Badding" Somerjoki in autumn 1981, which meant the end of Beat-Pete's career in Agents. Jukka Ollila was replaced by Petri Rantala; the band's first album, was published in 1982. The album included the hits "Ikkunaprinsessa", "Kuihtuu kesäinen maa" and "Muista hyviä aikoja". Agents participated in the lyrics and music of the album; the next album, Tähdet, tähdet, was published in 1983. The title song of the album became one of Badding's best known hits.
Other hits from the album include "Nukkuja kaunein", "Yön hiljaisuudessa" and "Kun aika rientää". Esa Pulliainen arranged all music in the album; the last album made in co-operation with Somerjoki, was published in 1985. On the album, Agents plays under the alias The Young Beats. Hits from the last Badding album include "Laivat", "Illan varjoon himmeään", "Lähdön hetkellä" and "Tahdon". Co-operation with Badding ended in 1985. During his last years, Badding performed with various bands. Agents had been performing on and off with Topi Sorsakoski, who now became the official lead singer of the band; the keyboard player resigned from the band alongside Badding. With Topi Sorsakoski as their primary lead singer, Agents went on to record their next studio album In Beat in 1985; the album, produced by Pedro Hietanen, was released in 1986 and it topped the Finnish album charts. In Beat was a commercial success and it was certified double platinum in Finland; the album provided hit songs "Surujen kitara", "Salattu Suru", "Eeva" and "Olen yksin".
In the next year, the band published Besame Mucho. To the surprise of many, Besame Mucho doesn't feature on the album, instead the name is a trick played on purpose by Agents and Topi Sorsakoski. Hits from the album include "Kaksi kitaraa", "Kauan" and "Valot". In 1988, the band published Pop; the third album sold well. Hits from the album include "Tyhjää", "Varjojen yö", "On kesäyö", "Jo riittää" and "Nyt kaikki muuttunut on". In 1989, Agents did not publish a new album; the EMI record company decided to publish a collection album called Greatest Hits, which the band did not like. The collection album reached a gold record. In 1990, Agents' and Topi Sorsakoski's last album and Half, was published. Half of the album contains the other half contains Agents' rautalanka music. Topi Sorsakoski & Agents split up in 1992 because of internal arguments. Topi had published his solo album Yksinäisyys in 1991, which anticipated the end of the co-operation. One of the reasons was Topi Sorsakoski's financial troubles in the early 1990s, he would have wanted higher commissions from their performances and records.
In common with Topi Sorsakoski, the assisting guitarist Hans Etholén and the drummer Juha Takanen, both of, playing in the band since the Köyhien ystävät days quit the band. In 1992, Esa Pulliainen invited Jorma Kääriäinen as the lead singer of Agents; the band got a new drummer, Heikki Sandrén. The keyboard player on the albums was J-P Virtanen; the first album, Agents Forever, was published in 1995. Hits included "Antaudun", "Tähti kaukainen" and "Pikku Mona"; the next album, Agents Is Back!, was published in 1996. Hits included "Moskovan valot", "Salainen rakkaus" and "Salaperäinen"; the third album, Agents Is More!, was published in 1997. The album contained Agents' rautalanka music. Hits included "Päivin öin", "Sinä vain", "Valot", "My babe", "King Creole" and "Minä kuljen"; the fourth album, Agents Is Best!, was published in 1998. Hits included "Illan varjoon himmeään", "Muistan kesän" and "Olen syytön". Agents started a TV show called Laulava sydän on YLE TV2. In 1999, a double album with the same name was published, featuring many other artists, such as Ville Valo, Pate Mustajärvi, Marko Haavisto, Topi Sorsakoski and Reijo Taipale.
The album reached a gold record. In 2001, the album Agents is... here! was published. The album contained Agents' rautalanka music. In 2001, the rock album Agents is... rock! was published. Hits included "Hound dog", "Move it" and "Teenage Dolly". In 2003, a new album, Agents is... tonight was published. Hits included "Jos näin ei koskaan", "Fever" and "Peliä vain". In 2004, a co-operation album with The Boys, called Pop Show, was published; the album was accompanied with common concerts in the next summer all over Finland. Hits from the common album included "Tahdon saaren", "Yyterin twist", "Takaa ajatusten virran" and "Leningrad". In November 2004, the second collection album from Jorma Kääriäinen and Agents was published; the album contains five new releases from Agents.... Is best vol. 2 reached a platinum record, 30 thousand sold records, in June 2005. On 13 September 2006, the seventh and the latest studio album from Jorma Kääriäinen and Agents... Is Allright, was published. In October 2006, Agents announced they were withdrawing from recording for a long while.
The lead singer Jorma Kääriäinen performs as a solo artist and published his new solo record, Yhden tähden hotelli, in spring 2007. Topi Sorsakoski returned as lead singer of Agents for one tour. In autumn 2007, a new Agen
A sports agent is a legal representative for professional sports figures such as athletes and coaches. They procure and negotiate employment and endorsement contracts for the athlete or coach whom they represent; because of the unique characteristics of the sports industry, sports agents are responsible for communications with team owners and other individuals. They are responsible for making recommendations in regard. In addition to finding income sources, agents handle public relations matters for their clients. In some large sports agencies, such as IMG, Creative Artists Agency, Roc Nation Sports and Octagon, agents deal with all aspects of a client's finances, from investment to filing taxes. Sports agents may be relied upon by their clients for guidance in all business aspects, sometimes more broadly. For example, hockey agents start recruiting clients as young as 15, allowing the agent to guide the athlete's career before the NHL draft, which happens at 18 years of age. Due to the length and complexity of contracts, many sports agents are lawyers or have a background in contract law.
Agents are expected to be knowledgeable about finance, business management, financial and risk analysis, as well as sports. It is important for a sports agent to follow trends in sports. Other skills an agent must possess are excellent negotiation skills. Agents must be motivated, willing to work long hours, capable of multitasking, it is common for agents to be in negotiations on behalf of several clients at one time. Some agents are part of large companies, some are on their own; the number of clients an individual agent can handle and how many clients his or her employing agency can handle in total are interdependent variables. Before the 1990s, most football players did not use agents. In some cases, they used their parents as agents; because of most parents' naivete about the football business, these young footballers were given less-than-stellar contracts by football clubs, which yielded lower salaries than they thought they deserved. In Sweden, there were only three licensed agents in 1995.
As of 2002, there were 33. According to FIFA, there were 5,187 licensed association football agents worldwide, with 600 agents in Italy alone. Since 2001, agents have not been licensed by FIFA. Instead, agents are now licensed directly by each association. Sports agents receive between 4 and 10% of the athlete's playing contract, 10 to 20% of the athlete's endorsement contract, although these figures vary. NFL agents are not permitted to receive more than 3%, NBA agents not more than 4%, of their client's playing contracts; the popularity of television shows such as Entourage, which stars a talent agent named Ari Gold, Arliss, have helped glamorize the profession. Prior to that, movies such as Jerry Maguire, Two for the Money, Any Given Sunday depicted sports agents. In England, ITV's Footballers' Wives put a new spin on sports agents by casting a no-holds-barred female agent Hazel Bailey; the television show Ballers, which started in 2015 shows a strong depiction of sports agents. Due to the popularity of these works, there has been increase of attention in the profession.
Former Prime Minister Tony Blair's son decided to become a football agent. Tom Condon: co-head of Creative Artists Agency Football. Clients include Tony Romo. James "Bus" Cook: Clients include Brett Favre, Jay Cutler, Calvin Johnson. Ben Dogra: co-head of CAA Football. Clients include Adrian Peterson, Patrick Willis, Joseph Addai. Jason Fletcher: former player turned agent. Clients include Antonio Cromartie, Jamar Fletcher, Clinton Portis, Fabian Washington. Bob LaMonte: founder and president of Professional Sports Representation. Clients include Mike Holmgren, Brad Childress, Josh McDaniels. Joe Linta: In 2013, negotiated the richest contract in NFL history for Joe Flacco, despite the fact that he's never been picked for the Pro Bowl. Eugene E. Parker: negotiated the highest signing bonuses in NFL history for Emmitt Smith and Deion Sanders. Real-life inspiration for flamboyant character "Rod Tidwell" in the film Jerry Maguire. Bardia Ghahremani: Clients include Giovani Bernard, Nathan Shepherd, Tom Johnson, Joseph Williams.
Drew Rosenhaus: Clients include Plaxico Burress and Terrell Owens. Peter Schaffer: President of Authentic Athletix, LLC. Clients include including Joe Thomas, Phil Taylor, Barry Sanders, Trevor Pryce, Joshua Cribbs, C. J. Anderson, Mario Edwards Jr. and Hakeem Nicks. and PGA golfers including two-time PGA tour winner Jonathan Kaye and Shane Bertsch. Joel Segal: President of Lagardère Unlimited Football. Clients include Reggie Bush, Santonio Holmes and Chris Johnson. Leigh Steinberg: Clients include Troy Aikman and Ben Roethlisberger. Real-life inspiration for fictional sports agent Jerry Maguire in the film of the same name. Don Yee: Clients include Tom Brady and Jimmy Garoppolo. Ricky Nixon: former player, the AFL's first full-time player manager Barry Axelrod: Clients included Jeff Bagwell, Craig Biggio, Rick Sutcliffe, executive Kevin Towers. Scott Boras: Clients include Alex Rodriguez and Prince Fielder. Boras is known to have negotiated the highest contracts in Major League Baseball history and the history of sports.
Casey Close: Clients include Derek Jeter and Ryan Howard. Greg Genske: Successor in sports agency run by Jeff Moorad and Leigh Steinberg. Randy Hendricks: Partnered with his brother, Allan. Joe Kehoskie: Small agency. Sam & Seth Levinson: Clients include David Wright a
A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare. In addition to these living and/or replicating pathogens and biotoxins are included among the bio-agents. More than 1,200 different kinds of weaponizable bio-agents have been described and studied to date. Biological agents have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from mild allergic reactions to serious medical conditions, including serious injury, as well as serious or permanent disability or death. Many of these organisms are ubiquitous in the natural environment where they are found in water, plants, or animals. Bio-agents may be amenable to "weaponization" to render them easier to disseminate. Genetic modification may enhance their incapacitating or lethal properties, or render them impervious to conventional treatments or preventives.
Since many bio-agents reproduce and require minimal resources for propagation, they are a potential danger in a wide variety of occupational settings. The Biological Weapons Convention is an international treaty banning the use or stockpiling of bio-agents. Bio-agents are, however studied for both defensive and general medical purposes under various biosafety levels and within biocontainment facilities throughout the world. In 2008, according to a U. S. Congressional Research Service report, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Russia and Taiwan were considered, with varying degrees of certainty, to be maintaining bio-agents in an offensive BW program capacity; the former US biological warfare program categorized its weaponized anti-personnel bio-agents as either Lethal Agents or Incapacitating Agents. In the next section the military symbols for various weaponized agents are given. Since 1997, United States law has declared a list of bio-agents designated by the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services or the U.
S. Department of Agriculture that have the "potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety" to be defined as "select agents" and possession or transportation of them are controlled as such. Select agents are divided into "HHS select agents and toxins", "USDA select agents and toxins" and "Overlap select agents and toxins"; the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention breaks biological agents into three categories: Category A, Category B, Category C. Category A agents pose the greatest threat to the U. S. Criteria for being a Category "A" agent include high rates of mortality. Category A agents include anthrax, plague, smallpox and viral hemorrhagic fevers; the following pathogens and toxins were weaponized by another at some time. NATO abbreviations are included. Additionally, the Soviet Union is known to have weaponized Marburg virus in the'80s. Simulants are organisms or substances which mimic physical or biological properties of real biological agents, without being pathogenic.
They are used to study the efficiency of various dissemination techniques or the risks caused by the use of biological agents in bioterrorism. To simulate dispersal, attachment or the penetration depth in human or animal lungs, simulants must have particle sizes, specific weight and surface properties, similar to the simulated biological agent; the typical size of simulants enables it to enter buildings with closed windows and doors and penetrate deep into the lungs. This bears a significant health risk if the biological agent is not pathogenic. Bacillus globigii Serratia marcescens Aspergillus fumigatus mutant C-2 Escherichia coli Bacillus thuringiensis Erwinia herbicola Fluorescent particles such as Zinc cadmium sulfide, ZnCdS Biological hazard Biological contamination Laboratory Response Network Pulsed ultraviolet light Toxin Rafał L. Górny, Biological agents, OSHwiki U. S. Department of Labor - Biological Agents U. S. Department of Health and Human Services - Select Agents and Toxins
A travel agency is a private retailer or public service that provides travel and tourism related services to the public on behalf of suppliers such as activities, car rentals, cruise lines, railways, travel insurance, package tours. In addition to dealing with ordinary tourists, most travel agencies have a separate department devoted to making travel arrangements for business travelers. There are travel agencies that serve as general sales agents for foreign travel companies, allowing them to have offices in countries other than where their headquarters are located; the modern travel agency first appeared in the second half of the 19th century with its root in 1758 as establishment of Cox & Kings Ltd. In the year 1970, Cox & Kings the longest established travel company centered its focus on its business of travel and tourism. Thomas Cook established a chain of agencies in the last quarter of the 19th century, in association with the Midland Railway, they not only in addition, represented other tour companies.
Other British pioneer travel agencies were Dean & Dawson, the Polytechnic Touring Association, the Co-operative Wholesale Society. The oldest travel agency in the United States is Brownell Travel. Travel agencies became more commonplace with the development of commercial aviation, starting in the 1920s. Travel agencies catered to middle and upper class customers, but the post-war boom in mass-market package holidays resulted in the proliferation of travel agencies on the main streets of most British towns, catering to a working class clientele looking for a convenient way to book overseas beach holidays. A travel agency's main function is to act as an agent, selling travel products and services on behalf of a supplier. Unlike other retail businesses, they do not keep a stock in hand, unless they have pre-booked hotel rooms and/or cabins on a cruise ship for a group travel event such as a wedding, honeymoon, or a group event. A package holiday or a ticket is not purchased from a supplier unless a customer requests that purchase.
The holiday or ticket is supplied to the agency at a discount. The profit is therefore the difference between the advertised price which the customer pays and the discounted price at which it is supplied to the agent; this is known as the commission. In many countries, all individuals or companies that sell tickets are required to be licensed as a travel agent. In some countries, airlines have stopped giving commissions to travel agencies. Therefore, travel agencies are now forced to charge a percentage premium or a standard flat fee, per sale. However, some companies pay travel agencies a set percentage for selling their product. Major tour companies can afford to do this, because if they were to sell a thousand trips at a cheaper rate, they would still come out better than if they sold a hundred trips at a higher rate; this process benefits both parties. It is cheaper to offer commissions to travel agents rather than engage in advertising and distribution campaigns without using agents. Other commercial operations are undertaken by the larger chains.
These can include the sale of in-house insurance, travel guide books, public transport timetables, car rentals, the services of an on-site bureau de change, dealing in the most popular holiday currencies. A travel agent is supposed to offer impartial travel advice to the customer, as well as coordinating travel details and assisting the customer in booking travel. However, this function disappeared with the mass market package holiday, some agency chains seemed to develop a "holiday supermarket" concept, in which customers choose their holiday from brochures on racks and book it from a counter. Again, a variety of social and economic changes have now contrived to bring this aspect to the fore once more with the advent of multiple, no-frills, low-cost airlines. Traditionally, travel agencies' principal source of income was, continues to be, commissions paid for bookings of car rentals, cruise lines, railways, sightseeing tours, tour operators, etc. A fixed percentage of the main element of the price is paid to the agent as a commission.
Commissions may vary depending on the type of the supplier. Commissions are not paid on the tax component of the price. Travel agencies receive a large variety of bonuses and other incentives from travel and tourism related companies as inducements for travel agents to promote their products; the customer is not made aware of how much the travel agent is earning in commissions and other benefits. Other sources of income may include the sale of insurance, travel guide books, public transport timetables and money exchange. Since 1995, many airlines around the world and most airlines in the United States now do not pay any commission to travel agencies. In this case, an agency adds a service fee to the net price. Reduced commissions started in 1995 in the United States, with the introduction of a cap of $50 on return trips and $25 on one way. In 1999, European airlines began eliminating or reducing commissions, while Singapore Airlines did so in parts of Asia. In 2002, Delta Air Lines announced a zero-commission base for the U.
S. and Canada. The majority of travel agents have felt the need to protect themselves and their clients against the possibilities of commercial failure, either their own or a supplier's, they will
An agent-based model is a class of computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. It combines elements of game theory, complex systems, computational sociology, multi-agent systems, evolutionary programming. Monte Carlo methods are used to introduce randomness. Within ecology, ABMs are called individual-based models, individuals within IBMs may be simpler than autonomous agents within ABMs. A review of recent literature on individual-based models, agent-based models, multiagent systems shows that ABMs are used on non-computing related scientific domains including biology and social science. Agent-based modeling is related to, but distinct from, the concept of multi-agent systems or multi-agent simulation in that the goal of ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents obeying simple rules in natural systems, rather than in designing agents or solving specific practical or engineering problems.
Agent-based models are a kind of microscale model that simulate the simultaneous operations and interactions of multiple agents in an attempt to re-create and predict the appearance of complex phenomena. The process is one of emergence, which some express as “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts”. In other words, higher-level system properties emerge from the interactions of lower-level subsystems. Or, macro-scale state changes emerge from micro-scale agent behaviors. Or, simple behaviors generate complex behaviors. Individual agents are characterized as boundedly rational, presumed to be acting in what they perceive as their own interests, such as reproduction, economic benefit, or social status, using heuristics or simple decision-making rules. ABM agents may experience "learning", reproduction. Most agent-based models are composed of: numerous agents specified at various scales. ABMs are implemented as computer simulations, either as custom software, or via ABM toolkits, this software can be used to test how changes in individual behaviors will affect the system's emerging overall behavior.
The idea of agent-based modeling was developed as a simple concept in the late 1940s. Since it requires computation-intensive procedures, it did not become widespread until the 1990s; the history of the agent-based model can be traced back to the Von Neumann machine, a theoretical machine capable of reproduction. The device von Neumann proposed would follow detailed instructions to fashion a copy of itself; the concept was built upon by von Neumann's friend Stanislaw Ulam a mathematician. The idea intrigued von Neumann, who drew it up—creating the first of the devices termed cellular automata. Another advance was introduced by the mathematician John Conway, he constructed the well-known Game of Life. Unlike von Neumann's machine, Conway's Game of Life operated by tremendously simple rules in a virtual world in the form of a 2-dimensional checkerboard. One of the earliest agent-based models in concept was Thomas Schelling's segregation model, discussed in his paper "Dynamic Models of Segregation" in 1971.
Though Schelling used coins and graph paper rather than computers, his models embodied the basic concept of agent-based models as autonomous agents interacting in a shared environment with an observed aggregate, emergent outcome. In the early 1980s, Robert Axelrod hosted a tournament of Prisoner's Dilemma strategies and had them interact in an agent-based manner to determine a winner. Axelrod would go on to develop many other agent-based models in the field of political science that examine phenomena from ethnocentrism to the dissemination of culture. By the late 1980s, Craig Reynolds' work on flocking models contributed to the development of some of the first biological agent-based models that contained social characteristics, he tried to model the reality of lively biological agents, known as artificial life, a term coined by Christopher Langton. The first use of the word "agent" and a definition as it is used today is hard to track down. One candidate appears to be John Holland and John H. Miller's 1991 paper "Artificial Adaptive Agents in Economic Theory", based on an earlier conference presentation of theirs.
At the same time, during the 1980s, social scientists, operations researchers, a scattering of people from other disciplines developed Computational and Mathematical Organization Theory. This field grew as a special interest group of The Institute of Management Sciences and its sister society, the Operations Research Society of America. With the appearance of StarLogo in 1990, Swarm and NetLogo in the mid-1990s and RePast and AnyLogic in 2000, or GAMA in 2007 as well as some custom-designed code, modelling software became available and the range of domains that ABM was applied to, grew. Bonabeau is a good survey of the potential of agent-based modeling as of the timeThe 1990s were notable for the expansion of ABM within the social sciences, one notable effort was the large-scale ABM, developed by Joshua M. Epstein and Robert Axtell to simulate and explore the role of social phenomena such as seasonal migrations, sexual reproduction and transmission