Computing platform means in general sense, where any piece of software is executed. It may be the hardware or the system, even a web browser or other application. The term computing platform can refer to different abstraction levels, including a hardware architecture, an operating system. In total it can be said to be the stage on which programs can run. For example, an OS may be a platform that abstracts the underlying differences in hardware, platforms may include, Hardware alone, in the case of small embedded systems. Embedded systems can access hardware directly, without an OS, this is referred to as running on bare metal, a browser in the case of web-based software. The browser itself runs on a platform, but this is not relevant to software running within the browser. An application, such as a spreadsheet or word processor, which hosts software written in a scripting language. This can be extended to writing fully-fledged applications with the Microsoft Office suite as a platform, software frameworks that provide ready-made functionality.
Cloud computing and Platform as a Service, the social networking sites Twitter and facebook are considered development platforms. A virtual machine such as the Java virtual machine, applications are compiled into a format similar to machine code, known as bytecode, which is executed by the VM. A virtualized version of a system, including virtualized hardware, OS, software. These allow, for instance, a typical Windows program to run on what is physically a Mac, some architectures have multiple layers, with each layer acting as a platform to the one above it. In general, a component only has to be adapted to the layer immediately beneath it, the JVM, the layer beneath the application, does have to be built separately for each OS
Fog of war
The fog of war is the uncertainty in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations. The term seeks to capture the uncertainty regarding ones own capability, adversary capability, military forces try to reduce the fog of war through military intelligence and friendly force tracking systems. The term is used to define uncertainty mechanics in wargames. A sensitive and discriminating judgment is called for, an intelligence to scent out the truth. It has been pointed out that von Clausewitz does not refer to a fog of war. The fog of war is a reality in all military conflict and certainty are unattainable goals, but modern military doctrine suggests a trade off of precision and certainty for speed and agility. Militaries employ Command and Control systems and doctrine to partially alleviate the fog of war, other games, such as the Kriegspiel chess-variant, playing pieces could be hidden from the players by using a duplicate, hidden game board. Another version of fog of war emulation is used by block wargaming where, much like Stratego, this allows for step damage, where the block is rotated counter-clockwise up to four times to simulate battle damage before the unit is eliminated.
Solitaire games by their attempt to recreate fog of war using random dice rolls or card draws to determine events. A computers ability to hide information from a player is seen as a distinct advantage over board games when simulating war. The earliest use of fog of war was in the 1977 game Empire by Walter Bright, another early use of fog of war was the 1978 game Tanktics designed by Chris Crawford, which was criticized for its unreliable and confusing fog of war system. Two large Blizzard franchises and StarCraft, use a fog of war which only reveals terrain features and enemy units through a players reconnaissance. Without a unit actively observing, previously revealed areas of the map are subject to a shroud through which only terrain is visible, Fog of war gives players an incentive to uncover a games world. A compulsion to reveal obscured parts of a map has been described to give a sense of exploring the unknown. In some strategy games that use of fog of war, enemy AI can get access to complete visibility of the map.
A designer may use fog of war to keep a game that has become impossible to win enjoyable, simulating the Fog of War Paper by RAND Corporation John K. Setear, February 1989
Microsoft Windows is a metafamily of graphical operating systems developed and sold by Microsoft. It consists of families of operating systems, each of which cater to a certain sector of the computing industry with the OS typically associated with IBM PC compatible architecture. Active Windows families include Windows NT, Windows Embedded and Windows Phone, defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows 10 Mobile is an active product, unrelated to the defunct family Windows Mobile. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20,1985, Microsoft Windows came to dominate the worlds personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system, however, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25% that of Android devices sold and this comparison however may not be fully relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. As of September 2016, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, smartphones, the most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2016. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One game console, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released almost at the time and share the same kernel. Windows, The operating system for personal computers, tablets. The latest version is Windows 10, the main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple Inc. for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server, The operating system for server computers, the latest version is Windows Server 2016.
Unlike its clients sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme, the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE, A lightweight version of its Windows sibling meant to operate as an operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers. The latest version is Windows PE10.0.10586.0, Windows Embedded, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device that was too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. The following Windows families are no longer being developed, Windows 9x, Microsoft now caters to the consumers market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile, The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile operating system
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor. The word video in video game referred to a raster display device. Some theorists categorize video games as an art form, but this designation is controversial, the electronic systems used to play video games are known as platforms, examples of these are personal computers and video game consoles. These platforms range from large mainframe computers to small handheld computing devices, the input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, and buttons, or even, with the Kinect sensor, a persons hands and body. Players typically view the game on a screen or television or computer monitor, or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are often game sound effects, music and, in the 2010s, some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets.
In the 2010s, the game industry is of increasing commercial importance, with growth driven particularly by the emerging Asian markets and mobile games. As of 2015, video games generated sales of USD74 billion annually worldwide, early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats. The earliest example is from 1947—a Cathode ray tube Amusement Device was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, and issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S. Written by MIT students Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, and Wayne Wiitanens on a DEC PDP-1 computer in 1961, and the hit ping pong-style Pong, used the DEC PDP-1s vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold and it used a black-and-white television for its display, and the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green, Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the Magnavox Odyssey, the first home console.
Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the Brown Box and these were followed by two versions of Ataris Pong, an arcade version in 1972 and a home version in 1975 that dramatically increased video game popularity. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first killer app, the term platform refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term system is commonly used
Wargame (video games)
Wargames are a subgenre of strategy video games that emphasize strategic or tactical warfare on a map, as well as historical accuracy. The genre of video games is derived from earlier forms of wargames. The games thematically represent the hobby, although they tend to be less realistic in order to increase accessibility for more casual players. The amount of realism varies between games as game designers balance an accurate simulation with playability, the computer gaming industry generally evolved with minimal reference to board games, so the term wargame is not traditionally used in the context of computer games. In February 1980 Strategic Simulations, Inc. was the first to sell a serious, professionally packaged computer wargame and it and Strategic Studies Group were computer game companies that continued the genre by specializing in games that borrowed from board and miniature wargames. The companies enjoyed a certain popularity throughout much of the 1980s, talonSoft started in 1995 with a similar focus, until purchased and closed down by Take-Two Interactive in 2002.
The popular direction of the current market is towards real-time strategy games exemplified by StarCraft and these games are strategic in the gaming sense, but tactical in the military sense. These are generally high-action games that include a number of conveniences that enhance gameplay, the primary gameplay mode in a wargame is usually tactical, fighting battles. Wargames sometimes have a mode where players may plan their battle or choose an area to conquer. Because it is difficult to provide an intelligent way to delegate tasks to a subordinate, units are usually scaled to be disproportionately large compared to the landscape, in order to promote effective gameplay. These games usually use a faster time line than reality. Many contemporary computer strategy games can be considered wargames, in the sense that they are a simulation of warfare on some level, the mechanics and language have little in common with board and miniature games, but the general subject matter is popular and provides a thematic link.
Tabletop wargames are usually categorized according to the scale of the confrontation, the qualifiers real-time and turn-based are not taken into account as all tabletop wargames are, by necessity, turn-based. However, sometimes video wargames are described according to the scale of conflict, while it has been argued that computer wargame video games lack the realism of traditional games, they may include features that are impractical for tangible games. One such approach is using fog of war, whereby players are unable to see the landscape beyond the simulating viewing distance of their units. This is made practical in digital games by the difference of competing against artificial intelligence or remote competitors with their own view of the playing field. Computer Bismarck - - generally credited as the first serious computer war-game, eastern Front - Called the first war game that competed with pencil-and-paper games and one of the best selling programs on the Atari 8-bit family. Introduced scrolling maps, pondering AI, supply considerations, panzer General - - recognizably a traditional wargame next to Close Combat
A turn-based strategy game is a strategy game where players take turns when playing. This is distinguished from real time strategy where all players play simultaneously, many board games are turn based. For example, chess is one of the oldest and most competitive games of its kind, but many other games such as Reversi, Hare games and Go are turn based. Tactical role-playing games are a part of this genre, examples include Fire Emblem, The Battle for Wesnoth, Silent Storm, Steel Panthers, World at War. Kings Bounty, Great Big War Game, Nintendo Wars, UniWar, XCOM2, after a period of converting board and historic TBS games to computer games, companies began basing computer turn-based strategy games on completely original properties or concepts. The presence of a computer to calculate and arbitrate allows game complexity which is not feasible in a board game. Some well known turn-based strategy games are Sid Meiers Civilization series, Heroes of Might and Magic series, Panzer General series, a further market trend is the rise of Indie TBS games.
These games often extend or refine already existing TBS strategy games, examples include Freeciv or Golden Age of Civilizations. Since turn-based strategy games do not typically require vast amounts of art or modeling, directories like Freecode provide large lists of open-source, turn-based strategy projects. Because they do not require users to install files and are often free, all that they require is any device with a web browser and Internet connection. Many will work just as well on a smartphone as they do on a desktop computer, chronology of turn-based strategy video games Time-keeping systems in games
The Union Army was the land force that fought for the Union during the American Civil War,1861 to 1865. It included the permanent regular army of the United States, which was augmented by numbers of temporary units consisting of volunteers as well as conscripts. The Union Army fought and eventually defeated the Confederate Army during the war, at least two and a half million men served in the Union Army, almost all were volunteers. About 360,000 Union soldiers died from all causes,280,000 were wounded and 200,000 deserted. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,000 men in the U. S. Army, and of these many Southern officers resigned and joined the Confederate army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, Lincolns call forced the border states to choose sides, and four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. The war proved to be longer and more extensive than anyone North or South had expected, the call for volunteers initially was easily met by patriotic Northerners and even immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals.
Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania immediately responded to Lincolns call, as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Nevertheless, between April 1861 and April 1865, at least two and a million men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers. It is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army. At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S, Military Academy on the active list, of these,296 resigned or were dismissed, and 184 of those became Confederate officers. Of the approximately 900 West Point graduates who were civilians,400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283, the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers.
The Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were generally organized geographically, Military Division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the modern term Theater, and were modeled close to, though not synonymous with. Department An organization that covered a region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein. Those named for states usually referred to Southern states that had been occupied and it was more common to name departments for rivers or regions. District A subdivision of a Department, there were Subdistricts for smaller regions
Rise of Prussia
Rise of Prussia is a grand strategy wargame developed by AGEOD and published by Paradox Interactive. It was announced on April 24,2009 and was released on March 9,2010, Rise of Prussia is a follow-up to their historical strategy games Birth of America, American Civil War, Napoleons Campaigns, and Wars in America. Rise of Prussia covers the European campaigns of the Seven Years’ War, Rise of Prussia features 200 new leaders with individual portraits and 300 units. Players have the option to select from two sides, there are Prussia and their allies led by Frederick II and opposing them are Austria and their allies. Each leader has his own abilities that will provide bonuses to his units. For example, Frederick II has movement bonuses makes his troops move significantly faster than other generals, there are 20 scenarios the player can choose from. 12 of these are battle scenarios centered on key battles,7 span each year of the war, the map covers all of Germany and surrounding vicinity, with over 1,000 different regions.
Game Page AGEODs Rise of Prussia Forum Board Paradox Interactives Rise of Prussia Forum Board
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Birth of America
Birth of America is a turn-based strategy computer game by SEP BOA, a development team at AGEOD. In Birth of America, the controls one of the major contenders of the French and Indian War or the American War of Independence, trying to achieve military. The scope of the covers all of North America, from Florida to Quebec and New England to Mississippi. The game map is divided more than 700 provinces, with a great diversity of terrain, climates. There are two fighting each other in all of the games ten scenarios. Game turns correspond to one month of historical time, scenarios vary from a few months to almost 9 years. Players control mostly the military action of their nation and this includes such activities as drafting forces, building forts and depots and blockades, raiding enemy settlements and battles, both on land and at sea. Birth of America has two wars, the French and Indian War and the American Revolution, the object of the game is to attack and capture objectives, strategic towns, and manage strategies in order to win battles thus gaining edge.
Real political events, such as the battle of Bunker Hill, Birth of American received mainly mixed reviews from critics. PC Gamer UK commented that the game captures the character of American Revolutionary warfare without drowning wannabe Washingtons. GameSpot gave the game a 6. 9/10, lamenting that it doesnt do enough to broaden the genres appeal to newcomers