Harlan Jay Ellison was an American writer, known for his prolific and influential work in New Wave speculative fiction, for his outspoken, combative personality. Robert Bloch, the author of Psycho, described Ellison as "the only living organism I know whose natural habitat is hot water", his published works include more than 1,700 short stories, screenplays, comic book scripts, essays, a wide range of criticism covering literature, film and print media. Some of his best-known work includes the Star Trek episode "The City on the Edge of Forever", his A Boy and His Dog cycle, his short stories "I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream" and "'Repent, Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman". He was editor and anthologist for Dangerous Visions and Again, Dangerous Visions. Ellison won numerous awards, including multiple Hugos and Edgars. Ellison was born to a Jewish family in Cleveland, Ohio, on May 27, 1934, the son of Serita and Louis Laverne Ellison, a dentist and jeweler, his family subsequently moved to Painesville, but returned to Cleveland in 1949, following his father's death.
Ellison ran away from home, taking an array of odd jobs—including, by age 18, "tuna fisherman off the coast of Galveston, itinerant crop-picker down in New Orleans, hired gun for a wealthy neurotic, nitroglycerine truck driver in North Carolina, short-order cook, cab driver, book salesman, floorwalker in a department store, door-to-door brush salesman, as a youngster, an actor in several productions at the Cleveland Play House". In 1947, a fan letter he wrote to Real Fact Comics became his first published writing. Ellison attended Ohio State University for 18 months before being expelled, he said the expulsion was for hitting a professor who had denigrated his writing ability, over the next twenty or so years he sent that professor a copy of every story he published. Ellison published two serialized stories in the Cleveland News during 1949, he sold a story to EC Comics early in the 1950s. During this period, Ellison was an active and visible member of science fiction fandom, published his own science fiction fanzines, such as Dimensions Ellison moved to New York City in 1955 to pursue a writing career in science fiction.
Over the next two years, he published articles. The short stories collected as Sex Gang—which Ellison described in a 2012 interview as "mainstream erotica"—date from this period, he served in the U. S. Army from 1957 to 1959, his first novel, Web of the City, was published during his military service in 1958, he said he had written the bulk of it while undergoing basic training at Fort Benning, Georgia. After leaving the army, he relocated to Chicago. Ellison moved to California in 1962, subsequently began to sell his writing to Hollywood, he co-wrote the screenplay for The Oscar, starring Elke Sommer. Ellison sold scripts to many television shows: The Loretta Young Show,The Flying Nun, Burke's Law, Route 66, The Outer Limits, Star Trek, The Man from U. N. C. L. E. Cimarron Strip, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour. Ellison's screenplay for the Star Trek episode "The City on the Edge of Forever" has been considered the best of the 79 episodes in the series. In 1965, he participated in the Selma to Montgomery marches led by Jr..
In 1966, in an article that Esquire magazine would name as the best magazine piece written, the journalist Gay Talese wrote about the goings-on around Frank Sinatra. The article, entitled "Frank Sinatra Has a Cold" describes a clash between the young Harlan Ellison and Frank Sinatra, when the crooner took exception to Ellison's boots during a billiards game. Ellison was hired as a writer for Walt Disney Studios but was fired on his first day after Roy O. Disney overheard him in the studio commissary joking about making a pornographic animated film featuring Disney characters. Ellison continued to publish short fiction and nonfiction pieces in various publications, including some of his best known stories. "'Repent, Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman" is a celebration of civil disobedience against repressive authority. "I Have No Mouth, I Must Scream" is an allegory of Hell, where five humans are tormented by an all-knowing computer throughout eternity. The story was the basis of a 1995 computer game.
Another story, "A Boy and His Dog", examines the nature of friendship and love in a violent, post-apocalyptic world and was made into the 1975 film of the same name, starring Don Johnson. Ellison served as creative consultant to the 1980s version of The Twilight Zone science fiction TV series and Babylon 5; as a member of the Screen Actors Guild, he had voiceover credits for shows including The Pirates of Dark Water, Mother Goose and Grimm, Space Cases, Phantom 2040, Babylon 5, as well as making an onscreen appearance in the Babylon 5 episode "The Face of the Enemy". Ellison's short story "The Man Who Rowed Christopher Columbus Ashore" was selected for inclusion in the 1993 edition of The Best American Short Stories. In 2014 Ellison made a guest appearance on the album Finding Love in Hell by the stoner metal band Leaving Babylon, reading his piece "The Silence" as an introduction to the song "Dead to Me."Ellison's official website, harlanellison.com, was launched in 1995 as a fan page.
George R. R. Martin
George Raymond Richard Martin known as GRRM, is an American novelist and short story writer in the fantasy and science fiction genres and television producer. He is best known for his series of epic fantasy novels, A Song of Ice and Fire, adapted into the HBO series Game of Thrones. In 2005, Lev Grossman of Time called Martin "the American Tolkien", in 2011, he was included on the annual Time 100 list of the most influential people in the world. George Raymond Martin was born on September 20, 1948, in Bayonne, New Jersey, the son of longshoreman Raymond Collins Martin and his wife Margaret Brady Martin, he has two younger sisters and Janet. His mother was of half Irish ancestry, he acknowledges French, English and German roots, which were confirmed on the television series Finding Your Roots. However, while he believed he was a quarter Italian because of who he was told was his paternal grandfather, a DNA test on the show confirmed his Irish and other ancestries but excluded any Italian ancestry, showing instead he is a quarter Ashkenazi Jewish.
The family first lived in a house on Broadway. In 1953, they moved to a federal housing project near the Bayonne docks. During Martin's childhood, his world consisted predominantly of "First Street to Fifth Street", between his grade school and his home. Martin began writing and selling monster stories for pennies to other neighborhood children, dramatic readings included, he wrote stories about a mythical kingdom populated by his pet turtles. Martin attended Mary Jane Donohoe School and Marist High School. While there he became an avid comic book fan, developing a strong interest in the superheroes being published by Marvel Comics, credited Stan Lee for being one of his greatest literary influences. A letter Martin wrote to the editor of Fantastic Four was printed in issue No. 20. Fans who read his letters wrote him letters in turn, through such contacts, Martin joined the fledgling comics fandom of the era, writing fiction for various fanzines. In 1965, Martin won comic fandom's Alley Award for Best fan fiction for his prose superhero story "Powerman vs.
The Blue Barrier". In 1970, Martin earned a B. S. in journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism in Evanston, graduating summa cum laude. S. in Journalism in 1971 from Medill. Eligible for the draft during the Vietnam War, to which he objected, Martin applied for and obtained conscientious objector status. In the mid-1970s, Martin met English professor George Guthridge from Dubuque, Iowa, at a science fiction convention in Milwaukee. Martin persuaded Guthridge not only to give speculative fiction a second look, but to write in the field himself. Guthridge has since been a finalist for the Hugo Award and twice for the Nebula Award for science fiction and fantasy. In 1998, Guthridge and Janet Berliner won the Bram Stoker Award for Superior Achievement in the Novel for their Children of the Dusk. In turn, Guthridge helped Martin in finding a job at Clarke University. Martin "wasn't making enough money to stay alive", from writing and the chess tournaments, says Guthridge. From 1976 to 1978, Martin was an English and journalism instructor at Clarke, he became Writer In Residence at the college from 1978 to 1979.
While he enjoyed teaching, the sudden death of friend and fellow author Tom Reamy in late 1977 made Martin reevaluate his own life, he decided to try to become a full-time writer. He resigned from his job, being tired of the hard winters in Dubuque, he moved to Santa Fe, New Mexico in 1979. Martin began selling science fiction short stories professionally in 1970, at age 21, his first sale was "The Hero", published in its February 1971 issue. His first story to be nominated for the Hugo Award and Nebula Awards was "With Morning Comes Mistfall", published in 1973 in Analog magazine. In 1975 his story "...for a single yesterday" about a post-apocalyptic timetripper was selected for inclusion in Epoch, a science fiction anthology edited by Roger Elwood and Robert Silverberg. His first novel, Dying of the Light, was completed in 1976 right before he moved to Dubuque and published in 1977; that same year the enormous success of Star Wars had a huge impact on the publishing industry and science fiction, he sold the novel for the same amount he would make in three years of teaching.
The short stories he was able to sell in his early 20s gave him some profit, but not enough to pay his bills, which prevented him from becoming the full-time writer he wanted to be. The need for a day job occurred with the American chess craze which followed Bobby Fischer's victory in the 1972 world chess championship. Martin's own chess skills and experience allowed him to be hired as a tournament director
Theodore Sturgeon was an American writer of fantasy, science fiction and horror. He was a critic, he wrote 400 reviews and more than 200 stories. Sturgeon's science fiction novel More Than Human won the 1954 International Fantasy Award as the year's best novel and the Science Fiction Writers of America ranked "Baby is Three" number five among the "Greatest Science Fiction Novellas of All Time" to 1964. Ranked by votes for all of their pre-1965 novellas, Sturgeon was second among authors, behind Robert Heinlein; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inducted Sturgeon in 2000, its fifth class of two dead and two living writers. Sturgeon was born Edward Hamilton Waldo in Staten Island, New York in 1918, his name was changed to Theodore Sturgeon at age eleven after his mother's divorce and remarriage to William Dicky Sturgeon. He sold his first story in 1938 to the McClure Syndicate, his first genre story was "Ether Breather", published by John W. Campbell in the September 1939 issue of Astounding Science Fiction.
At first he wrote short stories for genre magazines such as Astounding and Unknown, but for general-interest publications such as Argosy Magazine. He used the pen name "E. Waldo Hunter". A few of his early stories were signed "Theodore H. Sturgeon." Sturgeon ghost-wrote The Player on the Other Side. This novel gained critical praise from critic H. R. F. Keating: " had finished writing Crime and Mystery: the 100 Best Books, in which I had included The Player on the Other Side... placing the book squarely in the Queen canon" when he learned that it had been written by Sturgeon. William DeAndrea and winner of Mystery Writers of America awards, selecting his ten favorite mystery novels for the magazine Armchair Detective, picked The Player on the Other Side as one of them, he said: "This book changed my life... and made a raving mystery fan out of me.... The book must be'one of the most skilful pastiches in the history of literature. An amazing piece of work, whomever did it'."Disliking arguments with Campbell over editorial decisions, after 1950 Sturgeon only published one story in Astounding.
Sturgeon wrote the screenplays for the Star Trek episodes "Shore Leave" and "Amok Time". The latter is known for its invention of the Vulcan mating ritual. Sturgeon is sometimes credited as having deliberately put homosexual subtext in his work, like the back-rub scene in "Shore Leave", the short story "The World Well Lost". Sturgeon wrote several episodes of Star Trek that were never produced. One of these was notable for having first introduced the Prime Directive, he wrote an episode of the Saturday morning show Land of the Lost, "The Pylon Express", in 1975. Two of Sturgeon's stories were adapted for The New Twilight Zone. One, "A Saucer of Loneliness", was dedicated to his memory. Another short story, "Yesterday was Monday", was the inspiration for The New Twilight Zone episode "A Matter of Minutes", his 1944 novella "Killdozer!" was the inspiration for the 1970s made-for-TV movie, Marvel comic book, alternative rock band of the same name. Sturgeon is well known among readers of classic science-fiction anthologies.
At the height of his popularity in the 1950s he was the most anthologized English-language author alive. Describing "To Here and the Easel" as "a stunning portrait of personality disassociation as perceived from the inside", Carl Sagan said that many of Sturgeon's works were among the "rare few science‐fiction novels combine a standard science‐fiction theme with a deep human sensitivity". John Clute wrote in The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction: "His influence upon writers like Harlan Ellison and Samuel R. Delany was seminal, in his life and work he was a powerful and liberating influence in post-WWII US sf", he is not much known by the general public, he won comparatively few awards. His best work was published before the establishment and consolidation of the leading genre awards, while his production was scarcer and weaker, he was listed as a primary influence on the much more famous Ray Bradbury. Sturgeon's original novels were all published between 1950 and 1961, the bulk of his short story work dated from the 1940s and 1950s.
Though he continued to write through 1983, his work rate dipped noticeably in the years of his life. Sturgeon lived for several years in Oregon, he died on May 8, 1985, of lung fibrosis, at Sacred Heart General Hospital in the neighboring city of Eugene. He was a member of the all-male literary banqueting club the Trap Door Spiders, which served as the basis of Isaac Asimov's fictional group of mystery solvers the Black Widowers. Sturgeon was the inspiration for the recurrent character of Kilgore Trout in the novels of Kurt Vonnegut. In 1951, Sturgeon coined what is now known as Sturgeon's Law: "Ninety percent of is crud, but ninety percent of everything is crud." This was known as Sturgeon's Revelation.
Laurence van Cott Niven is an American science fiction writer. His best-known work is Ringworld, which received Hugo, Locus and Nebula awards; the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America named him the 2015 recipient of the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master Award. His work is hard science fiction, using big science concepts and theoretical physics, it often includes elements of detective fiction and adventure stories. His fantasy includes the series The Magic Goes Away, rational fantasy dealing with magic as a non-renewable resource. Niven was born in Los Angeles, he is a great-grandson of Edward L. Doheny, an oil tycoon who drilled the first successful well in the Los Angeles City Oil Field in 1892 and was subsequently implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal, he attended the California Institute of Technology and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in mathematics from Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas in 1962. He completed a year of graduate work in mathematics at the University of California, Los Angeles.
On September 6, 1969, he married Marilyn Joyce "Fuzzy Pink" Wisowaty, a science fiction and Regency literature fan. He is an agnostic. Niven is the author of numerous science fiction short stories and novels, beginning with his 1964 story "The Coldest Place". In this story, the coldest place concerned is the dark side of Mercury, which at the time the story was written was thought to be tidally locked with the Sun. Algis Budrys said in 1968 that Niven becoming a top writer despite the New Wave was evidence that "trends are for second-raters". In addition to the Nebula award in 1970 and the Hugo and Locus awards in 1971 for Ringworld, Niven won the Hugo Award for Best Short Story for "Neutron Star" in 1967, he won the same award in 1972, for "Inconstant Moon", in 1975 for "The Hole Man". In 1976, he won the Hugo Award for Best Novelette for "The Borderland of Sol". Niven has written scripts for three science fiction television series: the original Land of the Lost series. Niven has written for the DC Comics character Green Lantern including in his stories hard science fiction concepts such as universal entropy and the redshift effect.
He has included limited psi gifts in some characters in his stories. Several of his stories predicted the black market in transplant organs. Many of Niven's stories—sometimes called the Tales of Known Space—take place in his Known Space universe, in which humanity shares the several habitable star systems nearest to the Sun with over a dozen alien species, including the aggressive feline Kzinti and the intelligent but cowardly Pierson's Puppeteers, which are central characters; the Ringworld series is part of the Tales of Known Space, Niven has shared the setting with other writers since a 1988 anthology, The Man-Kzin Wars. There have been several volumes of short novellas. Niven has written a logical fantasy series The Magic Goes Away, which utilizes an exhaustible resource called mana to power a rule-based "technological" magic; the Draco Tavern series of short stories take place in a more light-hearted science fiction universe, are told from the point of view of the proprietor of an omni-species bar.
The whimsical Svetz series consists of a collection of short stories, The Flight of the Horse, a novel, Rainbow Mars, which involve a nominal time machine sent back to retrieve long-extinct animals, but which travels, in fact, into alternative realities and brings back mythical creatures such as a Roc and a Unicorn. Much of his writing since the 1970s has been in collaboration with Jerry Pournelle and Steven Barnes, but Brenda Cooper and Edward M. Lerner. One of Niven's best known humorous works is "Man of Steel, Woman of Kleenex", in which he uses real-world physics to underline the difficulties of Superman and a human woman mating. Niven appeared in the 1980 science documentary film Target... Earth? Niven's most famous contribution to the SF genre comes from his novel Ringworld, in which he envisions a Ringworld: a band of material a million miles wide, of the same diameter as Earth's orbit, rotating around a star; the idea's genesis came from Niven's attempts to imagine a more efficient version of a Dyson sphere, which could produce the effect of surface gravity through rotation.
Given that spinning a Dyson Sphere would result in the atmosphere pooling around the equator, the Ringworld removes all the extraneous parts of the structure, leaving a spinning band landscaped on the sun-facing side, with the atmosphere and inhabitants kept in place through centrifugal force and 1,000 mi high perimeter walls. After publication of Ringworld, Dan Alderson and Ctein, two fannish friends of Niven, analyzed the structure and told Niven that the Ringworld was dynamically unstable such that if the center of rotation drifts away from the central sun, gravitational forces will not're-center' it, thus allowing the ring to contact the sun and be destroyed. Niven used this as a core plot element in the sequel novel, The Ringworld Engineers
Live action role-playing game
A live action role-playing game is a form of role-playing game where the participants physically portray their characters. The players pursue goals within a fictional setting represented by the real world while interacting with each other in character; the outcome of player actions may be mediated by game rules or determined by consensus among players. Event arrangers called gamemasters decide rules to be used and facilitate play; the first LARPs were run in the late 1970s, inspired by tabletop role-playing games and genre fiction. The activity spread internationally during the 1980s and has diversified into a wide variety of styles. Play may be game-like or may be more concerned with dramatic or artistic expression. Events can be designed to achieve educational or political goals; the fictional genres used vary from realistic modern or historical settings to fantastic or futuristic eras. Production values can involve elaborate venues and costumes. LARPs range in size from small private events lasting a few hours to large public events with thousands of players lasting for days.
LARP has been referred to as live role-playing, interactive literature, free form role-playing. Some of these terms are still in common use, it is sometimes written as larp. The live action in LARP is analogous to the term live action used in film and video to differentiate works with human actors from animation. Playing a LARP is called larping, one who does it is a larper; the participants in a LARP physically portray characters in a fictional setting, improvising their characters' speech and movements somewhat like actors in improvisational theatre. This is distinct from tabletop role-playing games. LARPs may last for hours or days. There is no audience. Players may dress as their character and carry appropriate equipment, the environment is sometimes decorated to resemble the setting. LARPs can be one-off events or a series of events in the same setting, events can vary in size from a handful of players to several thousand. Events are put on for the benefit of the players, who take on roles called player characters that the players may create themselves or be given by the gamemasters.
Players sometimes play the same character at separate events, progressively developing the character and its relations with other characters and the setting. Arrangers called gamemasters determine the rules and setting of a LARP, may influence an event and act as referees while it is taking place; the GMs may do the logistical work, or there may be other arrangers who handle details such as advertising the event, booking a venue, financial management. Unlike the GM in a tabletop role-playing game, a LARP GM has an overview of everything, happening during play because numerous participants may be interacting at once. For this reason, a LARP GM's role is less concerned with maintaining a narrative or directly entertaining the players, more with arranging the structure of the LARP before play begins and facilitating the players and crew to maintain the fictional environment during play. Participants sometimes known as the crew may help the GMs to set up and maintain the environment of the LARP during play by acting as stagehands or playing non-player characters who fill out the setting.
Crew receive more information about the setting and more direction from the GMs than players do. In a tabletop role-playing game, a GM plays all the NPCs, whereas in a LARP, each NPC is played by a separate crew member. Sometimes players are asked to play NPCs for periods of an event. Much of play consists of interactions between characters; some LARP scenarios feature interaction between PCs. Other scenarios focus on interaction between PCs and aspects of the setting, including NPCs, that are under the direction of the GMs. LARP does not have a single point of origin, but was invented independently by groups in North America and Australia; these groups shared an experience with genre fiction or tabletop role-playing games, a desire to physically experience such settings. In addition to tabletop role-playing, LARP is rooted in childhood games of make believe, play fighting, costume parties, roleplay simulations, Commedia dell'arte, improvisational theatre, military simulations, historical reenactment groups such as the Society for Creative Anachronism.
The earliest recorded LARP group is Dagorhir, founded in 1977 in the United States and focuses on fantasy battles. Soon after the release of the movie Logan's Run in 1976, rudimentary live role-playing games based on the movie were run at US science fiction conventions. In 1981, the International Fantasy Gaming Society started, with rules influenced by Dungeons & Dragons. IFGS was named after a fictional group in the 1981 novel Dream Park, which described futuristic LARPs. In 1982, the Society for Interactive Literature, a predecessor of the Live Action Roleplayers Association, formed as the first recorded theatre-style LARP group in the US. Treasure Trap, formed in 1982 at Peckforton Castle, was the first recorded LARP game in the UK and influenced the fantasy LARPs that followed there; the first recorded LARP in Australia was run in 1983. In 1993, White Wolf Publishing released Mind's Eye Theatre, still played internationally and is the most commercially successful published LARP; the first German events were in about 1994, with fantasy LARP in particular growing qu
L. Sprague de Camp
Lyon Sprague de Camp, better known as L. Sprague de Camp, was an American writer of science fiction and non-fiction. In a career spanning 60 years, he wrote over 100 books, including novels and works of non-fiction, including biographies of other fantasy authors, he was a major figure in science fiction in the 1940s. De Camp was born in New York City, one of three sons of Lyon de Camp, a businessman in real estate and lumber, Emma Beatrice Sprague, his maternal grandfather was the accountant, pioneering Volapükist and Civil War veteran Charles Ezra Sprague. De Camp once noted that he used pen-names, "partly because my own true name sounds more like a pseudonym than most pseudonyms do."De Camp began his education at the Trinity School in New York spent ten years attending the Snyder School in North Carolina, a military-style institution. His stay at the Snyder School was an attempt by his parents, who were heavy-handed disciplinarians, to cure him of intellectual arrogance and lack of discipline.
He was awkward and thin, an ineffective fighter, suffered from bullying by his classmates. His experiences at the school taught him to develop a detached, analytical style considered cold by all but his closest friends, though he could, like his father, be disarming and funny in social situations, he would recall these challenging childhood experiences in the semi-autobiographical story, Judgment Day. An aeronautical engineer by profession, De Camp conducted his undergraduate studies at the California Institute of Technology, earned his Bachelor of Science degree from Caltech in Aeronautical Engineering 1930, he earned his Master of Science degree in Engineering from the Stevens Institute of Technology in 1933. De Camp was a surveyor and an expert in patents, his first job was with the Inventors Foundation, Inc. in Hoboken, N. J., taken over by The International Correspondence Schools. De Camp transferred to the PA division, he was Principal of the School of Inventing and Patenting when he resigned in 1937.
His first book Inventions and Their Management resulted and was published in July 1937. On August 12, 1939, de Camp married Catherine Crook, with whom he collaborated on science fiction and nonfiction beginning in the 1960s. During World War II, de Camp served as a researcher at the Philadelphia Naval Yard along with his fellow writers Isaac Asimov and Robert A. Heinlein. De Camp rose to the rank of lieutenant commander in the U. S. Navy as a reserve officer. De Camp was a member of the all-male literary and dining club the "Trap Door Spiders" in New York City, which served as the basis of Asimov's fictional group of mystery solvers the "Black Widowers." De Camp himself was the model for the character named "Geoffrey Avalon."De Camp was a founding member of the Swordsmen and Sorcerers' Guild of America, a loosely knit group of Heroic fantasy writers, founded during the 1960s and led by Lin Carter, with entry by credentials as a fantasy writer alone. The de Camps moved to Plano, Texas, in 1989, Sprague de Camp died there on November 6, 2000, seven months after his wife, on what would have been her birthday, just three weeks before his own 93rd birthday.
His ashes were inurned, together with hers, in the Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia. De Camp's personal library of about 1,200 books was acquired for auction by Half Price Books in 2005; the collection included books inscribed by fellow writers, such as Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan, as well as de Camp himself. "Extraterrestrial," a coinage from "extra" + "terrestrial," meaning from beyond earth, is attested as an adjective as early as 1868, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. Its first use in connection with life beyond earth was by H. G. Wells, in his 1898 novel The War of the Worlds. L. Sprague de Camp is credited with its first usage as a noun with the meaning of "alien life" and with coining the abbreviation "E. T." in the first part of his two-part article "Design for Life," published in the May 1939 issue of Astounding Science Fiction. De Camp was a materialist who wrote works examining society, history and myth, he published numerous short stories, non-fiction works and poems during his long career.
De Camp had the mind of an educator, a common theme in many of his works is a corrective impulse regarding similar previous works by other authors. A rational and logical thinker, he was disturbed by what he regarded as logical lapses and absurdities in others' writings. Some, like Asimov, felt de Camp's conscientiousness about facts limited the scope of his stories: de Camp was reluctant to use technological or scientific concepts if he did not think them possible. Thus, his response to Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court was to write a similar time travel novel in which the method of time travel was rationalized and the hero's technical expertise both set at a believable level and constrained by the technological limitations of the age. In like fashion, he reimagined space opera and planetary romance in his "Viagens Interplanetarias" series, the prehistoric precursor civilizations characteristic of much heroic fantasy in his Pusadian series; when he was not debunking literary conventions he was explaining them.
For example, in the Harold Shea stories co-written with his longtime friend Fletcher Pratt, the magical premises of some bodies of myths and legends were accepted but examined and elucidated in terms of their own systems of inherent logic. The imaginative civilizations in The Compleat Enchanter, for example, are built upon a cultural