Innisfallen or Inishfallen is an island in Lough Leane. Innisfallen is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains dating from the early Christian period found in the Killarney National Park; the monastery was founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, was occupied for 950 years. Over a period of about 300 of these, the monks wrote the Annals of Innisfallen, which chronicle the early history of Ireland as it was known to the monks; the monks were dispossessed of the abbey on August 18, 1594, by Elizabeth I. The location of the monastery on the island is thought to have given rise to the name Lough Leane, which in English means "Lake of Learning". According to tradition the Irish High King Brian Boru received his education at Innisfallen under Maelsuthain O'Carroll. Maelsuthain has been credited as the possible originator of the Annals, it is possible for tourists to visit the island during the summer months, with boats leaving from Ross Castle throughout the day.
While the abbey dates back to the seventh century, the oldest extant structure, dated to the tenth century, is the western two-thirds of the abbey church. The remainder of the church and the main abbey complex were constructed in the thirteenth century. A third structure, an oratory with a Hiberno-Romanesque doorway, dates from the twelfth century. List of abbeys and priories in the Republic of Ireland
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business. Tourism may be international, or within the traveller's country; the World Tourism Organization defines tourism more in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic or international, international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments. Tourism suffered as a result of a strong economic slowdown of the late-2000s recession, between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, but recovered. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.03 trillion in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012, emerging markets such as China and Brazil had increased their spending over the previous decade.
The ITB Berlin is the world's leading tourism trade fair. Global tourism accounts for ca. 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811, it is formed from the word tour, derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare. Tourism has become an important source of income for many regions and entire countries; the Manila Declaration on World Tourism of 1980 recognized its importance as "an activity essential to the life of nations because of its direct effects on the social, cultural and economic sectors of national societies and on their international relations."Tourism brings large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists, accounting as of 2011 for 30% of the world's trade in services, for 6% of overall exports of goods and services. It generates opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism; the hospitality industries which benefit from tourism include transportation services.
This is in addition to goods bought by tourists, including souvenirs. On the flip-side, tourism can degrade sour relationships between host and guest. In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours", its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941, Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home.
In 1994, the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another countryThe terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel implies a more purposeful journey; the terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is used as a sign of distinction; the sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations. International tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009.
After a 5% increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, ended up only 2% for the year, compared to a 7% increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, a 5.7% decline in international tourism receipts. The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten destinations as the most visited in terms of the number of international travelers in 2017. International tourism receipts grew to US$1.26 Trillion in 2015, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.4% from 2014. The World Tourism Organization reports the following entities as the top ten tourism earners for the year 2015: The World Tourism Organizati
Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia. It is the tree known as yew, though with other related trees becoming known, it may now be known as common yew, English yew, or European yew; the word yew is from Proto-Germanic *īwa- originally a loanword from Gaulish *ivos, compare Breton ivin, Irish ēo, Welsh ywen, French if. Baccata is Latin for bearing red berries; the word yew as it was used seems to refer to the color brown. The yew was known to Theophrastus, who noted its preference for mountain coolness and shade, its evergreen character and its slow growth. Most Romance languages, with the notable exception of French, kept a version of the Latin word taxus from the same root as toxic. In Slavic languages, the same root is preserved: Russian tis, Slovakian tis, Slovenian tisa, Serbian-Croatian-Bosnian-Montenegrin tisa/тиса. Albanian borrowed it as tis. In German it is known as Eibe. In Iran, the tree is known as sorkhdār.
The common yew was one of the many species first described by Linnaeus. It is one of around 30 conifer species in seven genera in the family Taxaceae, placed in the order Pinales, it is a small to medium-sized evergreen tree, growing 10–20 metres tall, with a trunk up to 2 metres in diameter. The bark is scaly brown, coming off in small flakes aligned with the stem; the leaves are flat, dark green, 1–4 centimetres long and 2–3 millimetres broad, arranged spirally on the stem, but with the leaf bases twisted to align the leaves in two flat rows either side of the stem, except on erect leading shoots where the spiral arrangement is more obvious. The leaves are poisonous; the seed cones are modified, each cone containing a single seed, 4–7 millimetres long, surrounded by a fleshy scale which develops into a soft, bright red berry-like structure called an aril. The aril open at the end; the arils mature 6 to 9 months after pollination, with the seed contained, are eaten by thrushes and other birds, which disperse the hard seeds undamaged in their droppings.
Maturation of the arils is spread over 2 to 3 months, increasing the chances of successful seed dispersal. The seeds themselves are poisonous and bitter, but are opened and eaten by some bird species including hawfinches and great tits; the aril is not poisonous, it is gelatinous and sweet tasting. The male cones are globose, 3–6 millimetres in diameter, shed their pollen in early spring; the yew is dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, or change sex with time. Taxus baccata can reach 400 to 600 years of age; some specimens live longer but the age of yews is overestimated. Ten yews in Britain are believed to predate the 10th century; the potential age of yews is impossible to determine and is subject to much dispute. There is any wood as old as the entire tree, while the boughs themselves become hollow with age, making ring counts impossible. Evidence based on growth rates and archaeological work of surrounding structures suggests the oldest yews, such as the Fortingall Yew in Perthshire, may be in the range of 2,000 years, placing them among the oldest plants in Europe.
One characteristic contributing to yew's longevity is that it is able to split under the weight of advanced growth without succumbing to disease in the fracture, as do most other trees. Another is its ability to give rise to new epicormic and basal shoots from cut surfaces and low on its trunk at an old age; the Fortingall Yew in Perthshire, has the largest recorded trunk girth in Britain and experts estimate it to be 2,000 to 3,000 years old, although it may be a remnant of a post-Roman Christian site and around 1,500 years old. The Llangernyw Yew in Clwyd, can be found at an early saint site and is about 1,500 years old. Other well known yews include the Ankerwycke Yew, the Balderschwang Yew, the Caesarsboom, the Florence Court Yew, the Borrowdale Fraternal Four, of which poet William Wordsworth wrote; the Kingley Vale National Nature Reserve in West Sussex has one of Europe's largest yew woodlands. The oldest specimen in Spain is located in Asturias, it is known as Teixu l'Iglesia in the Asturian language.
It stands 15 m tall with a trunk diameter of 6.82 m and a crown diameter of 15 m. It was declared a Natural Monument on April 27, 1995 by the Asturian Government and is protected by the Plan of Natural Resources. A unique forest formed by Taxus baccata and European box lies within the city of Sochi, in the Western Caucasus; the oldest Irish Yew, the Florence Court Yew, still stands in the grounds of Florence Court estate in County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland. The Irish Yew has become ubiquitous in cemeteries across the world and it is believed that all known examples are from cuttings from this tree. Yews in this genus are separate-sexed, males are allergenic, with an OPALS allergy scale rating of 10 out of 10. Female yews have an OPALS rating of 1, are considered "allergy-fighting". Male yews bloom and release abundant amounts of pollen in the spring. All parts of a yew plant are toxic to humans, due to taxine alkaloids, with the exception of the yew be
The Eóganachta or Eoghanachta were an Irish dynasty centred on Cashel which dominated southern Ireland from the 6/7th to the 10th centuries, following that, in a restricted form, the Kingdom of Desmond, its offshoot Carbery, to the late 16th century. By tradition the dynasty was founded by Conall Corc but named after his ancestor Éogan, the firstborn son of the semi-mythological 3rd-century king Ailill Aulom; this dynastic clan-name, for it was never in any sense a'surname,' should more be restricted to those branches of the royal house which descended from Conall Corc, who established Cashel as his royal seat in the late 5th century. Although the Eóganachta were powerful in Munster, they never provided Ireland with a High King. Serious challenges to the Uí Néill were however presented by Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin, they were not recognized as High Kings or Kings of Tara, as they did not belong to the Uí Néill, but they controlled territories as large or larger than those of the other dynasty.
The kings of the Hill of Tara were sometimes called High Kings but were not recognized as kings of all Ireland in the historical period. However, this is to put the supposed position of "High King of Ireland" on a platform that it never enjoyed; the social structure of Gaelic Ireland was complex, hierarchically oriented and aristocratic in concept. At the summit of society stood the king of a province, variously styled in the law texts as "King of great kings", "Chief of kings" and "The ultimate king of every individual". From his justice there was no appeal, nor did the Brehon Law acknowledge the existence of the High Kingship of Ireland; the ri ruirech had no legal superior. In Munster this legal theory was explicitly adhered to by the annalists who styled the provincial kings as "High King", thereby stressing his absolute sovereignty; as the concept of the High Kingship of Ireland was developed from the 9th century onwards by the Uí Néill clan, the kings of Munster counterbalanced that inaccurate doctrine by stressing their alternative right to that title, or instead the enjoyment of full sovereignty in Leth Mogha, that part of Ireland south of a line from Dublin to Galway.
The Eóganacht king Fíngen mac Áedo Duib ruled as King of Munster and is the direct male line ancestor of the O'Sullivans. His son Seachnasagh was too young to assume the throne and was therefore followed by Eóganacht king of Munster Faílbe Flann mac Áedo Duib, direct male line ancestor of the MacCarthy kings. In the Roll of "The Kings of Munster", under the heading "Provincial Kings", we find that Fingin, son of Hugh Dubh, is No.14 on the Roll, while his brother Failbhe is No.16. Long, an anglicized version of the name Ó Longaidh, belongs to one of the oldest branches of the Eóghanchta royal dynasty of Ireland’s Munster Province. Prince Longaidh, patriarch of the sept living in about 640, was a descendant of Oengus Mac Nad Fróich, the first Christian king of Munster in the 5th century, said to have been baptized by Ss. Patrick and Ailbe on the Rock of Cashel. Early genealogical heritage survives in a poem attributed to the 7th century entitled Duan Cathain, preserved in An Leabhar Muimhneach.
By the time of the Norman invasion in 1066, this Catholic clan was well established in its present territory in the Barony of Muskerry, County Cork, parishes of Canovee, Kilbonane and Dunisky straddling the River Lee. The MacCarthys owed the prominent position they held in Desmond at that period of the English invasion of Ireland, not to primogeniture, but to the disturbed state and choas of Munster during the Danish wars, in which their immediate ancestors took a prominent and praiseworthy part; the rule of the Eóganachta in Munster is regarded as gentle and more sophisticated in comparison with the other provincial dynasties of Ireland. Not only was Munster the wealthiest of the provinces, but the Eóganachta were willing to concede other powerful kingdoms whom they had politically marginalized, such as the Corcu Loígde, considerable status and freedom from tribute, based on their former status as rulers of the province, their origins Gaulish, are obscure. According to one of their own origin legends, they were descendants of Heber, eldest son of King Milesius from the north of Spain.
The proto-Eóganachta, from the time of Mug Nuadat to the time of Crimthann mac Fidaig and Conall Corc, are sometimes referred to as the Deirgtine in early sources. The earliest evidence for the proto-Eóganachta, the Deirgthine or Deirgtine, is in the form of ogham inscriptions, they appear to have been subjects of the Dáirine, a warlike people with mentioned connections to Ulster, who were cousins of the Ulaid. The Dáirine were represented in historical times most by the Corcu Loígde, over whom the Deirgtine achieved supremacy during the 7th century, following the loss by the former of their centuries-long hold on the Kingdom of Osraige with some outside help from the Uí Néill; the Eóghanachta, through DNA analysis of their various patrilineal descendant septs, are associated with Y-Chromosome Haplogroup R1b, R-S1115, a sub clade of the Haplogroup R-M269 branch. The estimated age for S1115 is c. 500 A. D.. The Eóganachta achieved their status through political and economic sophistication and not military conquest.
Ireland was dominated by several hostile powers whom they were never in any position to challenge militarily on their own, in the early centuries, but there existed a n
Parkavonear Castle is a 13th-century Anglo-Norman ruin in Aghadoe in Ireland, overlooking the lakes of Killarney. It was built following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, it is two stories high, unusually, is built to a cylindrical design rather than the more common rectangular shape for Norman castles. The walls are two metres thick, the internal floor space is several metres wide. There is a staircase within the wall joining the two floors. An entrance has been made into the lower floor, but the only entry would have been to the higher floor, enabling the occupants to pull in the ladder in time of attack. Only the stone parts of the structure remain, as the wooden floors and roof have deteriorated and been removed. Square earthworks surrounded the keep but only traces of them remain. Parkavonear Castle takes its name from the Irish paírc meaning field of the meadow, it is sometimes spelt Parkvonear, but local spelling includes the middle letter'a'. Office of Public Works information plaque at the site http://www.tripwiser.com/trip_thing_to_do-Ireland_Killarney_Parkavonear_Castle?itiNodeId=8a8c80fe1580cb730115822ae614342f&eType=activity&tripEleTabName=details
Annals of Inisfallen
The Annals of Inisfallen are a chronicle of the medieval history of Ireland. There are more than 2,500 entries spanning the years between 433 and 1450; the manuscript is thought to have been compiled in 1092, as the chronicle is written by a single scribe down to that point but updated by many different hands thereafter. It was written by the monks of Innisfallen Abbey, on Innisfallen Island on Lough Leane, near Killarney in Munster, but made use of sources produced at different centres around Munster as well as a Clonmacnoise group text of the hypothetical Chronicle of Ireland; as well as the chronological entries, the manuscript contains a short, fragmented narrative of the history of pre-Christian Ireland, known as the pre-Patrician section, from the time of Abraham to the arrival of Saint Patrick in Ireland. This has many elements in common with Lebor Gabála Érenn, it sets the history of Ireland and the Gaels within Eusebian universal history, provided both by a Latin world chronicle and extracts from Réidig dam, a Dé, do nim, a Middle Irish poem attributed to Flann Mainistrech in manuscripts.
The annals are now housed in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. In 2001, Brian O'Leary, a Fianna Fáil councillor in Killarney, called for the annals to be returned to the town. Irish annals The Chronicle of Ireland Evans, The Present and the Past in Medieval Irish Chronicles, Studies in Celtic History 27, Woodbridge: Boydell Hughes, Early Christian Ireland: Introduction to the Sources, Sources of History, London: Hodder and Stoughton Annals of Inisfallen — Text of the annals Annals of Inisfallen — Original text Annals of Inisfallen — pre-Patrician section Digitised images from Rawlinson B 503, Images available on Digital Bodleian. Call for Annals of Innisfallen to be returned to Killarney — local newspaper article
Killarney is a town in County Kerry, southwestern Ireland. The town is on the northeastern shore of Lough Leane, part of Killarney National Park, is home to St Mary's Cathedral, Ross Castle, Muckross House and Abbey, the Lakes of Killarney, MacGillycuddy's Reeks, Purple Mountain, Mangerton Mountain, the Gap of Dunloe and Torc Waterfall, its natural heritage and location on the Ring of Kerry make Killarney a popular tourist destination. Killarney won the Best Kept Town award in 2007, in a cross-border competition jointly organised by the Department of the Environment and the Northern Ireland Amenity Council. In 2011, it was named Ireland's tidiest town and the cleanest town in the country by Irish Business Against Litter. Killarney has featured prominently in early Irish history, with religious settlements playing an important part of its recorded history, its first historical settlement was the monastery on nearby Innisfallen Island founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, occupied for 850 years.
Innisfallen or Inishfallen is an island in Lough Leane. It is home to the ruins of Innisfallen Abbey, one of the most impressive archaeological remains dating from the early Christian period found in the Killarney National Park; the monastery was founded in 640 by St. Finian the Leper, was occupied for 850 years. Over a period of about 300 of these, the monks wrote the Annals of Innisfallen, which chronicle the early history of Ireland as it was known to the monks; the monks were dispossessed of the abbey on 18 August 1594, by Elizabeth I. The location of the monastery on the island is thought to have given rise to the name Lough Leane, which in English means "Lake of Learning". According to tradition the Irish High King Brian Boru received his education at Innisfallen under Maelsuthain O'Carroll. Maelsuthain has been credited as the possible originator of the Annals, it is possible for tourists to visit the island during the summer months, with boats leaving from Ross Castle throughout the day.
Aghadoe, the local townland which overlooks present day Killarney, may have begun as a pagan religious site. The site has been associated with the 5th century missionary St. Abban, but 7th century ogham stones mark the first clear evidence of Aghadoe being used as an important site. According to legend, St. Finian founded a monastery at Aghadoe in the 7th century; the first written record of a monastery dates from 939 AD in the Annals of Innisfallen where the Aghadoe monastery is referred to as the "Old Abbey."Following the Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, the Normans built Parkavonear Castle at Aghadoe. The castle was intended as an early warning outpost due to its views of the entire Killarney valley and lakes region. Ross Castle was built on the lake shore in the late 15th century by local ruling clan the O'Donoghues Mor. Ownership of the castle changed hands during the Desmond Rebellions of the 1580s to the Mac Carty Mor. Muckross Abbey was founded in 1448 as a Franciscan friary for the Observantine Franciscans by Donal McCarthy Mor.
The abbey was burned down by Cromwellian forces under General Ludlow in 1654, today remains a ruin. Killarney was involved in the Irish War of Independence; the town, indeed the entire county, had strong republican ties, skirmishes with the British forces happened on a regular basis. The Great Southern Hotel, was for a while taken over by the British, both as an office and barracks, to protect the neighbouring railway station. One notable event during the war was the Headford Ambush when the IRA attacked a railway train a few miles from town. However, divisions among former colleagues were quick to develop following the truce and treaty, Killarney, like many other areas, suffered in the rash of increasing atrocities during the Civil War. A day after the Ballyseedy Massacre, five Republican prisoners were murdered in Killarney by Free State forces. Killarney's tourism history goes back at least to the mid 18th century, when Thomas, fourth Viscount Kenmare, began to attract visitors and new residents to the town.
The date of 1747 was used in recent 250-year celebrations to honour the history of Killarney tourism. A visit by Queen Victoria in 1861 gave the town some international exposure. Killarney benefited from the coming of the railway in July 1853. British trade directory publisher Isaac Slater noted that there were three hotels in the town in 1846 but by 1854, one year after the coming of the railway, James Fraser named seven hotels and described their locations:the Railway Hotel opposite the Railway Station. In 1858, Irish born Victorian journalist, Samuel Carter Hall named O'Sullivan's Hotel and the Innisfallen rather than the Hibernia and Torc, but Isaac Slater named the Hibernia in 1846. At the time he was writing, tours of the Ring of Kerry were an industry and Killarney was considered the starting point of the hundred and ten mile circuitous route, he was fascinated by the horses' endurance on the two-day trip, leaves cl