Kissamos is a town and municipality, multiple bishopric and Latin titular see in the west of the island of Crete, Greece. It is part of the Chania regional unit and of the former Kissamos Province which covers the northwest corner of the island; the city of Kissamos is known as Kastelli Kissamou and known as Kastelli after the Venetian castle, there. It is now a fishing harbour, with a regular ferry from the Peloponnese via Kythira. A town museum is located in the old Venetian governor's palace and there have been important archaeological finds in the town, including fine mosaics, dating from the Roman city of Kisamos; the head town of the municipality is Kastelli-Kissamos itself. Strabo said that ancient Cisamus was its naval arsenal; the Peutinger Table distinguishes two port towns in Crete called Cisamus, Modern Kissamos is much further west than where Aptera is now placed. It was excluded by Pashley in 1837 as being, of the two ancient maritime Cretan cities named Kisamos, the one associated with Aptera.
In the past, when the port of Aptera was thought to be present-day Kissamos, some supposed Aptera to be identical with Polyrrhenia, Kissamos to be the port of Polyrrhenia. However and other ancient sources say that Polyrrhenia's port was at Phalasarna on the west coast. Ancient Cisamus became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Gortyna, the capital of the Roman province of Crete. Only two of its first-millennium bishops are named in extant contemporary documents: Theopemptus, Nicetas at the Trullan Council in 692, Leo at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787; the bishopric is still a residential. After the Venetian conquest of Crete in 1212, Cisamus became a Latin Church diocese; the names of more than 20 residential Latin bishops from until the end of the 16th century are known, including: Suffragan Bishops of Kisamo... Angelo Barbarigo Bishop of Verona, Cardinal-Priest of Ss. Marcellino e Pietro Cardinal-Priest of S. Prassede in commendam (1415.07.04 – 1418.08.16... Prospero Santacroce, Apostolic Nuncio to Austria-Hungary, Apostolic Nuncio to France, Apostolic Nuncio to Portugal, again Apostolic Nuncio to France, created Cardinal-Priest of S. Girolamo degli Schiavoni, Apostolic Administrator of Arles, transferred Cardinal-Priest of S. Maria degli Angeli, Cardinal-Priest of S. Adriano al Foro pro hac vice Title, Cardinal-Priest of S. Clemente, promoted Cardinal-Bishop of Albano Apostolic Administrator Gerolamo Ragazzoni, former Coadjutor Bishop of Famagosta, Bishop of Novara, Bishop of Roman Catholic Diocese of Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo&Bergamo, Apostolic Nuncio to France No longer a residential bishopric, Cisamus is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular bishopric, since it was suppressed as residential see around 1600 AD.
It has been vacant for decades, having had the following incumbents, all of the lowest rank: Fortunato Bisleti, no office recorded Miguel Anselmo Álvarez de Abreu y Valdéz, as Auxiliary Bishop of Tlaxcala. S. Casquete Prado; the municipal unit of Kissamos includes the Gramvousa peninsula in the northwest and the adjacent Gramvousa islets, as well as the islet of Pontikonisi, the villages of Sfinari, Polirinia, Lousakia, Sirikari and Kalathena. It forms the extreme western part of the region, of Crete, it is bordered by Platanias to the East, by Kantanos-Selino to the south. The province of Kissamos was one of the provinces of the Chania Prefecture, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality of Kissamos, the municipal units of Kolymvari and Voukolies. It
Gavdos is the southernmost Greek island, located to the south of its much larger neighbour, Crete, of which it is administratively a part, in the regional unit of Chania. It was part of the former Selino Province; the island is situated at the southern tip of Greece, thus making it the southernmost point of the entire European continent. Gavdos has been known by a wide variety of names. For example, it appears in the biblical account of Paul's journey to Rome in Acts 27 as "Clauda" or "Cauda"; the island was referred to as "Cauda" by Roman geographer Pomponius Mela, as "Gaudos" by Pliny. Ptolemy called Gavdos "Claudos"; the Venetians called it "Gotzo" in imitation of the Maltese island "Gozo". From the 17th to the 19th centuries, the island was known as "Gondzo". A Turkish name of Godzo was "Bougadoz"; the island is 26 nautical miles south of Chora Sfakion. The area of the municipality, which includes the small island Gavdopoula, is 32.424 square kilometres. The island is triangular in shape, its highest point is 345 metres.
The southeastern corner is a rocky peninsula with a natural arch carved by the elements, called Trypiti. A sculpture of an oversized chair sits on top of Trypiti. There is an islet called Gavdopoula to the north west of Gavdos. Gavdos and Gavdopoula are covered with low-lying shrubs. Both are important stops for migrating birds. Local birds include the European shag. Gavdos has a variety of other vegetation, such as maquis as well as forests of pines and junipers. Gavdos is the southernmost island in Greece and all of Europe, with a warm Mediterranean subtropical climate typical of the Greek islands, summers are hot with daily temperatures reaching 32 ° C in August and mild winters by European standards, the coldest month has an average temperature of 17 ° C; the Mediterranean Sea is an important thermal regulator that surrounds it island in all its directions, while maintaining the high temperature of the sea in summer passing from 26 ° C. The mild climate is aided by hot winds blowing from the Sahara Desert.
The countless mountains of the Balkans protect from the cold, continental air, in addition to its island condition. As a result of the Subtropical High of the Azores precipitation is concentrated in winter, making summers dry with no precipitation days during June and August months, it is the sunniest place in Europe and with the highest number of radiation: between 1800 and 1900 kWh/m², values closer to North Africa and the Middle East. There are only a small number of year-round residents of services for tourists are basic; as of 2011, the total population of Gavdos was 152. In reality, fewer than 50 people live permanently on the island. In the summer the total people on the island can reach over 3,500, most of whom are campers and tourists; the largest man-made harbour for ferries is Karave. The island's capital is Kastri; the southernmost populated village is Vatsiana, with a total permanent population of 31 people. Gavdos has supported a permanent population since Neolithic times. However, the island has few permanent residents.
Gavdos has been identified as a possible site of the mythical Ogygia where Kalypso held Odysseus prisoner. Archaeological evidence showed. During that time the flora of the island was overexploited and that started a process of erosion which has continued to this day. Gavdos had 8,000 inhabitants by 900 AD. During the Ottoman Empire's reign on the island, which lasted from 1665 until 1895, Gavdos was known as Gondzo. During this period the population decreased to only 500 by 1882. A reference to Saracens on the island survives: the beach Sarakiniko. In the 1930s the island was used as a place of exile of communists. During World War II, allied forces evacuated some forces to Gavdos following the German victory in the battle of Crete. On, the general phase of urbanization that started in other parts of Greece in the 1960s took place in the 1950s on Gavdos. During that period the islanders exchanged their land on Gavdos with ex-Turkish land on Crete, which had now become exchangeable via the state.
Upon settling in Crete they created a community known as Gavdiotika, part of the town of Paleochora. There are many abandoned terraces on Gavdos. There still is some agriculture on Gavdos. During the summer, the population of the island swells to a few thousand because of tourists, although there are few facilities for tourists. There is one year-round cafe in Carave on Gavdos run by Evangelina Tsigonakis. There is a modern non-functioning reproduction lighthouse tower on Gavdos which now serves as a cafe during the summer season. Gavdos has an FM radio station, Gavdos FM 88.8, available online. Following years of isolation, in 1996 the island came to media prominence. In a NATO exercise Gavdos was the focal point of a confrontation between Turkey. Following that, Prime Minister Costas Simitis visited Gavdos and announced a five-year, €1.5 million plan for the island's development. In 2001, Costis Stephanopoulos, the Greek President, inaugurated a telemedicine centre on Gavdos, an
Anogeia is a municipality in the Rethymno regional unit, Greece. The municipality has an area of 102.632 km2. Population 2,379; when Anogeia was founded and by whom, is not known. Many believe that the original settlement was founded by villagers from the village Axos, west of Anogia, where the Minoan city Oaxos was. According to a legend, a shepherd from Axos found one day on one of the slopes of Psiloreitis an icon depicting Saint John the Baptist. Pious as he was, he picked it up wrapped it in a towel, took it to his home and placed it there alongside the other icons. On the following day he was astonished to find out. Terrified, he went back to the place he had found it on the day before, where he was exhilarated to discover that the icon was at the same place; this inexplicable phenomenon was considered to be an order from the heavens, to build there a temple dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. The church of Saint John seems to be the first building of the settlement, which came to be known as “Anogia”.
Within the temple of Saint John are remains of Byzantine drawings on the walls, which can be dated back to the 11th century. The historian Stelios Spanakis, summarily provides geographical, as well as historical information about Anogia,: “Anogia is a town –municipality in the Mylopotamos Province of the Prefecture of Rethymno. In the 1981 census it numbered 2.449 citizens. It is at an altitude of 700-790 meters; when in 1182 Crete was divided among the 12 Young Princes of Byzantium, Anogia were given to the family of Fokas. Anogia are referred to by Greek scholars and historians as Anogia, or Anoia. In 1593 it was a significant settlement, numbering 911 citizens. Anogia are referred to as a revolutionary place during the years of Turkish occupation. In 1822, when the Anogians were fighting the Turks in Messara, Serif Pasha found the village empty and put it to the torch. In November 1866, during the Great Cretan Revolt, Resit Pasha tried to capture Anogia, but he was repulsed by the Anogians and other villagers from Mylopotamos.”
This tradition continued during the German occupation and in August 1944 the village was once again razed to the ground in reprisal for the local's participation in the resistance. The living conditions of the people of Anogia, as well as those of other mountain villages in Crete, were difficult. Anogians of old times were shepherds and not so many of them were farmers; the barren soil, the harsh winters, the frequent revolts and the constant purges from the conquerors contributed to the primitive living conditions, to the great poverty and the lack of the most basic of comforts. The French historian Victor Berard during his journeys in Crete, dedicated but a few lines for the village of Anogia, where with a raw and laconic way describes the hopeless living conditions of the time: “The village Anogia, resembles the outposts on the remote peaks of old, where men and animals live together in miserable hovels”; the Italian Vittorio Simonelli who visited Crete in 1893, was much more generous in his descriptions.
First, he was put up at a “tolerable inn”. As for the villagers themselves, both men and women, made a great impression on him, when on a Sunday he saw them going to the church, he wrote: “Anogian women are beautiful, with red cheeks and faces that are lit up by eyes black and shiny, like agate. Their traditional clothing, accentuates the health and beauty that characterize the ancient Cretan archetype; the men are handsome, being tall and easy in their movement, but without a trace of ferociousness”. In recent years, the Yakinthia cultural festival is held at an altitude of 1200m in the Nida Plateau, south of Anogeia; the festival is held annually every July and focuses on the Cretan folk tradition and its blending with the traditions of Greece and the Mediterranean. In 1941 in Anogia, the'Liberation Action Committee' was founded. Anogia was the core of the Resistance in Crete and the abduction of General Kreipe took place in Anogia and the evacuation to take him to Cairo was orchestrated there.
In retaliation, on August 13, 1944, the commander of Fortress Crete Müller ordered the demolition of Anogia and annihilation of every male from Anogia in a radius of 1 kilometre. Thus, on August 13 of 1944, three battalions of German troops surrounded Anogia and set garrisons in the surrounding hills, they arrested 80 elders and sent them to Heraklion and executed nine disabled persons, all others were evacuated to the surrounding mountains. They blew up every single house with dynamite, started an arson, about 800 houses became rubble and they burned 6 elderly disabled women; the remaining men fled to Mount Psiloritis to safety. Between 1941 and 1944, during the fight against the German invaders, a total of 104 Anogians were killed. In 1946, the state honored Anogia with the award of the War Cross first class for the disasters which affected and for their heroism; the following year, the community, honoris causa, was recognized as Anogeia. Psarantonis, composer and performer of lyra Nikos Xilouris, singer Patrick Leigh Fermor
Sitia is a port town and a municipality in Lasithi, Greece. The town has 9,912 inhabitants and the municipality has 18,318, it lies east of northeast of Ierapetra. Sitia port is on the Sea of Crete, part of the Aegean Sea and is one of the economic centers of the Lasithi region. European route E75, which ends in Vardø, starts in Sitia. Sitia is served by the Sitia Public Airport. Sitia has not experienced the effects of mass tourism though there is a long beach along the road leading to Vai and several places of historical interest; the municipality Sitia was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities which became municipal units: Itanos Lefki, Lasithi SitiaThe municipality has an area of 627 km2, the municipal unit 277 km2. The province of Siteia was one of the provinces of Lasithi, its territory corresponded with that of the current municipality Siteia and the municipal unit Makry Gialos. It was abolished in 2006. There are a number of sites in the municipality of Sitia that are protected as National Parks, Aesthetic Forests, Wildlife Refuges etc. under national and international laws.
Notable examples are: Dionysades Islands which carry many rare and endangered plant species and serve as a refuge of several animal species, including the falcon, Falco eleonorae, which finds sanctuary here. Vai Palm Forest. Richtis Gorge and waterfall; the settlement of the town dates to pre-Minoan times. Excavations in the Petras neighbourhood have found architectural remains from the end of the Neolithic and continue through the Bronze Age 3000-1050 BC, including the Minoan palace of Petras. Several other Minoan settlements have been found within the municipality, notably Itanos and Mochlos. According to Diogenes Laërtius, Sitia was the home of Myson of Chen, one of the Seven Sages of Greece; the ancient Ητεία, written as Itia or Etea in English, appears to correspond to modern Sitia. The name Sitia itself is the result of rebracketing of the prefix "s-" < σε'at' + Ητεία. Sitia was founded by Minoans as Iteia, was a centre of refuge for native Cretans after the fall of the major Minoan settlements.
The city continued to prosper through the Classical, Hellenistic and Byzantine periods as one of the island's chief ports. The town was expanded and fortified by the Venetians after their acquisition of Crete in 1204, who used it as a base of operations for the Eastern Mediterranean. During the Venetian occupation, the town was destroyed three times: first by an earthquake in 1508 by the Turkish pirate Hayreddin Barbarossa in 1538, by the Venetians themselves in 1651; this final destruction took place in the context of the Cretan War in which the Venetians battled to retain their hold on the island against the Ottoman Empire. While Sitia did not fall in the initial Turkish advance the Venetians did not have the resources to withstand a long siege, accordingly destroyed the fortifications and removed the garrison to Heraklion; the local inhabitants meanwhile removed westwards to Liopetro and the site was subsequently abandoned for the next 200 years of Turkish rule. The main remnant of the Venetian occupation is the Kazarma, the old fortress overlooking the harbour.
After the Venetian period and subsequent abandonment the town was rebuilt until 1870 by the progressive Turkish governor Hüseyin Avni Pasha following the Cretan Revolt. It was subsequently created capital of the Sanjak of Lasit. Under Turkish rule the town was renamed Avniye in honour of its rebuilder, but as the local Greeks continued to use the traditional named of Sitia this innovation did not survive Independence. Despite the turbulent history of Crete in leaving the Ottoman Empire and joining Greece, as well as the First World War, the population quadrupled between 1881 and 1928. Major public works were carried out by the Greek government in 1911 to modernise the town, in the course of which much of the Ottoman era town was rebuilt, as well as a fresh water supply; the municipality of Sitia is served by the Sitia Public Airport which offers several domestic destinations. The first landing occurred on June 7, 1984 and the airport opened on June 9, 1984. Construction of new building facilities that included a control tower was completed in May 1993.
Runway and apron extension works were finished in May 2003. The local authorities have completed negotiations with international travel agents for organizing regular charter flights starting in May 2012. Local officials are under negotiations with the low-cost airline Ryanair. In addition, Sitia is served by a port which connects Sitia and eastern Crete with several other Greek islands as well as with the port of Piraeus; the town has a marina which accommodates smaller fishing boats and yachts. The General Hospital of Sitia was founded in 1947 as a local health center and was relocated to a new 7500m2 building and accordingly upgraded to serve as the main hospital for the municipality of Sitia and the surrounding area. Moni Toplou, founded in the mid 15th century, is one of the most significant monasteries in Crete. Kazarma fortress, in the town of Sitia. Gorge of the Dead. Various archeological sites with Minoan civilization settlements from the Bronze Age, such as in Itanos and Mochlos. Myson - philosopher Vitsentzos Kornaros - poet Stratis Kalogeridis - musician of local folk music Giannis Dermitzakis - musician of local fo
Crete is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Crete and a number of surrounding islands and islets constitute the region of Crete, one of the 13 top-level administrative units of Greece; the capital and the largest city is Heraklion. As of 2011, the region had a population of 623,065. Crete forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece, while retaining its own local cultural traits, it was once the centre of the Minoan civilisation, the earliest known civilisation in Europe. The palace of Knossos lies in Crete; the island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible. It was known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu suggesting a similar Minoan name for the island; the current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te, ke-re-si-jo, "Cretan".
In Ancient Greek, the name Crete first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luwian word, *kursatta. In Latin, it became Creta; the original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš, but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندق Rabḍ al-Ḫandaq, both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ or Χάνδακας, which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which were derived French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit. Crete is the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, it is located in the southern part of the Aegean Sea separating the Aegean from the Libyan Sea. The island has an elongated shape: it spans 260 km from east to west, is 60 km at its widest point, narrows to as little as 12 km. Crete covers an area of 8,336 km2, with a coastline of 1,046 km, it lies 160 km south of the Greek mainland. Crete is mountainous, its character is defined by a high mountain range crossing from west to east, formed by three different groups of mountains: The White Mountains or Lefka Ori 2,454 m The Idi Range (Psiloritis 35.18°N 24.82°E / 35.18.
The island has a number of gorges, such as the Samariá Gorge, Imbros Gorge, Kourtaliotiko Gorge, Ha Gorge, Platania Gorge, the Gorge of the Dead and Richtis Gorge and waterfall at Exo Mouliana in Sitia. The rivers of Crete include the Ieropotamos River, the Koiliaris, the Anapodiaris, the Almiros, the Giofyros, Megas Potamos. There are only two freshwater lakes in Crete: Lake Kournas and Lake Agia, which are both in Chania regional unit. Lake Voulismeni at the coast, at Aghios Nikolaos, was a freshwater lake but is now connected to the sea, in Lasithi. Lakes that were created by dams exist in Crete. There are three: the lake of Aposelemis Dam, the lake of Potamos Dam, the lake of Mpramiana Dam. A large number of islands and rocks hug the coast of Crete. Many are visited by tourists, some are only visited by biologists; some are environmentally protected. A small sample of the islands includes: Gramvousa the pirate island opposite the Balo lagoon Elafonisi, which commemorates a shipwreck and an Ottoman massacre Chrysi island, which hosts the largest natural Lebanon cedar forest in Europe Paximadia island where the god Apollo and the goddess Artemis were born The Venetian fort and leper colony at Spinalonga opposite the beach and shallow waters of Elounda Dionysades islands which are in an environmentally protected region together the Palm Beach Forest of Vai in the municipality of Sitia, LasithiOff the south coast, the island of Gavdos is located 26 nautical miles south of Hora Sfakion and is the southernmost point of Europe.
Crete straddles two climatic zones, the Mediterranean and the North African falling within the former. As such, the climate in Crete is Mediterranean; the atmosphere can be quite humid, depending on the proximity to the sea, while winter is mild. Snowfall is rare in the low-lying areas. While some mountain tops are snow-capped for most of the year, near the coast snow only stays on the ground for a few minutes or hours. However, a exceptional cold snap swept the island in February 2004, during which period the whole island was blanketed with snow. During the Cretan summer, average temperatures reach the high 20s-low 30s Celsius, with maxima touching the upper 30s-mid 40s; the south coast, including the Mesara Pla
Regional units of Greece
The 74 regional units are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities, they were introduced as part of the "Kallikratis" administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece
Spili is a village in Rethymno regional unit, Greece. It is the seat of the Agios Vasileios municipality