Hjalmar and Ingeborg
Hjalmar and Ingeborg were a legendary Swedish duo. The male protagonist Hjalmar and his duel for Ingeborg figures in the Hervarar saga and in Orvar-Odd's saga, as well as in Gesta Danorum, Lay of Hyndla and a number of Faroese ballads. Hjalmar never lost a battle until meeting a berserker wielding the cursed sword Tyrfing. Hjalmar was one of the mythical Swedish king Yngvi's housecarls at Uppsala, he and princess Ingeborg were in love, but the king said no to his requests for marriage, since he hoped for a suitor with a better pedigree. Hjalmar's reputation as a courageous and valiant warrior was great and it reached the most remote parts of Norway, where the Norwegian hero Orvar-Odd felt a desire to test his fighting skills with Hjalmar, thus Orvar-Odd met Hjalmar who had fifteen ships. Hjalmar could not accept such an uneven balance of strength and sent away ten of his own ships so that the forces would be even; the two warriors fought for two days with a lot of blood-letting and poetry. They realized that they were equals and decided to become Blood brothers by letting their blood flow under a strand of turf raised by a spear.
The strand of turf was put back during oaths and incantations. Orvar-Odd accompanied Hjalmar back to Uppsala, where he soon discovered the feelings between Hjalmar and Ingeborg. Orvar-Odd offered to help Hjalmar elope with Ingeborg, but Hjalmar declined and suffered patiently until a suitor arrived that Hjalmar could not tolerate. Further south, on Bolmsö, lived his twelve sons, they were all infamous berserkers who spread destruction throughout the North. The eldest was a head taller than the rest and his name was Angantyr, it was to him that Arngrim had entrusted the sword Tyrfing, cursed by its makers, the Dwarves Dvalinn and Durin; this sword would cause three evil deeds and one man had to die every time it was unsheathed. The next eldest was Hjorvard and one Yule, when everyone was at home and bragged about what they would accomplish the following year, Hjorvard declared that he was to marry princess Ingeborg at Uppsala. In the spring, the twelve brothers arrived at Uppsala and Hjorvard asked for Ingeborg's hand, but this was something Hjalmar would not tolerate.
Hjalmar said that he deserved the princess more than a strange berserker. The king, uncomfortable with having twelve infamous berserkers in his hall declared that he could not choose between two so great men, thus he preferred to let Ingeborg make the choice herself. Ingeborg chose Hjalmar and this vexed Hjorvard who challenged the happy Hjalmar to a duel on Samsø, reminded that Hjalmar would be niðingr, if he did not turn up. On the designated day and Orvar-Odd arrived to Munarvágr on Samsø, stepped ashore to search for their adversaries, they soon found the scattered and gory remains of the crewmen, slaughtered by the twelve berserkers. Orvar-Odd went to the forest and cut himself a huge club, whereupon the two companions continued their search for the twelve brothers; the decision was that one of the pair would fight Angantyr who wielded the sword Tyrfing, leaving the other to contend with the other eleven berserkers including the rival suitor Hjorvard. Orvar-Odd wore a silken shirt which nothing could pierce, thus offered to take on Angantyr, but Hjalmar would hear none of it, accusing his sworn brother of taking away the better part of the glory.
The variant description in Odd's saga is as follows: Angantyr reckons himself equal to three of his brothers when armed with his sword, forged by dwarfs and which will "bite anything iron or rock." Hjalmar is eager to fight him thinking that his four-ringed mailcoat will afford him sufficient protection though Odd warns against the folly of it. Orvar-Odd defeated Hjorvard and ten of the brothers, started to look for Hjalmar, he found Angantyr dead. In his dying breath, Hjalmar composed a poem, meant to be communicated to his beloved princess Ingeborg back in Uppsala; the composed poem known as "Hjalmar's death song" is found inserted in the older text of Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks as well as in Örvar-Odds saga, though the texts diverge considerably. In the German it has been dubbed Hiálmars Sterbelied, classed by Andreas Heusler as one of the so-called Eddica minora. Orvar-Odd buried all the slain men in Tyrfing; the agreement made beforehand that the slain would be given dignified burial together with their slain arms, Hjalmar with his mail-shirt, Angantyr with Tyrfing, Odd too, had he been killed, with his shirt of protection and arrows.
It was so as to ensure that it would not cause a second and third malicious deed, after Hjalmar's death. He sailed alone back to Uppsala with Hjalmar's corpse. Odd remembers in his own death-poem; when Ingeborg learned of Hjalmar's death, she fell dead also. The two lovers were buried in the same barrow. Tyrfing would not remain buried. For its continued adventures, see Hervor. Boer, Richard Constant, ed.. Ǫrvar-Odds saga. E. J. Brill. – critical edition Kershaw, Nora. Stories and Ballads of the Far Past. Cambridge University Press; the Saga of Hervör and Heithrek, pp. 79-, —translation of the composite version edited by N. M. Petersen, that uses the H text. "Appendix to Part I: The combat at Samsø and Hjalmar's Death Song" pp. 144-—The detailed passage on the battle of Angantyr vs. Hjalmar, take
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Nationalencyklopedin, abbreviated NE, is a comprehensive contemporary Swedish-language encyclopedia, initiated by a favourable loan from the Government of Sweden of 17 million Swedish kronor in 1980, repaid by December 1990. The printed version consists of 20 volumes with 172,000 articles; the project was born in 1980, when a government committee suggested that negotiations be initiated with various publishers. This stage was finished in August 1985, when Bra Böcker in Höganäs became the publisher responsible for the project; the project specifications were for a modern reference work based on a scientific paradigm incorporating gender and environmental issues. Pre-orders for the work were unprecedented; the last volume came out in 1996, with three supplemental volumes in 2000. Associated with the Nationalencyklopedin project are also: NE:s Ordbok, a dictionary in three volumes NE:s Årsband, complementary volumes concerning current events and fast changing information distributed annually since 1997 NE:s Sverigeatlas, an atlas of Sweden NE:s Världsatlas, a world atlas NE-spelet, a quiz game with 8,000 questions In 1997, the first digital form of the encyclopedia was released on 6 CD-ROMs, in 2000 as an Internet subscription service.
The online version contains the dictionary as well as an updated version of the original encyclopedia. It has 356,000 entries; the service has been completed with several features not available in the printed version, such as a Swedish–English dictionary. Nordisk familjebok Swedish Wikipedia List of online encyclopedias Nationalencyklopedin - Official site Svenska uppslagsverk - Christofer Psilander's comprehensive bibliography on Swedish encyclopedias
Mälaren referred to as Lake Malar in English, is the third-largest freshwater lake in Sweden. Its area is 1,140 km² and its greatest depth is 64 m. Mälaren spans 120 kilometers from east to west; the lake drains, from south-west to north-east, into the Baltic Sea through its natural outlets Norrström and Söderström and through the artificial Södertälje Canal and Hammarbyleden waterway. The easternmost bay of Mälaren, in central Stockholm, is called Riddarfjärden; the lake is located in Svealand and bounded by the provinces of Uppland, Södermanland, Närke, Västmanland. The two largest islands in Mälaren are Svartsjölandet; the Viking Age settlements Birka on the island of Björkö and Hovgården on the neighbouring island Adelsö have been an UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993, as has Drottningholm Palace on the island of Lovön. The barrow of Björn Ironside is within the lake; the etymological origin of the name Mälaren stems from the Old Norse word mælir appearing in historical records in the 1320s and meaning gravel.
The lake was known as Lǫgrinn, Old Norse for "The Lake". By the end of the last ice age about 11,000 years ago, much of northern Europe and North America was covered by ice sheets up to 3 km thick. At the end of the ice age when the glaciers retreated, the removal of the weight from the depressed land led to a post-glacial rebound; the rebound was rapid, proceeding at about 7.5 cm/year. This phase lasted for about 2,000 years, took place as the ice was being unloaded. Once deglaciation was complete, uplift slowed to about 2.5 cm/year, decreased exponentially after that. Today, typical uplift rates are of the order of 1 cm/year or less, studies suggest that rebound will continue for about another 10,000 years; the total uplift from the end of deglaciation can be up to 400 m. In the Viking Age Mälaren was still a bay of the Baltic Sea, seagoing vessels could sail up it far into the interior of Sweden. Birka was conveniently near the trade routes through the Södertälje Canal. Due to the post-glacial rebound, Södertälje canal and the mouth of Riddarfjärden bay had become so shallow by about the year 1200 that ships had to unload their cargoes near the entrances, progressively the bay became a lake.
The decline of Birka and the subsequent foundation of Stockholm at the choke point of Riddarfjärden were in part due to the post-glacial rebound changing the topography of the Mälaren basin. The lake's surface averages 0.7 meters above sea level. According to Norse mythology as contained in the thirteenth-century Icelandic work Prose Edda, the lake was created by the goddess Gefjon when she tricked Gylfi, the Swedish king of Gylfaginning. Gylfi promised Gefjon as much land as four oxen could plough in a day and a night, but she used oxen from the land of the giants, moreover uprooted the land and dragged it into the sea, where it became the island of Zealand. Snorra Edda says that'the inlets in the lake correspond to the headlands in Zealand'. A selection, in alphabetical order: The most common nesting birds on the skerries of Mälaren are the most common in the Baltic Sea. After a survey in 2005, the ten most common species were found to be common tern, herring gull, black-headed gull, common gull, tufted duck, Canada goose, common goldeneye, lesser black-backed gull and common sandpiper.
White-tailed eagle, greylag goose, barnacle goose, black-throated diver, red-breasted merganser and gadwall are less common, some of these latter are endangered in the Mälaren area. Since 1994 a subspecies of great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis, has nested there as well. A 2005 survey tallied 23 breeding colonies with 2178 nests, of which the largest colony had 235 nests. Most experts believe the great cormorant population has peaked and will stabilize at around 2000 nests. One of the characteristic species is the osprey which has one of its strongest presences in Lake Mälaren; the osprey nests in all bays of the lake. The Zebra mussel is causing some problems in Lake Mälaren. Mälardrottningen is a poetic name for Stockholm well known in Swedish literature. Utter Inn, an underwater hotel designed by the artist Mikael Genberg, is in the lake; the area around the lake hosted the cycling events at the 1912 Summer Olympics. Mälaren Valley Lakes of Sweden Geography of Stockholm Almarestäket Kanaanbadet Mälarguiden - Guide to Mälaren Castles around Mälaren
Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225. It is the first section of his Heimskringla, it was first published in 1844 by Samuel Laing. Snorri Sturluson based his work on an earlier Ynglingatal, attributed to the Norwegian 9th century skald Þjóðólfr of Hvinir, which appears in Historia Norwegiae, it tells the most ancient part of the story of the House of Ynglings. Snorri described the descent of the kings of Norway from this royal house of Sweden. Ynglinga saga is the first part of Snorri's history of the Heimskringla. Snorri's work covers the history of the Norwegian kings from the mythical prehistoric age until 1177, with the death of the pretender Eystein Meyla. Interwoven in this narrative are references to important historical events; the saga deals with the arrival of the Norse gods to Scandinavia and how Freyr founded the Swedish Yngling dynasty at Uppsala. The saga follows the line of Swedish kings until Ingjald, after which the descendants settled in Norway and became the ancestors of the Norwegian King Harald Fairhair.
In the initial stanzas of the poem, Asagarth is the capital of Asaland, a section of Asia to the east of the Tana-kvísl or Vana-Kvísl river, which Snorri explains is the Tanais, or Don River, flowing into the Black Sea. The river divides "Sweden the Great", a concession to the Viking point of view, it is never called that prior to the Vikings. Odin is the chief of Asgard. From there he dispatches military expeditions to all parts of the world, he has the virtue of never losing a battle. When he is away, his two brothers, Vili and Vé, rule Ásaland from Ásgarðr. On the border of Sweden is a mountain range running from northeast to southwest. South of it are the lands of the Turks. On the north are the uninhabitable fells, which must be the tundra/taiga country; the Vikings did not encounter the Urals or the Uralics of the region. Snorri evidences no knowledge of them. There is no mention of Troy, not far from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine empire and militarily beyond the reach of the Vikings.
Troy cannot have been Asagarth, Snorri realizes, the reason being that the Æsir in Ásaland were unsettled by the military activities of the Romans. As a result, Odin led a section of the Æsir to the north looking for new lands in, they used the Viking route up the Don and the Volga through Garðaríki, Viking for Kievan Rus'. From there they went to the lands of Gylfi in Scandinavia; the historical view, of course, is fantastical. The Germanics were in Germany and Scandinavia during earliest mention of them in Roman literature, long before the Romans had conquered Italy. To what extent Snorri's presentation is poetic creation only remains unclear. Demoted from his position as all-father, or king of the gods, Odin becomes a great sorcerer in the Ynglinga Saga, he can shape-shift, speaks only in verse, lies so well that everything he says seems true. He strikes enemies deaf and when his own men fight they go berserk and can not be harmed, he has a ship that can be rolled up like a tablecloth when not used, he relies on two talking ravens to gather intelligence, he consults the talking head of Mimir for advice.
As a man, Odin is faced with the necessity to die. He is cremated and his possessions are burned with him so that he can ascend to - where? If Asgard is an earthly place, not there. Snorri says at first it is Valhalla and adds: "The Swedes now believed that he had gone to the old Asagarth and would live there forever". Krag, Claus Ynglingatal og Ynglingesaga- en studie i historiske kilder Nerman, Birger Det svenska rikets uppkomst Åkerlund, W. Studier över Ynglingatal Ynglinga saga and Heimskringla from «Kulturformidlingen norrøne tekster og kvad» Old Icelandic Heimskringla: The Ynglinga Saga from The Medieval and Classical Literature Library English
Olaf II of Norway
Olaf II Haraldsson known as St. Olaf, was King of Norway from 1015 to 1028, he was posthumously given the title Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae and canonised at Nidaros by Bishop Grimkell, one year after his death in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030. His remains were enshrined in Nidaros Cathedral, built over his burial site, his sainthood encouraged the widespread adoption of the Christian religion among the Vikings / Norsemen in Scandinavia. Olaf's local canonisation was in 1164 confirmed by Pope Alexander III, making him a universally recognised saint of the Roman Catholic Church, following the reformation he was a commemorated historical figure among some members of the Lutheran and Anglican Communions, he is a canonised saint of the Eastern Orthodox Church and one of the last famous Western saints before the Great Schism. The saga of Olav Haraldsson and the legend of Olaf the Saint became central to a national identity. During the period of Romantic Nationalism, Olaf was a symbol of Norwegian independence and pride.
Saint Olaf is symbolised by the axe in Norway's coat of arms and Olsok is still his day of celebration. Many Christian institutions with Scandinavian links as well as Norway's Order of St. Olav are named after him. St. Olaf II's Old Norse name is Ólafr Haraldsson. During his lifetime he was known as Olaf'the fat' or'the stout' or as Olaf'the big'. In Norway today, he is referred to as Olav den hellige or Heilage-Olav in honour of his sainthood. Olaf Haraldsson had the given name Óláfr in Old Norse. Olav is the modern equivalent in Norwegian often spelt Olaf, his name in Icelandic is Ólafur, in Faroese Ólavur, in Swedish Olof. Olave was the traditional spelling in England, preserved in the name of medieval churches dedicated to him. Other names, such as Oláfr hinn helgi, Olavus rex, Olaf are used interchangeably, he is sometimes referred to as Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae, a designation which goes back to the 13th century. St. Olaf was born in Ringerike, his mother was Åsta Gudbrandsdatter, his father was Harald Grenske, great-great-grandchild of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway.
Harald Grenske died. She married Sigurd Syr, with whom she had other children including Harald Hardrada, who would reign as a future king of Norway. There are many texts giving information concerning Olaf Haraldsson; the oldest source that we have is the Glælognskviða or "Sea-Calm Poem", composed by Þórarinn loftunga, an Icelander. It mentions some of the famous miracles attributed to him. Olaf is mentioned in the Norwegian synoptic histories; these include the Ágrip af Nóregskonungasögum, the Historia Norwegiae and a Latin text, Historia de Antiquitate Regum Norwagiensium by Theodoric the Monk. Icelanders wrote extensively about Olaf and we have several Icelandic sagas about him; these include: Morkinskinna. The famous Heimskringla, written by Snorri Sturluson bases its account of Olaf on the earlier Fagrskinna. We have the important Oldest Saga of St. Olaf, important to scholars for its constant use of skaldic verses, many of which are attributed to Olaf himself. There are many hagiographic sources describing St. Olaf, but these focus on miracles attributed to him and cannot be used to recreate his life.
A notable one is the Miracles of the Blessed Olafr. A used account of Olaf's life is found in Heimskringla from c. 1225. Although its facts are dubious, the saga recounts Olaf's deeds. About 1008, Olaf landed on the Estonian island of Saaremaa; the Osilians, taken by surprise, had at first agreed to pay the demands made by Olaf, but gathered an army during the negotiations and attacked the Norwegians. Olaf won the battle, it is said that Olaf had participated alongside fellow Viking Thorkell the Tall in the Siege of Canterbury in 1011. Olaf sailed to the southern coast of Finland sometime in 1008; the journey resulted in the Battle at Herdaler where Olaf and his men were ambushed in the woods. Olaf made it back to his boats, he ordered his ships to take off though a storm was rising. Finns started a pursuit and made the same progress on land as Olaf and his men made with ships. Despite these events they survived; the exact location of the battle is uncertain and the Finnish equivalent for the place Herdaler is not known.
It is suggested. As a teenager he went to the Baltic to Denmark and to England. Skaldic poetry suggests he led a successful seaborne attack which pulled down London Bridge, though this is not confirmed by Anglo-Saxon sources; this may have been in 1014, restoring London and the English throne to Æthelred the Unready and removing Cnut. Olaf saw it as his call to unite Norway into one kingdom, as his ancestor Harald Fairhair had succeeded in doing. On the way home he wintered with Duke Richard II of Normandy; this region had been conquered by Norsemen in the year 881. Duke Richard was himself an ardent Christian, the Normans had previously converted to Christianity. Before leaving, Olaf was baptised in Rouen in the pre-romanesque Notre-Dame Cathedral by the Norman duke's brother Robert the Dane, archbishop of Normand
Dagens Nyheter, abbreviated DN, is a daily newspaper in Sweden. It is published in aspires to full national and international coverage. Dagens Nyheter was founded by Rudolf Wall in December 1864; the first issue was published on 23 December 1864. During its initial period the paper was published in the morning. In 1874 the paper became a joint stock company, its circulation in 1880 was 15,000 copies. In the 1890s, Wall left Dagens Nyheter and soon after, the paper became the organ of the Liberal Party. From 1946 to 1959 Herbert Tingsten was the executive editor; the newspaper is owned by the Bonnier Group. Dagens Nyheter operates from the so-called "DN-skrapan" in Stockholm; this was designed by the architect Paul Hedqvist. It has 27 floors, none of which are underground. In 1996, the entire enterprise moved to its current location on Gjörwellsgatan, adjacent to the old tower; the newspaper Expressen owned by the Bonnier Group, is located in this building as well. Opinion leaders choose Dagens Nyheter as the venue for publishing major opinion editorials.
The stated position of the editorial page is "independently liberal". However, it left its formal alliance with the liberal establishment in the country in 1972. In the 1960s the circulation of Dagens Nyheter was much higher than that of other Swedish dailies; the paper has the largest circulation among the Swedish morning newspapers followed by Göteborgs-Posten and Svenska Dagbladet, is the only morning newspaper, distributed to subscribers across the whole country. In 2001 its circulation was 361,000 copies; the 2004 circulation of the paper was 363,000 copies. The circulation of the paper was 363,100 copies in weekdays in 2005 and had dropped to 292,300 copies in 2010. In 2013, the print edition of Dagens Nyheter had a circulation of 282,800 copies, reaching an approximate 758,000 persons every day; the web edition, dn.se, had on average 1.5 million unique visitors per week during 2013. List of newspapers in Sweden Official website in Swedish