Women's history is the study of the role that women have played in history and the methods required to do so. It includes the study of the history of the growth of woman's rights throughout recorded history, personal achievement over a period of time, the examination of individual and groups of women of historical significance, the effect that historical events have had on women. Inherent in the study of women's history is the belief that more traditional recordings of history have minimized or ignored the contributions of women to different fields and the effect that historical events had on women as a whole; the main centers of scholarship have been the United States and Britain, where second-wave feminist historians, influenced by the new approaches promoted by social history, led the way. As activists in women's liberation and analyzing the oppression and inequalities they experienced as women, they believed it imperative to learn about the lives of their fore mothers—and found little scholarship in print.
History was written by men and about men's activities in the public sphere in Africa—war, politics and administration. Women are excluded and, when mentioned, are portrayed in sex-stereotypical roles such as wives, mothers and mistresses; the study of history is value-laden in regard to what is considered "worthy." Other aspects of this area of study is the differences in women's lives caused by race, economic status, social status, various other aspects of society. Changes came in the 20th centuries. Women traditionally ran the household and reared the children, were nurses, wives, neighbours and teachers. During periods of war, women were drafted into the labor market to undertake work, traditionally restricted to men. Following the wars, they invariably lost their jobs in industry and had to return to domestic and service roles; the history of Scottish women in the late 19th century and early 20th century was not developed as a field of study until the 1980s. In addition, most work on women before 1700 has been published since 1980.
Several studies have taken a biographical approach, but other work has drawn on the insights from research elsewhere to examine such issues as work, religion and images of women. Scholars are uncovering women's voices in their letters, memoirs and court records; because of the late development of the field, much recent work has been recuperative, but the insights of gender history, both in other countries and in Scottish history after 1700, are being used to frame the questions that are asked. Future work should contribute both to a reinterpretation of the current narratives of Scottish history and to a deepening of the complexity of the history of women in late medieval and early modern Britain and Europe. In Ireland studies of women, gender relationships more had been rare before 1990. French historians have taken a unique approach: there has been an extensive scholarship in women's and gender history despite the lack of women's and gender study programs or departments at the university level.
But approaches used by other academics in the research of broadly based social histories have been applied to the field of women's history as well. The high level of research and publication in women's and gender history is due to the high interest within French society; the structural discrimination in academia against the subject of gender history in France is changing due to the increase in international studies following the formation of the European Union, more French scholars seeking appointments outside Europe. Before the 19th century, young women lived under the economic and disciplinary authority of their fathers until they married and passed under the control of their husbands. In order to secure a satisfactory marriage, a woman needed to bring a substantial dowry. In the wealthier families, daughters received their dowry from their families, whereas the poorer women needed to work in order to save their wages so as to improve their chances to wed. Under the German laws, women had property rights over their dowries and inheritances, a valuable benefit as high mortality rates resulted in successive marriages.
Before 1789, the majority of women lived confined to the home. The Age of Reason did not bring much more for women: men, including Enlightenment aficionados, believed that women were destined to be principally wives and mothers. Within the educated classes, there was the belief that women needed to be sufficiently educated to be intelligent and agreeable interlocutors to their husbands. However, the lower-class women were expected to be economically productive in order to help their husbands make ends meet. In the newly founded German State, women of all social classes were politically and disenfranchised; the code of social respectability confined upper class and bourgeois women to their homes. They were considered and economically inferior to their husbands; the unmarried women were ridiculed, the ones who wanted to avoid social descent could work as unpaid housekeepers living with relatives. A significant number of middle-class families became impoverished between 1871 and 1890 as the pace of industrial growth was uncertain, women had to earn money in secret by sewing or embroidery to contribute to the family income.
Gesta Normannorum Ducum
Gesta Normannorum Ducum is a chronicle created by the monk William of Jumièges just before 1060. In 1070 William I had William of Jumièges extend the work to detail his rights to the throne of England. In times, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni, extended the volumes to include history up until Henry I; the Gesta Normannorum Ducum by William of Jumièges has become the principal work of Norman historical writings, one of many written to glorify the Norman conquest of England. But unlike most it was started in the late 1050s as a continuation of Dudo's De moribus; the monk William returned to his writing after the Conquest, most at the request of William the Conqueror. The final version of his history was written at his monastery at Jumièges c. 1070–1071. During the twelfth century there were interpolations and additions, first by Orderic Vitalis by Robert of Torigni, who added an entire book on Henry I of England. During the medieval period his work was circulated and read, was an essential work in most monasteries and was the basic source on which the histories of Wace and Benoît de Sainte-Maure were based.
William's Gesta Normannorum Ducum survives today in forty-seven manuscripts. Jules Lair undertook a modern translation; the work was completed M. Jean Marx, a French scholar who published his translation in 1914; the original version had ended with the reduction of the north by the Conqueror in 1070, but a passage mentioning Robert Curthose as duke appears to be a revision sometime after 1087. However, there was no evidence that William made a continuation beyond 1070; this text displays a difference from William's writing and so would seem to be of an unknown origin, but it was included by Marx in his translation, assuming it was by the original author. The most recent translations were edited and translated by Elisabeth M. C. van Houts and were published in two volumes, volume I in 1992 and volume II in 1995, both by the Clarendon Press, Oxford. Draco Normannicus Duchy of Normandy Wace's Roman de Rou The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis and Robert of Torigni. Edited and translated by Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995
Robert of Torigni
Robert of Torigni was a Norman monk, prior and twelfth century chronicler. Robert was born at Torigni-sur-Vire, Normandy c.1110 most to an aristocratic family but his family name was abandoned when he entered Bec Abbey in 1128 In 1149 Robert of Torigni became the prior of Bec replacing Roger de Bailleul who had by that time become abbot. In 1154 Robert became the abbot of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy. In November 1158 Robert hosted kings Louis VII of France and Henry II of England at Mont Saint-Michel. Three years Robert de Torigni, along with Achard of St. Victor, Bishop of Avranches, stood as sponsors to Eleanor, born to Henry II of England and Queen Eleanor at Domfront in 1161. In 1163 he was in Rome, he was known to have visited England representing Mont Saint-Michel. In June 1186 Robert died and was buried in the nave of the chapel at Mont Saint-Michel under a simple grave marker. In 1876 a lead disc was found in his coffin bearing his epitaph; the translation reads: Here lies Robert Torigni, abbot of this place, who ruled the monastery 32 years, lived 80 years.
Robert developed a reputation as being a pious monk, an accomplished diplomat, a skilled organizer and a great lover and collector of books. Under Robert de Torigni Mont Saint-Michel became a great center of learning with sixty monks producing copious manuscripts and a library collection so vast it was called the Cité des Livres. Robert himself was called "The Great Librarian of the Mont". Robert's principal interest was not so much in man's path to salvation, or in the moral lessons of history, he made no attempts to interpret history but wrote plainly "without a trace of romance in his soul."Stevenson said, Torigni was not always correct in his chronology and made errors in matters in Normandy of which he should have known better, yet he was always honest and truthful and his mistakes did not affect the overall value of his chronicle. Modern writers too have pointed out errors in his work. Delisle wrote that it was through Robert's affection for Henry II that he made no mention in his chronicle of the death of Thomas Becket or Henry II's involvement.
He is best known as the last of the three contributors to the Gesta Normannorum Ducum, a chronicle written by William of Jumièges, appended to by Orderic Vitalis and lastly Robert de Torigni, who brought the history up to the time of Henry I. Robert relied more on Orderic's work than that of William of Jumièges and added information regarding the reign of William the Conqueror, a history of Bec, a volume on Henry I. Another source he used was Henry of Huntingdon's Historia Anglorum. Henry, the Archdeacon of Huntingdon, had visited Bec in 1139 and during his stay there provided Robert with much of the information regarding the reign of Henry I which Robert used in his own chronicles. Robert, in turn, introduced Henry to a new work by Geoffrey of Monmouth, the Historia Regum Britanniae, a copy of which first reached Bec circa 1138. John Bale, the sixteenth-century English churchman and historian, in his Index Britanniae Scriptorum, identified Robert as the author of two Arthurian romances, based in part by the author's initialing his work with the letter "R".
These were De Ortu Waluuanii and Historia Meriadoci, but this identification remains controversial and is doubted by some authorities. Robert de Torigni's "Chronicles" Robert de Torigni's "Chronicles"
Guy I, Count of Ponthieu
Guy I of Ponthieu was born sometime in the mid to late 1020s and died 13 October 1100. He succeeded his brother Enguerrand as Count of Ponthieu. Guy was a younger son of Hugh II, Count of Ponthieu and about 1053 succeeded his brother Enguerrand II, as Count of Ponthieu. However, a contemporary charter describes Guy as Enguerrand's son; the Ponthievin alliance with Duke William of Normandy had earlier been secured by the marriage of Enguerrand to Adelaide of Normandy, Duke William's sister. But the marriage was annulled due to consanguinity c.1049/50. Enguerrand's and Guy's sister was married to son of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. William of Talou had built a strong castle at Arques, from it he defied his nephew the youthful Duke of Normandy; as "family", the comital house of Ponthieu supported the rebellion. Duke William put Arques under siege, remained mobile with another force in the countryside nearby, he was aware that Normandy was being threatened by the armies of King Henry of France, who wanted to bring his young, former vassal to heel.
Young Count Enguerrand led a Ponthievin army into the Talou to relieve Arques, arrived first, but Duke William ambushed them and Enguerrand was killed. Upon learning of this serious reverse, the vacillating Henry withdrew his forces at once back across the Norman border. William of Talou was banished for life. With the death of his older brother, Guy assumed the comital duties: this is the first mention of Guy in the historical record. In February 1054, Henry was again ready to chastise Duke William: he reentered the duchy with a large army of his own liegemen and an Angevin army led by Count Geoffrey of Anjou; this combined force moved down the Seine toward Rouen, while Henry's brother Eudes "led" a second army, along with Guy and Count Rainald of Clairmont. The Franco-Ponthievin army was undisciplined, fragmented out of control to plunder and pillage the countryside around Mortemer, they were attacked by Normans from Eu and other districts of northeastern Normandy. In the Battle of Mortemer, Guy's younger brother Waleran was mortally wounded, Guy himself was captured.
He spent two years as a prisoner in Normandy, while his uncle, Bishop Guy of Amiens, ruled Ponthieu as regent. Evidently, from this point on, Count Guy was a vassal of Duke William of Normandy. In 1064, Harold Godwinson, the Earl of Wessex, was shipwrecked on the shores of Ponthieu and captured by Count Guy who took him to his castle of Beaurain on the River Canche, as the Bayeux Tapestry relates: hic apprehendit wido Haroldum et duxit em ad Belrem et ibi eum tenuit. Duke William demanded the release of the earl, Count Guy delivered Harold Godwinson up after being paid a ransom for him. Harold was not released from Normandy until he too had sworn on the Holy Relics to be Duke William's vassal, to aid him to the throne of England. In 1066, Harold accepted the crown of England upon the death of Edward the Confessor, thus precipitating the war that resulted in the Norman Conquest. According to a convincing interpretation of The Carmen de Hastingae Proelio, another of Guy's brothers, was a participant in the Battle of Hastings, had a hand in the slaying of Harold.
Guy I had a son, who must have died before the Carmen was composed: when the Carmen refers to Hugh, Guy's brother, as "the noble heir of Ponthieu", we must assume Enguerrand's death as a fact, either at the time of the Conquest, or shortly before. His daughter, married Robert of Bellême, their son, William III of Ponthieu, assumed the comital title upon the death of his mother, sometime before 1111. Guy was portrayed by Bernard Hepton in the two-part BBC TV play Conquest, part of the series Theatre 625. Barlow, Frank; the Carmen de Hastingae Proelio of Guy, Bishop of Amiens. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-820758-1. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list van Houts, Elisabeth M. C.. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, Robert of Torigni. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822271-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list
William III, Count of Ponthieu
William III of Ponthieu called William Talvas. He was seigneur de Montgomery in Count of Ponthieu. William was son of Robert II of Agnes of Ponthieu, he succeeded his father as count of Ponthieu some time between 1105 and 1111, when he alone as count made a gift to the abbey of Cluny. His father Robert de Bellême had turned against Henry I on several occasions, had escaped capture at the battle of Tinchebrai in 1106 commanding Duke Robert's rear guard and while serving as envoy for King Louis of France, he was arrested by Henry I and imprisoned for life. William was driven by this to oppose King Henry. In June 1119, Henry I restored all his father's lands in Normandy. Sometime prior to 1126, William resigned the county of Ponthieu to his son Guy but retained the title of count. In 1135 Henry I again confiscated all his Norman lands to which William responded by joining count Geoffrey of Anjou in his invasion of Normandy after Henry I's death He married, abt. 1115, Helie of Burgundy, daughter of Eudes I, Duke of Burgundy.
The Gesta Normannorum Ducum says that they had three sons and two daughters. Europäische Stammtafeln, shows eleven; the five both agree on are: Guy II. He assumed the county of Ponthieu during his father Talvas' lifetime, but died in 1147 predeceasing his father. William, Count of Alençon. John I, Count of Alençon, married Beatrix d'Anjou, daughter of Elias II, Count of Maine and Philippa, daughter of Rotrou III, Count of Perche. Clemence married Juhel, son of Walter of Mayenne. Adela married William de Warenne, 3rd Earl of Surrey, she married, Patrick of Salisbury. The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, Robert of Torigni and translated by Elisabeth M. C. Van Houts, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1995