Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 within the Liverpool City Council local authority in 2017. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region. Liverpool is on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary, lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire, it became a borough in 1207 and a city in 1880. In 1889, it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, its growth as a major port was paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with handling general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city merchants were involved in the Atlantic slave trade. In the 19th century, it was a major port of departure for Irish and English emigrants to North America.
Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, the RMS Lusitania, RMS Queen Mary and RMS Olympic. The popularity of the Beatles and other music groups from the Merseybeat era contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby; the Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007. In 2008, it was nominated as the annual European Capital of Culture together with Norway. Several areas of the city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004; the Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, William Brown Street. Liverpool's status as a port city has attracted a diverse population, drawn from a wide range of peoples and religions from Ireland and Wales.
The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country and the oldest Chinese community in Europe. Natives and residents of the city of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians, colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew; the word "Scouse" has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. The name comes from the Old English lifer, meaning thick or muddy water, pōl, meaning a pool or creek, is first recorded around 1190 as Liuerpul. According to the Cambridge Dictionary of English Place-Names, "The original reference was to a pool or tidal creek now filled up into which two streams drained"; the adjective Liverpudlian is first recorded in 1833. Other origins of the name have been suggested, including "elverpool", a reference to the large number of eels in the Mersey; the name appeared in 1190 as "Liuerpul", the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a legal record of 1418, may refer to Liverpool. Another such suggestion is derivation from Welsh llyvr pwl meaning "expanse or confluence at the pool".
King John's letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool. By the middle of the 16th century, the population was still around 500; the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape: Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street and Whiteacre Street. In the 17th century there was slow progress in population growth. Battles for control of the town were waged during the English Civil War, including an eighteen-day siege in 1644. In 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the nearby city of Chester on the River Dee had been the region's principal port on the Irish Sea. However, as the Dee began to silt up, maritime trade from Chester became difficult and shifted towards Liverpool on the neighbouring River Mersey.
As trade from the West Indies, including sugar, surpassed that of Ireland and Europe, as the River Dee continued to silt up, Liverpool began to grow with increasing rapidity. The first commercial wet dock was built in Liverpool in 1715. Substantial profits from the slave trade and tobacco helped the town to prosper and grow, although several prominent local men, including William Rathbone, William Roscoe and Edward Rushton, were at the forefront of the abolitionist movement. By the start of the 19th century, a large volume of trade was passing through Liverpool, the construction of major buildings reflected this wealth. In 1830, Liverpool and Manchester became the first cities to have an intercity rail link, through the Liverpool and Manchester Railway; the population continued to rise especially during the 1840s when Irish migrants began arriving by the hundreds of thousands as a result of the Great Famine. In her poem "Liverpool", which celebrates the city's worldwide commerce, Letitia Elizabeth Landon refers to the Macgregor Laird expedition to the Niger River, at that time in progress.
Great Britain was a major market for cotton imported from the Deep South of the United States, which fed the textile industry in the country. Given the crucial place of both cotton and slavery in the city's economy, during the American Civil War Liverpool was, in the words of historian Sven Beckert, "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself." For periods during the 19th century, the wealth of Liverpool
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Florence Nightingale, was an English social reformer and statistician, the founder of modern nursing. Nightingale came to prominence while serving as a manager and trainer of nurses during the Crimean War, in which she organised care for wounded soldiers, she gave nursing a favourable reputation and became an icon of Victorian culture in the persona of "The Lady with the Lamp" making rounds of wounded soldiers at night. Recent commentators have asserted Nightingale's Crimean War achievements were exaggerated by media at the time, but critics agree on the importance of her work in professionalising nursing roles for women. In 1860, Nightingale laid the foundation of professional nursing with the establishment of her nursing school at St Thomas' Hospital in London, it was the first secular nursing school in the world, is now part of King's College London. In recognition of her pioneering work in nursing, the Nightingale Pledge taken by new nurses, the Florence Nightingale Medal, the highest international distinction a nurse can achieve, were named in her honour, the annual International Nurses Day is celebrated around the world on her birthday.
Her social reforms included improving healthcare for all sections of British society, advocating better hunger relief in India, helping to abolish prostitution laws that were harsh for women, expanding the acceptable forms of female participation in the workforce. Nightingale was a versatile writer. In her lifetime, much of her published work was concerned with spreading medical knowledge; some of her tracts were written in simple English so that they could be understood by those with poor literary skills. She was a pioneer in the use of infographics using graphical presentations of statistical data. Much of her writing, including her extensive work on religion and mysticism, has only been published posthumously. Florence Nightingale was born on 12 May 1820 into a rich, upper-class, well-connected British family at the Villa Colombaia, in Florence, Tuscany and was named after the city of her birth. Florence's older sister Frances Parthenope had been named after her place of birth, Parthenope, a Greek settlement now part of the city of Naples.
The family moved back to England in 1821, with Nightingale being brought up in the family's homes at Embley and Lea Hurst, Derbyshire. Florence inherited a liberal-humanitarian outlook from both sides of her family, her parents were William Edward Nightingale, born William Edward Shore and Frances Nightingale née Smith. William's mother Mary née Evans was the niece of Peter Nightingale, under the terms of whose will William inherited his estate at Lea Hurst, assumed the name and arms of Nightingale. Fanny's father was Unitarian William Smith. Nightingale's father educated her. In 1838, her father took the family on a tour in Europe where he was introduced to the English-born Parisian hostess Mary Clarke, with whom Florence bonded, she recorded that "Clarkey" was a stimulating hostess who did not care for her appearance, while her ideas did not always agree with those of her guests, "she was incapable of boring anyone." Her behaviour was said to be exasperating and eccentric and she had no respect for upper-class British women, whom she regarded as inconsequential.
She said that if given the choice between being a woman or a galley slave she would choose the freedom of the galleys. She rejected female company and spent her time with male intellectuals. However, Clarkey made an exception in the case of Florence in particular, she and Florence were to remain close friends for 40 years despite their 27-year age difference. Clarke demonstrated that women could be equals to men, an idea that Florence had not obtained from her mother. Nightingale underwent the first of several experiences that she believed were calls from God in February 1837 while at Embley Park, prompting a strong desire to devote her life to the service of others. In her youth she was respectful of her family's opposition to her working as a nurse, only announcing her decision to enter the field in 1844. Despite the intense anger and distress of her mother and sister, she rebelled against the expected role for a woman of her status to become a wife and mother. Nightingale worked hard to educate herself in the art and science of nursing, in the face of opposition from her family and the restrictive social code for affluent young English women.
As a young woman, Nightingale was described as attractive and graceful. While her demeanour was severe, she was said to be charming and to possess a radiant smile, her most persistent suitor was the politician and poet Richard Monckton Milnes, but after a nine-year courtship she rejected him, convinced that marriage would interfere with her ability to follow her calling to nursing. In Rome in 1847, she met Sidney Herbert, a politician, Secretary at War, on his honeymoon, he and Nightingale became lifelong close friends. Herbert would be Secretary of War again during the Crimean War, when he and his wife would be instrumental in facilitating Nightingale's nursing work in the Crimea, she became Herbert's key adviser throughout his political career, though she was accused by some of having hastened Herbert's death from Bright's Disease in 1861 because of the pressure her programme of reform placed on him. Nightingale much had strong relations with academic Benjamin Jowett, who may have wanted to marry her.
Nightingale continued her travels as far as Egypt. Her writings on Egypt in particular are testimony to her learn
Royal Northern Hospital
The Royal Northern Hospital was a general hospital on Holloway Road, London N7, near Tollington Way. It had inpatient, outpatient and emergency facilities and was a centre for postgraduate education; the hospital was founded as an independent and voluntary hospital by Dr. Sherard Freeman Statham, a surgeon, at York Way near King's Cross in 1856, it merged with the Spinal Hospital at Portland Road in 1862 but demerged again when it moved to Holloway Road as the Great Northern Central Hospital in 1888. It became the Great Northern Hospital in 1911; the hospital received a royal charter on amalgamation with the Royal Chest Hospital in 1921. The casualty department was built using public subscription; the foundations to the new casualty department was laid by Lady Patricia Ramsay in July 1923, the new building was opened by the Prince of Wales on 27 November 1923. The hospital joined the National Health Service in 1948. Following the reorganisation of the NHS facilities in North London whereby services were transferred to the Royal Free Hospital, University College Hospital and the Whittington Hospital, the hospital closed in 1992.
The hospital was demolished in the mid-1990s to make way to a block of flats. The body was confirmed as Michelle Folan, who disappeared in 1981, her husband, Patrick Folan, was convicted of her murder in 2001. The Royal Northern Gardens are located on the site of the former casualty department of the Royal Northern Hospital. List of hospitals in England
Mauritius the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean. The main Island of Mauritius is located about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent; the Republic of Mauritius includes the islands of Rodrigues, Agalega and St. Brandon; the capital and largest city Port Louis is located on the main island of Mauritius. In 1598, the Dutch took possession of Mauritius, they abandoned Mauritius in 1710 and the French took control of the island in 1715, renaming it Isle de France. France ceded Mauritius including all its dependencies to the United Kingdom through the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814 and in which Réunion was returned to France; the British colony of Mauritius consisted of the main island of Mauritius along with Rodrigues, Agalega, St Brandon and the Chagos Archipelago, while the Seychelles became a separate colony in 1906. The sovereignty of Tromelin is disputed between Mauritius and France as some of the islands such as St. Brandon, Chagos and Tromelin were not mentioned in the Treaty of Paris.
In 1965, three years prior to the independence of Mauritius, the UK split the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territory, the islands of Aldabra and Desroches from the Seychelles, to form the British Indian Ocean Territory. The UK forcibly expelled the archipelago's local population and leased its largest island, Diego Garcia, to the United States; the UK has restricted access to the Chagos Archipelago. The sovereignty of the Chagos is disputed between Mauritius and the UK. In February 2019, in an advisory opinion given by the International Court of Justice on this dispute, the ICJ ordered the UK to hand back the Chagos Islands to Mauritius as as possible; the people of Mauritius are multiethnic and multilingual. The island's government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, Mauritius is ranked for democracy and for economic and political freedom; the Human Development Index of Mauritius is one of the highest in Africa. Mauritius is ranked as the most competitive and one of the most developed economies in the African region.
The main pillars of the Mauritian economy are manufacturing, financial services and information and communications technology. Mauritius is a welfare state. Along with the other Mascarene Islands, Mauritius is known for its varied flora and fauna, with many species endemic to the island; the island was the only known home of the dodo, along with several other avian species, was made extinct by human activities shortly after the island's settlement. The first historical evidence of the existence of an island now known as Mauritius is on a map produced by the Italian cartographer Alberto Cantino in 1502. From this, it appears that Mauritius was first named Dina Arobi around 975 by Arab sailors, the first people to visit the island. In 1507, Portuguese sailors visited the uninhabited island; the island appears with a Portuguese name Cirne on early Portuguese maps from the name of a ship in the 1507 expedition. Another Portuguese sailor, Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, gave the name Mascarenes to the Archipelago.
In 1598, a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island Mauritius, in honour of Prince Maurice van Nassau, stadholder of the Dutch Republic. The island became a French colony and was renamed Isle de France. On 3 December 1810, the French surrendered the island to Great Britain during the Napoleonic Wars. Under British rule, the island's name reverted to Mauritius. Mauritius is commonly known as Maurice and Île Maurice in French, Moris in Mauritian Creole; the island of Mauritius was uninhabited before its first recorded visit during the Middle Ages by Arab sailors, who named it Dina Arobi. In 1507, Portuguese sailors came to the uninhabited island and established a visiting base. Diogo Fernandes Pereira, a Portuguese navigator, was the first European known to land in Mauritius, he named the island "Ilha do Cirne". The Portuguese did not stay. In 1598 a Dutch squadron under Admiral Wybrand van Warwyck landed at Grand Port and named the island "Mauritius" after Prince Maurice of Nassau of the Dutch Republic.
The Dutch inhabited the island in 1638, from which they exploited ebony trees and introduced sugar cane, domestic animals and deer. It was from here; the first Dutch settlement lasted twenty years. Several attempts were subsequently made, but the settlements never developed enough to produce dividends, causing the Dutch to abandon Mauritius in 1710. France, which controlled neighbouring Île Bourbon, took control of Mauritius in 1715 and renamed it Isle de France. In 1723, the Code Noir was established to categorise one group of human beings as "goods", in order for the owner of these goods to be able to obtain insurance money and compensation in case of loss of his "goods"; the 1735 arrival of French governor Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais coincided with development of a prosperous economy based on sugar production. Mahé de La Bourdonnais established Port Louis as a shipbuilding centre. Under his governorship, numerous buildings were erected, a number of which are sti
In England and Wales, a workhouse, colloquially known as a spike, was a place where those unable to support themselves were offered accommodation and employment. The earliest known use of the term workhouse is from 1631, in an account by the mayor of Abingdon reporting that "wee haue erected wthn our borough a workehouse to sett poore people to worke"; the origins of the workhouse can be traced to the Poor Law Act of 1388, which attempted to address the labour shortages following the Black Death in England by restricting the movement of labourers, led to the state becoming responsible for the support of the poor. But mass unemployment following the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815, the introduction of new technology to replace agricultural workers in particular, a series of bad harvests, meant that by the early 1830s the established system of poor relief was proving to be unsustainable; the New Poor Law of 1834 attempted to reverse the economic trend by discouraging the provision of relief to anyone who refused to enter a workhouse.
Some Poor Law authorities hoped to run workhouses at a profit by utilising the free labour of their inmates, who lacked the skills or motivation to compete in the open market. Most were employed on tasks such as breaking stones, crushing bones to produce fertiliser, or picking oakum using a large metal nail known as a spike the origin of the workhouse's nickname. Life in a workhouse was intended to be harsh, to deter the able-bodied poor and to ensure that only the destitute would apply, but in areas such as the provision of free medical care and education for children, neither of, available to the poor in England living outside workhouses until the early 20th century, workhouse inmates were advantaged over the general population, a dilemma that the Poor Law authorities never managed to reconcile. As the 19th century wore on, workhouses became refuges for the elderly and sick rather than the able-bodied poor, in 1929 legislation was passed to allow local authorities to take over workhouse infirmaries as municipal hospitals.
Although workhouses were formally abolished by the same legislation in 1930, many continued under their new appellation of Public Assistance Institutions under the control of local authorities. It was not until the National Assistance Act of 1948 that the last vestiges of the Poor Law disappeared, with them the workhouses; the Poor Law Act of 1388 was an attempt to address the labour shortage caused by the Black Death, a devastating pandemic that killed about one-third of England's population. The new law fixed wages and restricted the movement of labourers, as it was anticipated that if they were allowed to leave their parishes for higher-paid work elsewhere wages would rise. According to historian Derek Fraser, the fear of social disorder following the plague resulted in the state, not a "personal Christian charity", becoming responsible for the support of the poor; the resulting laws against vagrancy were the origins of state-funded relief for the poor. From the 16th century onwards a distinction was enshrined between those who were able to work but could not, those who were able to work but would not: between "the genuinely unemployed and the idler".
Supporting the destitute was a problem exacerbated by King Henry VIII's Dissolution of the Monasteries, which began in 1536. They had been a significant source of charitable relief, provided a good deal of direct and indirect employment; the Poor Relief Act of 1576 went on to establish the principle that if the able-bodied poor needed support, they had to work for it. The Act for the Relief of the Poor of 1601 made parishes responsible for the care of those within their boundaries who, through age or infirmity, were unable to work; the Act classified the poor into one of three groups. It proposed that the able-bodied be offered work in a house of correction, where the "persistent idler" was to be punished, it proposed the construction of housing for the impotent poor, the old and the infirm, although most assistance was granted through a form of poor relief known as outdoor relief – money, food, or other necessities given to those living in their own homes, funded by a local tax on the property of the wealthiest in the parish.
The workhouse system evolved in the 17th century, allowing parishes to reduce the cost to ratepayers of providing poor relief. The first authoritative figure for numbers of workhouses comes in the next century from The Abstract of Returns made by the Overseers of the Poor, drawn up following a government survey in 1776, it put the number of parish workhouses in England and Wales at more than 1800, with a total capacity of more than 90,000 places. This growth in the number of workhouses was prompted by the Workhouse Test Act of 1723; the growth was bolstered by the Relief of the Poor Act 1782, proposed by Thomas Gilbert. Gilbert's Act was intended to allow parishes to share the cost of poor relief by joining together to form unions, known as Gilbert Unions, to build and maintain larger workhouses to accommodate the elderly and infirm; the able-bodied poor found employment locally. Few Gilbert Unions were set up, but the supplementing of inadequate wages under the Speenhamland system did become established towards the end of the 18th century.
So keen were some Poor Law authorities to cut costs whe
Brownlow Hill infirmary
Brownlow Hill infirmary was a large workhouse infirmary in Liverpool, notable for its role in advancing training of nurses. The workhouse was demolished in 1931, the site is now occupied by Liverpool's Catholic cathedral. Initial construction of the workhouse was completed in May 1772, it was extended by addition of six further houses to both the southeast and southwest wings in 1777, a public dispensary, four houses to form a hospital for casual paupers, a lunatic asylum, a fever ward. By the 1790s, the workhouse accommodated over 1000 people, further extensions were added in 1792 and 1796. A report in 1805 by churchwarden Henderson revealed that of 1600 paupers housed in the workhouse and nearby almshouses, only 20 were able-bodied men, with 437 unable to work due to sickness or infirmity; the workhouse was expanded in the 1840s, with a chapel erected in 1855 and a hospital'for the reception of poor persons suffering from infectious diseases' added in 1863. At its peak it was one of the largest workhouses in the UK with an official capacity of over 3000 inmates but sometimes holding as many as 5000.
The workhouse housed one of the largest infirmaries in the country. It catered for 1200 sick paupers. Liverpool philanthropist William Rathbone obtained permission from the Liverpool Vestry to introduce trained nurses at the workhouse hospital in 1864, invited Agnes Jones at the London Great Northern Hospital, to be the first trained Nursing Superintendent in 1865; the conditions in the infirmary when she arrived were described as "disorder, extravagance of every description in the establishment to an incredible degree". Soon after she arrived, Jones brought seven probationers to the infirmary; this initial group were supplemented by further probationers and 54 able-bodied female inmates who were paid a small salary. This was the first training for nurses in any workhouse infirmary, paving the way for nurse training systems in other workhouses across the UK; the need for the workhouse and its hospital reduced during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the institution closing in the late 1920s and the site being put up for sale in 1930.
Acquired by the Roman Catholic church, the workhouse was demolished in 1931 and the site is today occupied by the Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral. A bell from the workhouse now hangs in the cathedral's belfry. Royden, Mike,'The Poor Law and Workhouse in Liverpool' in Tales from the'Pool, Creative Dreams, ISBN 978-0993552410 Royden, Mike ‘The Nineteenth century Poor Law in Liverpool and its Hinterland: Towards the Origins of the Workhouse Infirmary’, Journal of the Liverpool Medical History Society, Volume 11