Mexico City, or the City of Mexico, is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America. Mexico City is one of the most important financial centres in the Americas, it is located in the Valley of Mexico, a large valley in the high plateaus in the center of Mexico, at an altitude of 2,240 meters. The city has 16 boroughs; the 2009 population for the city proper was 8.84 million people, with a land area of 1,485 square kilometers. According to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments, the population of Greater Mexico City is 21.3 million, which makes it the largest metropolitan area of the Western Hemisphere, the eleventh-largest agglomeration, the largest Spanish-speaking city in the world. Greater Mexico City has a GDP of $411 billion in 2011, making Greater Mexico City one of the most productive urban areas in the world; the city was responsible for generating 15.8% of Mexico's GDP, the metropolitan area accounted for about 22% of total national GDP.
If it were an independent country, in 2013, Mexico City would be the fifth-largest economy in Latin America, five times as large as Costa Rica and about the same size as Peru. Mexico’s capital is both the oldest capital city in the Americas and one of two founded by Native Americans, the other being Quito, Ecuador; the city was built on an island of Lake Texcoco by the Aztecs in 1325 as Tenochtitlan, completely destroyed in the 1521 siege of Tenochtitlan and subsequently redesigned and rebuilt in accordance with the Spanish urban standards. In 1524, the municipality of Mexico City was established, known as México Tenochtitlán, as of 1585, it was known as Ciudad de México. Mexico City was the political and financial center of a major part of the Spanish colonial empire. After independence from Spain was achieved, the federal district was created in 1824. After years of demanding greater political autonomy, residents were given the right to elect both a Head of Government and the representatives of the unicameral Legislative Assembly by election in 1997.
Since, the left-wing Party of the Democratic Revolution has controlled both of them. The city has several progressive policies, such as abortion on request, a limited form of euthanasia, no-fault divorce, same-sex marriage. On January 29, 2016, it ceased to be the Federal District, is now known as Ciudad de México, with a greater degree of autonomy. A clause in the Constitution of Mexico, prevents it from becoming a state, as it is the seat of power in the country, unless the capital of the country were relocated elsewhere; the city of Mexico-Tenochtitlan was founded by the Mexica people in 1325. The old Mexica city, now referred to as Tenochtitlan was built on an island in the center of the inland lake system of the Valley of Mexico, which it shared with a smaller city-state called Tlatelolco. According to legend, the Mexicas' principal god, indicated the site where they were to build their home by presenting a golden eagle perched on a prickly pear devouring a rattlesnake. Between 1325 and 1521, Tenochtitlan grew in size and strength dominating the other city-states around Lake Texcoco and in the Valley of Mexico.
When the Spaniards arrived, the Aztec Empire had reached much of Mesoamerica, touching both the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. After landing in Veracruz, Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés advanced upon Tenochtitlan with the aid of many of the other native peoples, arriving there on November 8, 1519. Cortés and his men marched along the causeway leading into the city from Iztapalapa, the city's ruler, Moctezuma II, greeted the Spaniards. Cortés put Moctezuma under house arrest. Tensions increased until, on the night of June 30, 1520 – during a struggle known as "La Noche Triste" – the Aztecs rose up against the Spanish intrusion and managed to capture or drive out the Europeans and their Tlaxcalan allies. Cortés regrouped at Tlaxcala; the Aztecs thought the Spaniards were permanently gone, they elected a new king, Cuitláhuac, but he soon died. Cortés began a siege of Tenochtitlan in May 1521. For three months, the city suffered from the lack of food and water as well as the spread of smallpox brought by the Europeans.
Cortés and his allies landed their forces in the south of the island and fought their way through the city. Cuauhtémoc surrendered in August 1521; the Spaniards razed Tenochtitlan during the final siege of the conquest. Cortés first settled in Coyoacán, but decided to rebuild the Aztec site to erase all traces of the old order, he did not establish a territory under his own personal rule, but remained loyal to the Spanish crown. The first Spanish viceroy arrived in Mexico City fourteen years later. By that time, the city had again become a city-state, having power that extended far beyond its borders. Although the Spanish preserved Tenochtitlan's basic layout, they built Catholic churches over the old Aztec temples and claimed the imperial palaces for themselves. Tenochtitlan was renamed "Mexico"; the city had been the capital of the Aztec empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain. The viceroy of Mexico or vice-king lived in the viceregal palace on Zócalo; the Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral, the seat of the Archbishopric of New Spain, was const
Geraldine Sue Page was an American actress. She earned acclaim for her work on Broadway as well as in major Hollywood films and television productions, garnering an Academy Award, two Primetime Emmy Awards, two Golden Globes, one BAFTA Award, four nominations for the Tony Award. A native of Kirksville, Page studied at the Art Institute of Chicago and with Uta Hagen and Lee Strasberg in New York City before being cast in her first credited part in the Western film Hondo, which earned her her first Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress, she was subsequently blacklisted in Hollywood based on her association with Hagen and did not work in film for eight years. Page continued to appear in television and on stage and earned her first Tony Award nomination for her performance in Sweet Bird of Youth, a role she reprised in the 1961 film adaptation, the latter of which earned her a Golden Globe Award, she earned additional Academy Award nominations for her roles in You're a Big Boy Now and Pete'n' Tillie, followed by a Tony nomination for her performance in the stage production of Absurd Person Singular.
Other film appearances during this time included in the thrillers What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice? Opposite Ruth Gordon, The Beguiled opposite Clint Eastwood. In 1977, she provided the voice of Madam Medusa in Walt Disney's The Rescuers, followed by a role in Woody Allen's Interiors, which earned her a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role. After being inducted into the American Theater Hall of Fame in 1979 for her stage work, Page returned to Broadway with a lead role in Agnes of God, earning her her third Tony Award nomination. Page was nominated for Academy Awards for her performances in The Pope of Greenwich Village and The Trip to Bountiful, the latter of which earned her the award for Best Actress. Page died in New York City 1987 in the midst of a Broadway run of Blithe Spirit, for which she earned her fourth Tony Award nomination. Page was born November 22, 1924 in Kirksville, the second child of Edna Pearl and Leon Elwin Page who worked at Andrew Taylor Still College of Osteopathy and Surgery.
He was an author whose works included Practical Anatomy, Osteopathic Fundamentals, The Old Doctor. She had Donald. At age five, Page relocated with her family to Illinois. Raised a Methodist and her family were active parishioners of the Englewood Methodist Church in Chicago, where she had her first foray into acting within the church's theatre group, playing Jo March in a 1941 production of Louisa May Alcott's Little Women. After graduating from Chicago's Englewood Technical Prep Academy, she attended the Goodman School of Drama at the Art Institute of Chicago, with the intention of becoming a visual artist or pianist. After graduating from the Art Institute of Chicago in 1945, Page studied acting at the Herbert Berghof School and the American Theatre Wing in New York City, studying with Uta Hagen for seven years, at the Actors Studio with Lee Strasberg. During this time, Page would return to Chicago in the summers to perform in repertory theatre in Lake Zurich, where she and several fellow actors had established their own independent theater company.
While attempting to establish her career, she worked various odd jobs, including as a hat-check girl, theater usher, lingerie model, a factory laborer. Page, a trained method actor, spent five years appearing in various repertory theater productions in the Midwest and New York after graduating from college. On October 25, 1945, she made her New York stage debut in Seven Mirrors, a play devised by Immaculate Heart High School students from Los Angeles; the play ran for a total of 23 performances at Blackfriars Repertory Theatre on Manhattan's Upper East Side. In February 1952, director José Quintero cast Page in a minor role in Yerma, a theatrical interpretation of a poem by Federico García Lorca, staged at Circle in the Square Theatre in New York City's Greenwich Village. Page was subsequently cast in the role of Alma in the Quintero-directed production of Summer and Smoke, written by Tennessee Williams. Page's role in Summer and Smoke garnered her significant exposure, including a Drama Desk Award, a profile in Time magazine.
Her official film debut and role in Hondo, opposite John Wayne, garnering her a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress. Prior, she appeared in an uncredited role in Taxi. Speaking to a Kirksville newspaper, she said: "Actually Hondo wasn't my first movie. I had one small, but satisfactory scene in a Dan Dailey picture called Taxi, filmed in New York." Page was blacklisted in Hollywood after her debut in Hondo based on her association with Uta Hagen and did not work in film for nearly ten years. Her work continued on Broadway playing a spinster in the 1954–1955 production of The Rainmaker, written by N. Richard Nash. Page remained friends with Dean until his death the following year and kept several personal mementos from the play—including two drawings by him. After Page's death, these items were acquired by Heritage Auctions in 2006. In 1959, Page earned an Emmy nomination, of Best Single Performance by an Actress, for her role in the Playhouse 90 episode "The Old
Amanda Michael Plummer is an American actress. She is known for her work on stage and for her roles in such films as Joe Versus the Volcano, The Fisher King, Pulp Fiction, The Hunger Games: Catching Fire. Plummer won a Tony Award in 1982 for her performance in Agnes of God. Plummer was born in the only child of actors Christopher Plummer and Tammy Grimes, she attended Middlebury College for two and a half years, as a young adult she studied acting at the Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre in New York City. Plummer has received critical acclaim for her film work, including such films as Cattle Annie and Little Britches, The World According to Garp and The Hotel New Hampshire. Other films of note include The Fisher King, for which she received a BAFTA film nomination, a Chicago Film Critics Association Award nomination, a Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award. Other films include Pulp Fiction, she made her Broadway debut as Jo in the 1981 revival of A Taste of Honey, which ran for a year with Valerie French playing Helen, Jo's mother.
She received a Tony Award nomination, a Theatre World, a Drama Desk, an Outer Critics Circle Awards for her portrayal. She won a Tony Award for Featured Actress and the Drama Desk, Outer Critics Circle and Boston Critics Circle Awards for her portrayal of Agnes in Agnes of God, with Geraldine Page and Elizabeth Ashley. In 1983 she portrayed Laura Wingfield in a Broadway revival of The Glass Menagerie. Other Broadway performances include Dolly Clandon in You Never Can Tell, as Eliza Doolittle in Pygmalion for Best Performance by a Leading Actress in a Play. Off-Broadway plays include Beth in Sam Shepard's A Lie of the Mind, Killer Joe, written by Tracy Letts, she has performed in many of Tennessee Williams' plays, including Summer and Smoke, The Gnädiges Fräulein, The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore, the world premiere of The One Exception. In 1996 Plummer won an Emmy Award for her guest appearance on the episode "A Stitch in Time" of The Outer Limits. In 2005, she won an Emmy as Miranda Cole in the Law & Order: Special Victims Unit episode "Weak", in which she played a woman with schizophrenia.
She was nominated for a Golden Globe Award and received another Emmy Award for her performance in Miss Rose White, a Hallmark made-for-television film about a Holocaust survivor, for which she received the Anti-Defamation League Award. For her performance in Last Light, she received a Cable Ace Award nomination. Other awards include the Hollywood Drama Critics Award for her performance in the title female role in Romeo and Juliet, the Saturn Award for her performance as Nettie in Needful Things, a Cable Ace Award for her performance in The Right To Remain Silent. Plummer played Wiress, a former "tribute" who won the Hunger Games, in The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, the film adaptation of the second novel of The Hunger Games trilogy, by Suzanne Collins. Plummer starred alongside Brad Dourif in the critically acclaimed Off Broadway revival of Tennessee Williams' The Two-Character Play at New World Stages in 2013. In January 2019, it was announced that Plummer will star in the upcoming Netflix drama series Ratched.
Plummer dated director Paul Chart in the late 1990s. The two worked together on Chart's film American Perfekt. Plummer has no children. Amanda Plummer on IMDb Amanda Plummer at the Internet Broadway Database Amanda Plummer at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Article, playbill.com, October 20, 2004. Profile, hollywood.com. NewYork Times article referencing Amanda Plummer, April 28, 1996. Stephen Capen Interview on Worldguide, Futurist Radio Hour, October 14, 1995. Amanda Plummer comments on camera on role in The Two Character Play, June 2013 on YouTube New York Times Arts Blog on The Two-Character Play, June 2013; the Two-Character Play Off-Broadway 2013
Elizabeth Ashley is an American actress of theatre and television. She has been nominated for three Tony Awards, winning once in 1962 for Take Her, She's Mine. Ashley was nominated for the BAFTA and Golden Globe awards for her performance in The Carpetbaggers, was nominated for an Emmy Award in 1991 for Evening Shade. Elizabeth was a guest on The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson 24 times. Ashley was born Elizabeth Ann Cole in Ocala, Florida, to Lucille and Arthur Kingman Cole, a music teacher, raised in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Ashley moved to New York, she studied acting at The Neighborhood Playhouse School of the Theatre there, supporting herself by working as the Jell-O Pudding girl on a television program and as a showroom model. Ashley won a Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for Take Her, She's Mine later starred as Corie in the original Broadway production of Neil Simon's Barefoot in the Park and as Maggie in a Broadway revival of Tennessee Williams' Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, she received Tony nominations for both performances.
She appeared on Broadway as Dr. Livingstone in Agnes of God and was a replacement in the role of Mattie Fae during the original Broadway run of August: Osage County, she has been featured in major motion pictures over five decades, including early roles in The Carpetbaggers, Ship of Fools and The Third Day. Her other film credits include The Marriage of a Young Stockbroker, Rancho Deluxe, Paternity and Vampire's Kiss, she starred as the villain in the controversial film Windows, her most recent film roles were as Diane Freed in Happiness, as Marg in the 2007 film The Cake Eaters. Having earlier appeared with Burt Reynolds in Paternity in 1981 and as a guest star in his television series B. L. Stryker in 1989, Ashley became a cast member of Reynolds' next television series, Evening Shade, from 1990–1994 as Aunt Frieda Evans. In 1991, this role garnered her an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Comedy Series, she was supposed to appear in the 1995 movie Mallrats, playing the governor of New Jersey.
Ashley had the role of Kate in Sandburg's Lincoln, a six-part dramatization that ran on NBC in the mid-1970s.:926 Her other television appearances include the 1987 miniseries The Two Mrs. Grenvilles, guest roles in Ben Casey, she was featured in 14 episodes of the HBO series Treme as Aunt Mimi. Ashley's autobiography, entitled Actress: Postcards from the Road, was published in a hardcover edition on June 1, 1978 by M. Evans & Co. A paperback publication followed on October 1979 through Fawcett. Three times divorced, Ashley's first and second husbands were actors James Farentino and George Peppard; the latter was her leading man in The Carpetbaggers. When she was 25 years old, Ashley retired from acting "to make a home for my husband... realize myself as a woman". She resumed her career four years later. Elizabeth Ashley at the Internet Broadway Database Elizabeth Ashley at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Elizabeth Ashley on IMDb Elizabeth Ashley at the TCM Movie Database InnerVIEWS with Ernie Manouse: Elizabeth Ashley
Carrie Frances Fisher was an American actress and comedian. Fisher is best known for playing Princess Leia in the Star Wars films, a role for which she was nominated for four Saturn Awards, her other film credits include Shampoo, The Blues Brothers and Her Sisters, The'Burbs, When Harry Met Sally... Soapdish, The Women, she was nominated twice for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Guest Actress in a Comedy Series for her performances on the television series 30 Rock and Catastrophe. She was posthumously made a Disney Legend in 2017, in 2018 she was awarded a posthumous Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album. Fisher wrote several semi-autobiographical novels, including Postcards from the Edge and an autobiographical one-woman play, its non-fiction book, Wishful Drinking, based on the play, she wrote the screenplay for the film version of Postcards From The Edge which garnered her a BAFTA Award for Best Adapted Screenplay nomination, her one-woman stage show of Wishful Drinking was filmed for television and received a nomination for the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Variety Special.
She worked on other writers' screenplays as a script doctor, including tightening the scripts for Hook, Sister Act, The Wedding Singer, many of the films from the Star Wars franchise, among others. In years, she earned praise for speaking publicly about her experiences with bipolar disorder and drug addiction. Fisher was the daughter of actress Debbie Reynolds, she and her mother appear in Bright Lights: Starring Carrie Fisher and Debbie Reynolds, a documentary about their relationship. It premiered at the 2016 Cannes Film Festival. Fisher died of a sudden cardiac arrest on December 27, 2016, at age 60, four days after experiencing a medical emergency during a transatlantic flight from London to Los Angeles. One of her final films, Star Wars: The Last Jedi, was released on December 15, 2017, is dedicated to her. Fisher will appear in Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker through the use of unreleased footage from The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi. Carrie Frances Fisher was born on October 21, 1956, in Burbank, California, to actors and singers Debbie Reynolds and Eddie Fisher.
Fisher's paternal grandparents were Russian-Jewish immigrants, while her mother, raised a Nazarene, was of Scots-Irish and English descent. Fisher was two years old when her parents divorced in 1959, her father's third marriage, to actress Connie Stevens, resulted in the births of Fisher's two half-sisters, Joely Fisher and Tricia Leigh Fisher. In 1960, her mother married owner of a chain of shoe stores. Reynolds and Karl divorced in 1973. Fisher "hid in books" as a child, becoming known in her family as "the bookworm", she spent her earliest years reading classic literature, writing poetry. She attended Beverly Hills High School until age 15, when she appeared as a debutante and singer in the hit Broadway revival Irene, starring her mother, her time on Broadway interfered with her education, resulting in Fisher's dropping out of high school. In 1973, Fisher enrolled at London's Central School of Speech and Drama, which she attended for 18 months. Following her time there, Fisher applied to and was accepted at Sarah Lawrence College, where she planned to study the arts.
She left without graduating. Fisher made her film debut at age 18 as the precociously seductive character Lorna Karpf in the Columbia Pictures comedy Shampoo. Lee Grant and Jack Warden play the role of her parents in the film. Warren Beatty, Julie Christie and Goldie Hawn star in the film. In 1977, Fisher starred as Princess Leia in George Lucas' science-fiction film Star Wars opposite Mark Hamill and Harrison Ford. At the time, she believed the script for Star Wars was fantastic, but did not expect many people to agree with her. Though her fellow actors were not close at the time, they bonded after the commercial success of the film. In April 1978, Fisher appeared as the love interest in Ringo Starr's 1978 TV special Ringo; the next month, she starred alongside John Ritter in the ABC-TV film Leave Yesterday Behind. At this time, Fisher appeared with Laurence Olivier and Joanne Woodward in the anthology series Laurence Olivier Presents in a television version of the William Inge play Come Back, Little Sheba.
That November, she played Princess Leia in the 1978 TV production Star Wars Holiday Special, sang in the last scene. Fisher appeared in the film The Blues Brothers as Jake's vengeful ex-lover. While Fisher was in Chicago filming the movie, she choked on a Brussels sprout, she appeared on Broadway in Censored Scenes from King Kong in 1980. The same year, she reprised her role as Princess Leia in The Empire Strikes Back, appeared with her Star Wars co-stars on the cover of the July 12, 1980 issue of Rolling Stone to promote the film, she starred as Sister Agnes in the Broadway production of Agnes of God in 1983. In 1983, Fisher returned to the role of Princess Leia in Return of the Jedi, posed in the character's metal bikini on the cover of the Summer 1983 issue of Rolling Stone to promote the film; the costume achieved a following of its own. In 1986 she starred along with Barbara Hershey and Mia Farrow in Woody Allen's Hannah and Her Sisters. In 1987, Fisher published Postcards from the Edge; the book was semi-autobiographical in the sense that she fictionalized and satirized real-life events such as her drug addiction of the late 1970s and her relationship with her mot
Carlotta Mercedes Agnes McCambridge was an American actress of radio, stage and television. Orson Welles called her "the world's greatest living radio actress." She won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for All the King's Men and was nominated in the same category for Giant. She provided the voice of Pazuzu in The Exorcist. McCambridge was born in Joliet, the daughter of Irish-American Roman Catholic parents Marie and John Patrick McCambridge, a farmer, she graduated from Mundelein College in Chicago before embarking on a career. McCambridge began her career as a radio actor during the 1930s while performing on Broadway. In 1941, she played Judy's girlfriend in A Date with Judy, she had the title role in Defense Attorney, a crime drama broadcast on ABC in 1951-52. Her other work on radio included: episodes of Lights Out episodes of Inner Sanctum episodes of the Bulldog Drummond radio series episodes of Gang Busters episodes of Murder at Midnight episodes of Studio One Episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents as Dr. Constance Peterson in Spellbound episodes of Screen Directors Playhouse episodes of Ford Theater Rosemary Levy on Abie's Irish Rose Peggy King Martinson on This is Nora Drake various characters on the radio series I Love A Mystery in both its West Coast and East Coast incarnations She did feature roles on the CBS Radio Mystery Theater, was an original cast member on Guiding Light.
She starred in her own show, Defense Attorney on ABC 1951–52, as Martha Ellis Bryan. From June 22, 1953, to March 5, 1954, McCambridge starred in the soap opera Family Skeleton on CBS. McCambridge played Katherine Wells in Wire Service, a drama series that aired on ABC during 1956-7, produced by Desilu Productions; the series starred McCambridge, George Brent, Dane Clark as reporters for the fictional Trans Globe Wire Service. McCambridge's film career took off when she was cast as Sadie Burke opposite Broderick Crawford in All the King's Men. McCambridge won the 1949 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role, while the film won Best Picture for that year. McCambridge won the Golden Globe Awards for Best Supporting Actress and New Star of the Year - Actress for her performance. In 1954, the actress co-starred with Joan Crawford and Sterling Hayden in the offbeat western drama, Johnny Guitar, now regarded as a cult classic. McCambridge and Hayden publicly declared their dislike of Crawford, with McCambridge labeling the film's star "a mean, powerful, rotten-egg lady."McCambridge played the supporting role of Luz in the George Stevens classic Giant, which starred Elizabeth Taylor, Rock Hudson, James Dean.
She was nominated for another Academy Award as Best Supporting Actress but lost to Dorothy Malone in Written on the Wind. In 1959, McCambridge appeared opposite Katharine Hepburn, Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor in the Joseph L. Mankiewicz film adaptation of Tennessee Williams' Suddenly, Last Summer. McCambridge provided the dubbed voice of Pazuzu, the demon possessing the young girl Regan in The Exorcist. To sound as disturbing as possible, McCambridge insisted on swallowing raw eggs, chain smoking and drinking whiskey to make her voice harsh and her performance aggressive. Director William Friedkin arranged for her to be bound to a chair during recordings, so that the demon seemed to be struggling against its restraints. According to Friedkin, she requested no credit for the film—fearing it would take away from the attention of Blair's performance—but complained about her absence of credit during the film's premiere, her dispute with Friedkin and the Warner Bros. over her exclusion ended when, with the help of the Screen Actors Guild, she was properly credited for her vocal work in the film.
In the 1970s, she toured in a road company production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof as Big Mama, opposite John Carradine as Big Daddy. She appeared as a guest artist in college productions, such as El Centro College's 1979 The Mousetrap, in which she received top billing despite her character being murdered fewer than 15 minutes into the play. El Centro brought her back the following year in the title role of The Madwoman of Chaillot, she starred with longtime character actor Lyle Talbot in the 1970 production of Come Back, Little Sheba in the University of North Alabama Summer Theatre Productions. In the mid-1970s, McCambridge took a position as director of Livingrin, a Pennsylvania rehabilitation center for alcoholics, she was at the same time putting the finishing touches on her soon-to-be released autobiography, The Quality of Mercy: An Autobiography, ISBN 0-8129-0945-3. McCambridge married William Fifield, in 1939 when she was 23 years old; the couple had a son, John Lawrence Fifield, born in December, 1941.
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l