Ann Trow Lohman, better known as Madame Restell, was a 19th-century British-born American abortionist who practiced in New York City. Ann Trow Sommers, was born in Painswick, England in 1812, her father was a labourer. At the age of fifteen, she started work as a maid in a butcher's family. At the age of sixteen, she married a Wiltshire man called Henry Sommers, an alcoholic tailor. After three years living in England, they emigrated to New York in 1831 where Sommers died of Typhoid in 1833. Ann Trow Sommers was left alone with an infant daughter and forced to make a poor living as a seamstress and midwife. Ann remarried in 1836, to a German–Russian immigrant, Charles Lohman. Charles Lohman worked in the printing industry, at the time was a printer for the New York Herald. Lohman was a radical and freethinker, a friend and colleague of George Matsell, the publisher of the radical journal the Free Inquirer. With Matsell, Lohman was involved in the publication of Robert Dale Owen's book Moral Physiology.
Ann continued to develop an interest in women's health. Charles and Ann developed a story to validate Ann's interests in women's health. According to their story, she had travelled to Europe to train in midwifery with a renowned French physician named Restell, she began selling patent medicine, creating birth control products such as "preventative powders" and "Female Monthly Pills", advertised under the name "Madame Restell". She performed house visits; when these "Monthly Pills" proved insufficient for a woman to end a pregnancy and thus maintain good standing in society, Restell devised another solution. Self-professed doctors and pharmacists and her husband became surgeons; the new title ensured more profitable procedures could be performed under the same legal penalty given for offering medication-induced abortions. Abortifacients used in this era were blends of herbs such as ergot, aloe, or black hellebore; these were thought inducing a miscarriage. Surgical abortions included rupturing the amniotic sac, or dilating the cervix, or in-utero decapitation.
Madame Restell advertised her services as a "Female Physician" in newspapers such as the Herald and the New York Times. She and her husband Charles operated out of a large brownstone mansion on the northeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street; when Restell began her business, abortions were hardly illegal. Only surgical abortions were forbidden; this was only after the quickening, that is. Soon, Restell's success began to attract copiers and competition; this drew the attention of the AMA, which launched a campaign in 1857 to end abortion. In order to rally support for their cause, the AMA targeted Restell, the most celebrated abortionist and deemed her the enemy; the term "Restellism" became a euphemism for abortion. With the swift changes of law in New York, Restell was being hounded by authorities and anti-abortion crusaders to end her practice, she was met with opposition from the press. Enoch E. Camp and George Wilkes' National Police Gazette covered New York's "crime news" and detailed stories about theft and rape, among others.
Coverage was not limited to New York but rather extended to major cities throughout the United States and Europe. The Gazette claimed that in addition to performing abortions, "…most of the abandoned infants found daily throughout the city came from her establishment."Conservative editors such as Samuel Jenks Smith of the New York Sunday Morning News publicly condemned Restell's profession. On July 7, 1839—the earliest press's attack on Restell—his editorial claimed her business "…strikes at the root of all social order." According to Smith, doctors believed Restell was engaging in dangerous work, that "...what she was doing was impossible without endangering the lives of the patients." Her work was considered "sinful." But exposure of this controversy was not limited to men. Female journalists engaged in undercover operations to shed light on illegal abortions in cities such as Chicago, with one example being the Chicago Times' "Girl Reporter." This unidentified woman exposed physicians like the Chicago Medical Society's Dr. J.
H. Etheridge, Dr. John Chaffee, Dr. Edwin Hale. At her pleadings, these doctors and others agreed to perform abortions and thus violate the 1867 Illinois statute penalizing such procedures. Madame Restell became so well known throughout New York City that copies of her trials were published in the Times and the Police Gazette, she was listed as a New York City attraction in NYC tour guides. In 1840, a patient named Maria Purdy accused Restell of causing tuberculosis through the abortion procedure; the press erupted with anger against Restell, calling her "the monster in human shape" and charging her with acts against God. Restell promised monetary compensation to anyone, her uneasy relationship with public opinion continued. Mary Applegate was an unmarried woman, a mistress, whom had been sent to Madame Restell from Philadelphia by her illicit lover; the father had arranged for Restell to adopt the baby out. Applegate was unaware of this deal until she had ret
Priene was an ancient Greek city of Ionia at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about 6 kilometres north of the course of the Maeander River, 67 kilometres from ancient Anthea, 15 kilometres from ancient Aneon and 25 kilometres from ancient Miletus. It was built on the sea coast, overlooking the ocean on steep slopes and terraces extending from sea level to a height of 380 metres above sea level at the top of the escarpment. Today, after several centuries of changes in the landscape, it is an inland site, it is located at a short distance west of the modern village Güllübahçe Turun in the Söke district of Aydın Province, Turkey. Priene possessed a great deal of architecture; the city's original position on Mount Mycale has never been discovered. Priene never held a great deal of political importance due to the city's size, as it is believed around 4 to 5 thousand inhabitants occupied the region; the city was arranged into four districts, firstly the political district which consisted of the bouleuterion and the prytaneion, the cultural district containing the theatre, the commercial where the agora was located and the religious district which contained sanctuaries dedicated to Zeus and Demeter and most the Temple of Athena.
The city visible on the slopes and escarpment of Mycale was constructed according to plan within the 4th century BCE. It was not the original Priene, a port city situated at the mouth of the Maeander River; this location caused insuperable environmental difficulties for it due to slow aggradation of the riverbed and progradation in the direction of the Aegean Sea. The harbour would silt over and the population find itself living in pest-ridden swamps and marshes; the underlying causes of the problem are that the Maeander flows through a subsiding rift valley creating a drowned coastline and that human use of the forested slopes and valley denudes the countryside and accelerates erosion. The sediments are progressively deposited in the trough at the mouth of the river, which migrates westward and more than compensates for the subsidence. Physical remains of the original Priene have not yet been identified, because, it is supposed, they must be under many feet of sediment, the top of, now valuable agricultural land.
Knowledge of the average rate of progradation is the basis for estimating the location of the city, moved every few centuries to renew its utility as a port. The Greek city was founded by a colony from the ancient Greek city of Thebes in the vicinity of ancient Aneon at about 1000 BCE. At about 700 BCE a series of earthquakes provided the opportunity for a move to within 8 kilometres of its 4th century BCE location. At about 500 BCE the city moved again to a few km away at the port of Naulochos. At about 350 BCE the Persian-empire satrap, Mausolus planned a magnificent new city on the steep slopes of Mycale, where it would be, it was hoped, a permanent deep-water port. Construction had begun when the Macedonians took the region from the Persian Empire and Alexander the Great assumed responsibility for the move, he and Mausolus intended to make Priene a model city. He offered to pay for construction of the Temple of Athena to designs of the noted architect Pytheos, if it would be dedicated by him, which it was, in 323 BCE.
The inscription translated to: "King Alexander dedicated the temple to Athena Polias". The leading citizens were quick to follow suit: most of the public buildings were constructed at private expense and are inscribed with the names of the donors; the ruins of the city are conceded to be the most spectacular surviving example of an entire ancient Greek city intact except for the ravages of time. It has been studied since at least the 18th century and still is; the city was constructed of marble from nearby quarries on Mycale and wood for such items as roofs and floors. The public area is laid out in a grid pattern up the steep slopes, drained by a system of channels; the water distribution and sewer systems survive. Foundations, paved streets, partial door frames, walls, terraces can be seen everywhere among toppled columns and blocks. No wood has survived; the city extends upward to the base of an escarpment projecting from Mycale. A narrow path leads to the acropolis above. Despite the expectations of the population Priene lasted only a few more centuries as a deep-water port.
In the 2nd century CE Pausanias reports that the Maeander had silted over the inlet in which Myus stood and that the population had abandoned it for Miletus. While Miletus was still open according to recent geoarchaeological research Priene had lost the port and open connection to the sea in about the 1st century BCE, its merchants had preceded the people of Myus to Miletus. By 300 CE the entire Bay of Miletus, except for Lake Bafa, was silted in. Today Miletus is many miles from the sea and Priene stands at the edge of a fertile plain, now a checkerboard of owned fields. A Greek village remained after the population decline and was joined by a Turkish population after the 12th century CE. In the 13th century CE Priene was known as Sampson in Greek after the biblical hero Samson. In 12
The Areopagus is a prominent rock outcropping located northwest of the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. Its English name is the Late Latin composite form of the Greek name Areios Pagos, translated "Ares Rock". In classical times, it functioned as the court for trying deliberate homicide and religious matters, as well as cases involving arson or olive trees. Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Halirrhothius; the origin of its name is not clear. In Ancient Greek, πάγος pagos means "big piece of rock". Areios could have come from Ares or from the Erinyes, as on its foot was erected a temple dedicated to the Erinyes where murderers used to find shelter so as not to face the consequences of their actions; the Romans referred to the rocky hill as "Mars Hill", after Mars, the Roman God of War. Near the Areopagus was constructed the basilica of Dionysius Areopagites. In pre-classical times, the Areopagus was the council of elders of the city, similar to the Roman Senate.
Like the Senate, its membership was restricted to those who had held high public office, in this case that of Archon. In 594 BC, the Areopagus agreed to hand over its functions to Solon for reform, he instituted democratic reforms, reconstituted its membership, returned control to the organization. In 462 BC, Ephialtes put through reforms which deprived the Areopagus of all its functions except that of a murder tribunal in favour of Heliaia. In The Eumenides of Aeschylus, the Areopagus is the site of the trial of Orestes for killing his mother and her lover. Phryne, the hetaera from 4th century BC Greece and famed for her beauty, appeared before the Areopagus accused of profaning the Eleusinian mysteries. One story has her letting her cloak drop, so impressing the judges with her divine form that she was summarily acquitted. In an unusual development, the Areopagus acquired a new function in the 4th century BC, investigating corruption, although conviction powers remained with the Ecclesia; the Areopagus, like most city-state institutions, continued to function in Roman times, it was from this location, drawing from the potential significance of the Athenian altar to the Unknown God, that the Apostle Paul is said to have delivered the famous speech, "Now what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you.
The God who made the world and everything in it is the Lord of heaven and earth and does not live in temples built by hands." The term "Areopagus" refers to the judicial body of aristocratic origin that subsequently formed the higher court of modern Greece. The English poet John Milton titled his defence of freedom of the press "Areopagitica," arguing that the censors of ancient Athens, based at the Areopagus, had not practiced the kind of prior restraint of publication being called for in the English Parliament of Milton's time; the Aeropagus Society, formed in 1893, is one of the oldest clubs at the preparatory school Hotchkiss and meets to debate on certain topics. Areopagus sermon Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece, a regional Greek administration during the Greek Revolution of 1821, named after the Ancient Athenian institution; the Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens by Gustav Gilbert Pantologia by John Mason Good, Olinthus Gregory, Newton Bosworth. P. 565 The London Encyclopaedia, Volume 2.
Edited by Thomas Curtis. P. 647 Acts 17:16-34 – A Biblical account of St. Paul discussing with the Areopagus the nature of the Christian God. Referred to is the story concerning the altar to "The Unknown God." Athens Photo Guide
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Helen King (classicist)
Helen King is a British classical scholar. She is Professor Emerita of Classical Studies at the Open University, she was Professor of the History of Classical Medicine and Head of the Department of Classics at the University of Reading. King was born in 1957. For King going to university or doing a PhD wasn't inevitable, she had little notion of what doctoral research involved, she completed her first degree in Ancient History and Social Anthropology at University College London. She was awarded her doctorate in 1985 for a PhD on menstruation in ancient Greece supervised by Sarah C. Humphreys, her thesis was entitled From'parthenos' to'gyne': the Dynamics of Category. Having completed her doctorate, King held research fellowships at the universities of Cambridge and Newcastle, taught at the Liverpool Institute of Higher Education for eight years, moved to Reading on a Wellcome Trust University Award in 1996. From 2008 she was Visiting Professor at the Peninsula Medical School in Truro, she moved to the Open University to assume the role of Professor of Classical Studies in 2011.
She retired in January 2017 and took up the position of Robert E. and Susan T. Rydell Visiting Professor 2017–2018 at Gustavus Adolphus College, St Peter, MN. King was a Women's Studies Area Advisor to the Oxford Classical Dictionary, she has been a Fellow at the Netherlands Institute for Advanced Studies, a Landsdowne Visiting Lecturer at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, a Visiting Professor at the University of Texas at Austin, a Käthe Leichter Visiting Professor in Women's Studies and Gender Studies at the University of Vienna and Provost's Distinguished Women Lecturer, Notre Dame, IN. King has appeared on History Cold Case, Tony Robinson's Gods & Monsters, Harlots, Housewives & Heroines: A 17th Century History for Girls, she has contributed to two episodes of In Our Time on BBC Radio 4, speaking on Galen and The Hippocratic Oath. With the publication of her book Hippocrates' Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece, King established herself as the leading authority on the practice and theory of ancient medicine as relating to women and how it continues to influence thought to the present day.
In her 2007 book, Midwifery and the Rise of Gynaecology: The Uses of a Sixteenth-Century Compendium, she examined the uses of ancient medicine in a collection of ancient and medieval works on gynecology produced in three editions, the last being in 1597 by Israel Spach, the different interpretations of this collection up to James Young Simpson in the nineteenth century. She has published on the myths of Tithonos, on mermaids, on the myth/fable of Agnodice, "the first midwife", she has investigated how this story was used to give authority to women in medical roles in various historical periods. King was a member of the General Synod of the Church of England from 1985 to 1993 and, as part of the'Historical' thematic working group, is contributing to the Church's proposed teaching document on human sexuality. Hippocrates' Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece. ISBN 9781853995453 The Disease of Virgins: Green Sickness and the Problems of Puberty; the Open University - Academia.edu
Baubo is an old woman in Greek mythology which appears in the myths of the early Orphic religion. Known as the Goddess of Mirth, she was bawdy and sexually liberated, is said to have jested with Demeter, when Demeter was mourning the loss of her daughter, Persephone. In his Greek Myths, Robert Graves writes. Iambe, the lame maid of the king:... tried to console Demeter with comically lascivious verses, a dry nurse, old Baubo, persuaded her to drink barley-water by a jest: she groaned as if in great travail and, produced from beneath her skirt Demeter's own son Iacchus, who leapt into his mother's arms and kissed her. Graves writes: Iambe and Baubo personify the obscene songs, in iambic metre, which were sung to relieve emotional tension at the Eleusinian Mysteries. Old nurses in Greek myth nearly always stand for the goddess as crone; the following excerpt is taken from Clement of Alexandria's Exhortation to the Greeks, from a 1919 English translation: Baubo, having received Demeter as a guest, offers her a draught of wine and meal.
She declines being unwilling to drink on account of her mourning. Baubo is hurt, thinking she has been slighted, thereupon uncovers her secret parts and exhibits them to the goddess. Demeter is pleased at the sight, now at least receives the draught, — delighted by the spectacle! These are the secret mysteries of the Athenians! These are the subjects of Orpheus’ poems. I will quote you the lines of Orpheus, in order that you may have the originator of the mysteries as witness of their shamelessness: “This said, she drew aside her robes, showed a sight of shame. Smiled the goddess, in her heart she smiled, drank the draught from out the glancing cup.” Figurines known as Baubos are found in a number of settings with Greek connections. They were mass-produced in a number of styles, but the basic figure always exposes the vulva in some way: A plump woman with her legs held apart, gesturing to her exposed vulva. A naked splay-legged figure holding a harp on the back of a boar. A naked headless torso with the face in the body and the vulva in the chin of the face.
A seated figure with an exaggerated vulva filling the space between the legs. A naked squatting figure with her hands on her genitaliaThe figurines had elaborate headdresses, some hold cups or harps; some figurines have a loop moulded into the head, which seems to indicate that they were suspended in some way. Anasyrma Dilukai Lajja Gauri Nin-imma Sheela na Gig Vagina and vulva in art Venus figurines O' Higgins, Laurie. Women and Humor in Classical Greece. Cambridge, UK. Lubell, Winifred Milius; the Metamorphosis of Baubo. Nashville, Tennessee: Vanderbilt University Press. Murray, Margaret. "Female Fertility Figures". Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute. LXIV; the following books are about medieval sexual sculpture but have sections on Baubo: Dr. Jørgen Andersen, The Witch on the Wall: Medieval Erotic Sculpture in the British Isles, 1977. Miriam Robbins Dexter and Victor H. Mair, Sacred Display: Divine and Magical Female Figures of Eurasia. Amherst, New York: Cambria Press, 2010. Anthony Weir and James Jerman, Images of Lust: Sexual Carvings on Medieval Churches, 1986.
Examples of Baubo figurines Baubo in Clement of Alexandria's Exhortation to the Greeks The story of Baubo as related by Clement of Alexandria. Baubo figurines from the temple of Demeter at Priene, Turkey Face-in-body Baubo figurines
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years in Greek culture. This Classical period saw the annexation of much of modern-day Greece by the Persian Empire and its subsequent independence. Classical Greece had a powerful influence on the Roman Empire and on the foundations of Western civilization. Much of modern Western politics, artistic thought, scientific thought, theatre and philosophy derives from this period of Greek history. In the context of the art and culture of Ancient Greece, the Classical period corresponds to most of the 5th and 4th centuries BC; the Classical period in this sense follows the Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period and is in turn succeeded by the Hellenistic period. This century is studied from the Athenian outlook because Athens has left us more narratives and other written works than the other ancient Greek states. From the perspective of Athenian culture in Classical Greece, the period referred to as the 5th century BC extends into the 4th century BC. In this context, one might consider that the first significant event of this century occurs in 508 BC, with the fall of the last Athenian tyrant and Cleisthenes' reforms.
However, a broader view of the whole Greek world might place its beginning at the Ionian Revolt of 500 BC, the event that provoked the Persian invasion of 492 BC. The Persians were defeated in 490 BC. A second Persian attempt, in 481–479 BC, failed as well, despite having overrun much of modern-day Greece at a crucial point during the war following the Battle of Thermopylae and the Battle of Artemisium; the Delian League formed, under Athenian hegemony and as Athens' instrument. Athens' excesses caused several revolts among the allied cities, all of which were put down by force, but Athenian dynamism awoke Sparta and brought about the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. After both forces were spent, a brief peace came about. Athens was definitively defeated in 404 BC, internal Athenian agitations mark the end of the 5th century BC in Greece. Since its beginning, Sparta had been ruled by a diarchy; this meant. The two kingships were both hereditary, vested in the Eurypontid dynasty. According to legend, the respective hereditary lines of these two dynasties sprang from Eurysthenes and Procles, twin descendants of Hercules.
They were said to have conquered Sparta two generations after the Trojan War. In 510 BC, Spartan troops helped the Athenians overthrow their king, the tyrant Hippias, son of Peisistratos. Cleomenes I, king of Sparta, put in place a pro-Spartan oligarchy headed by Isagoras, but his rival Cleisthenes, with the support of the middle class and aided by democrats, took over. Cleomenes intervened in 508 and 506 BC, but could not stop Cleisthenes, now supported by the Athenians. Through Cleisthenes' reforms, the people endowed their city with isonomic institutions — equal rights for all citizens —and established ostracism; the isonomic and isegoric democracy was first organized into about 130 demes, which became the basic civic element. The 10,000 citizens exercised their power as members of the assembly, headed by a council of 500 citizens chosen at random; the city's administrative geography was reworked, in order to create mixed political groups: not federated by local interests linked to the sea, to the city, or to farming, whose decisions would depend on their geographical position.
The territory of the city was divided into thirty trittyes as follows: ten trittyes in the coastal region ten trittyes in the ἄστυ, the urban centre ten trittyes in the rural interior. A tribe consisted of three trittyes, selected at one from each of the three groups; each tribe therefore always acted in the interest of all three sectors. It was this corpus of reforms that allowed the emergence of a wider democracy in the 460s and 450s BC. In Ionia, the Greek cities, which included great centres such as Miletus and Halicarnassus, were unable to maintain their independence and came under the rule of the Persian Empire in the mid-6th century BC. In 499 BC that region's Greeks rose in the Ionian Revolt, Athens and some other Greek cities sent aid, but were forced to back down after defeat in 494 BC at the Battle of Lade. Asia Minor returned to Persian control. In 492 BC, the Persian general Mardonius led a campaign through Macedonia, he was victorious and again subjugated the former and conquered the latter, but he was wounded and forced to retreat back into Asia Minor.
In addition, a fleet of around 1,200 ships that accompanied Mardonius on the expedition was wrecked by a storm off the coast of Mount Athos. The generals Artaphernes and Datis led a successful naval expedition against the Aegean islands. In 490 BC, Darius the Great, having suppressed the Ionian cities, sent a Persian fleet to punish the Greeks, they landed in Attica intending to take Athens, but were defeated at the Battle of Marathon by a Greek army of 9,000 Athenian hoplites and 1,000 Plataeans led by the Athenian general Miltiades. The Persian fleet continued to Athens but, seeing it garrisoned, decided not to attempt an assault. In 480 BC, Darius' successor Xerxes I sent a much more powerful force of 300,000 by land, with 1,207 ships in supp