Gaius Marcius Coriolanus
Gaius Marcius Coriolanus was a Roman general, said to have lived in the 5th century BC. He received his toponymic cognomen "Coriolanus" because of his exceptional valor in a Roman siege of the Volscian city of Corioli, he was subsequently exiled from Rome, led troops of Rome's enemy the Volsci to besiege Rome. In ancient times, it was accepted by historians that Coriolanus was a real historical individual, a consensus narrative story of his life appeared, retold by leading historians such as Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus. More recent scholarship has cast doubt on the historicity of Coriolanus, with some portraying him as either a wholly legendary figure or at least disputing the accuracy of the conventional story of his life or the timing of the events. According to Plutarch, his ancestors included prominent patricians such as Censorinus and an early King of Rome; the story is the basis for the tragedy of Coriolanus, written by William Shakespeare, a number of other works, including Beethoven's Coriolan Overture.
Coriolanus came to fame as a young man serving in the army of the consul Postumus Cominius Auruncus in 493 BC during the siege of the Volscian town of Corioli. While the Romans were focused on the siege, another Volscian force arrived from Antium and attacked the Romans, at the same time the soldiers of Corioli launched a sally. Marcius held watch at the time of the Volscian attack, he gathered a small force of Roman soldiers to fight against the Volscians who had sallied forth from Corioli. Not only did he repel the enemy, but he charged through the town gates and began setting fire to some of the houses bordering the town wall; the citizens of Corioli cried out, the whole Volscian force was dispirited and was defeated by the Romans. The town was captured, Marcius gained the cognomen Coriolanus. In 491 BC, two years after Coriolanus' victory over the Volscians, Rome was recovering from a grain shortage. A significant quantity of grain was imported from Sicily, the senate debated the manner in which it should be distributed to the commoners.
Coriolanus advocated that the provision of grain should be dependent upon the reversal of the pro-plebeian political reforms arising from the First secessio plebis in 494 BC. The senate thought; the populace were incensed at Coriolanus' proposal, the tribunes put him on trial. The senators argued at the least a merciful sentence. Coriolanus refused to attend on the day of his trial, he was convicted. Coriolanus fled to the Volsci in exile, he was received and treated kindly, resided with the Volscian leader Attius Tullus Aufidius. Plutarch's account of his defection tells that Coriolanus donned a disguise and entered the home of Aufidius as a supplicant. Coriolanus and Aufidius persuaded the Volscians to break their truce with Rome and raise an army to invade. Livy recounts that Aufidius tricked the Roman senate into expelling the Volsci from Rome during the celebration of the Great Games, thereby stirring up ill-will among the Volsci. Coriolanus and Aufidius led the Volscian army against Roman towns and allies.
Roman colonists were expelled from Circeii. They retook the Volscian towns of Satricum, Longula and Corioli; the Volscian army took Lavinium Corbio, Trebia and Pedum. From there the Volsci besieged it; the Volscians camped at the Cluilian trench, five miles outside Rome, ravaged the countryside. Coriolanus directed the Volsci to target plebeian properties and to spare the patricians'; the consuls, now Spurius Nautius Rutilus and Sextus Furius Medullinus Fusus, readied the defences of the city. But the plebeians implored them to sue for peace; the senate was convened, it was agreed to send supplicants to the enemy. Ambassadors were sent, but Coriolanus sent back a negative response; the ambassadors were refused entry to the enemy camp. Next priests, in their regalia, were sent by the Romans, but achieved nothing more than had the ambassadors. Coriolanus' mother Veturia and his wife Volumnia and his two sons, together with the matrons of Rome, went out to the Volscian camp and implored Coriolanus to cease his attack on Rome.
Coriolanus was overcome by their pleas, moved the Volscian camp back from the city, ending the siege. Rome honoured the service of these women by the erection of a temple dedicated to Fortuna. Coriolanus' fate after this point is unclear. One version says. Coriolanus had committed acts of disloyalty to both Rome and the Volsci, Aufidius raised support to have Coriolanus first put on trial by the Volscians, assassinated before the trial had ended. Plutarch's tale of Coriolanus' appeal to Aufidius is quite similar to a tale from the life of Themistocles, a leader of the Athenian democracy, a contemporary of Coriolanus. During Themistocles' exile from Athens, he travelled to the home of Admetus, King of the Molossians, a man, his personal enemy. Themistocles came to Admetus in disguise and appealed to him as a fugitive, just as Coriolanus appealed to Aufidius. Themistocles, never attempted military retaliation against Athens; some modern scholars question parts of the story of Coriolanus. It is notable that accounts of Coriolanus' life are first found in works from the third century BC, some two hundred years
Michael Gerard Tyson is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1985 to 2005. He reigned as the undisputed world heavyweight champion and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win a heavyweight title at 20 years, four months and 22 days old. Tyson won his first 19 professional fights by 12 of them in the first round, he won the WBC title in 1986 after stopping Trevor Berbick in the second round, added the WBA and IBF titles after defeating James Smith and Tony Tucker in 1987. This made Tyson the first heavyweight boxer to hold the WBA, WBC and IBF titles, the only heavyweight to successively unify them. Tyson became the lineal champion in 1988 when he knocked out Michael Spinks in 91 seconds of the first round, he defended his titles nine times, which included victories over Larry Holmes and Frank Bruno. In 1990, Tyson lost the titles to underdog Buster Douglas. Attempting to regain the titles, Tyson defeated Donovan Ruddock twice in 1991, but pulled out of a fight with then-undisputed heavyweight champion Evander Holyfield due to a rib injury.
In 1992, Tyson was convicted of rape and sentenced to six years in prison, but was released on parole after serving three years. After his release in 1995, he engaged in a series of comeback fights, he won the WBC and WBA titles after stopping Frank Bruno and Bruce Seldon. With his defeat of Bruno, Tyson joined Floyd Patterson, Muhammad Ali, Tim Witherspoon, Evander Holyfield, George Foreman as the only men in boxing history to have regained a heavyweight championship after having lost it. After being stripped of the WBC title in the same year, Tyson lost the WBA title to Evander Holyfield by an eleventh round stoppage, their 1997 rematch ended. In 2002, Tyson fought for the world heavyweight title again at the age of 35, losing by knockout to Lennox Lewis. Tyson retired from professional boxing in 2006, after being knocked out in consecutive matches against Danny Williams and Kevin McBride. Tyson declared bankruptcy in 2003, despite having received over $30 million for several of his fights and $300 million during his career.
At the time the media reported that he had $23 million of debt. Tyson was known for his ferocious and intimidating boxing style as well as his controversial behavior inside and outside the ring. Nicknamed "Iron" and "Kid Dynamite" in his early career, known as "The Baddest Man on the Planet", Tyson is considered one of the best heavyweights of all time. Tyson holds the third longest unified championship reign in heavyweight history at eight consecutive defenses, he ranks No. 15 in BoxRec's ranking of the greatest heavyweight boxers in history. He was ranked No. 16 on The Ring's list of 100 greatest punchers of all time, No. 1 in the ESPN.com list of "The Hardest Hitters in Heavyweight History". Sky Sports described him as "perhaps the most ferocious fighter to step into a professional ring", he has been inducted into the World Boxing Hall of Fame. Michael Gerard Tyson was born in Brownsville, New York on June 30, 1966, he has an elder brother named Rodney and had an elder sister named Denise, who died of a heart attack at age 24 in February 1990.
Tyson's biological father is listed as "Purcell Tyson" on his birth certificate, but the man Tyson had known as his father was Jimmy Kirkpatrick. Kirkpatrick was from Grier Town, North Carolina, where he was one of the neighborhood's top baseball players. Kirkpatrick married and had a son, Tyson's half-brother Jimmie Lee Kirkpatrick, who would help to integrate Charlotte high school football in 1965. In 1959, Jimmy Kirkpatrick left his family and moved to Brooklyn, where he met Tyson's mother, Lorna Mae Tyson. Kirkpatrick frequented pool halls and hung out on the streets. "My father was just a regular street guy caught up in the street world," Tyson said. Kirkpatrick abandoned the Tyson family around the time Mike was born, leaving Tyson's mother to care for the children on her own. Kirkpatrick died in 1992; the family lived in Bedford-Stuyvesant until their financial burdens necessitated a move to Brownsville when Tyson was 10 years old. Tyson's mother died six years leaving 16-year-old Tyson in the care of boxing manager and trainer Cus D'Amato, who would become his legal guardian.
Tyson said, "I never saw my mother happy with me and proud of me for doing something: she only knew me as being a wild kid running the streets, coming home with new clothes that she knew I didn't pay for. I never got a chance to know about her. Professionally, it has no effect, but it's crushing and personally."Throughout his childhood, Tyson lived in and around neighborhoods with a high rate of crime. According to an interview in Details, his first fight was with a bigger youth who had pulled the head off one of Tyson's pigeons. Tyson was caught committing petty crimes and fighting those who ridiculed his high-pitched voice and lisp. By the age of 13, he had been arrested 38 times, he ended up at the Tryon School for Boys in New York. Tyson's emerging boxing ability was discovered there by Bobby Stewart, a juvenile detention center counselor and former boxer. Stewart considered Tyson to be an outstanding fighter and trained him for a few months before introducing him to Cus D'Amato. Tyson dropped out of high school as a junior.
He would be awarded an honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters from Central State University in 1989. Kevin Rooney trained Tyson, he was occasio
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson served as a Confederate general during the American Civil War, became one of the best-known Confederate commanders after General Robert E. Lee. Jackson played a prominent role in nearly all military engagements in the Eastern Theater of the war until his death, played a key role in winning many significant battles. Born in what was part of Virginia, Jackson received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point, served in the U. S. Army during the Mexican–American War of 1846–1848 and distinguished himself at Chapultepec. From 1851 to 1863 he taught at the Virginia Military Institute, where he was unpopular with his students. During this time, he married twice, his first wife died. When Virginia seceded from the Union in May 1861 after the attack on Fort Sumter, Jackson joined the Confederate Army, he distinguished himself commanding a brigade at the First Battle of Bull Run the following month, providing crucial reinforcements and beating back a fierce Union assault.
In this context Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. compared him to a "stone wall", hence his enduring nickname. Jackson performed well in the campaigns in the Shenandoah Valley during 1862. Despite an initial defeat due to faulty intelligence, through swift and careful maneuvers Jackson was able to defeat three separate Union armies and prevent any of them from reinforcing General George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac in its campaign against Richmond. Jackson quickly moved his three divisions to reinforce General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in defense of Richmond, his performance in the subsequent Seven Days Battles against George B. McClellan's Army of the Potomac was poor, but did not inhibit Confederate victory in the battles. During the Northern Virginia Campaign that summer, Jackson's troops captured and destroyed an important supply depot for General John Pope's Army of Virginia, withstood repeated assaults from Pope's troops at the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862. Jackson's troops played a prominent role in September's Maryland Campaign, capturing the town of Harpers Ferry, a strategic location, providing a defense of the Confederate Army's left at Antietam on September 17, 1862.
At Fredericksburg in December, Jackson's corps buckled but beat back an assault by the Union Army under Major General Ambrose Burnside. In late April and early May 1863, faced with a larger Union army now commanded by Joseph Hooker at Chancellorsville, Lee divided his force three ways. On May 2, Jackson took his 30,000 troops and launched a surprise attack against the Union right flank, driving the opposing troops back about two miles; that evening he was accidentally shot by Confederate pickets. The general lost his left arm to amputation. Military historians regard Jackson as one of the most gifted tactical commanders in U. S. history. His tactics are studied today, his death proved a severe setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects, but the morale of its army and the general public. After Jackson's death, his military exploits developed a legendary quality, becoming an important element of the ideology of the "Lost Cause". Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of Elizabeth Cummins.
John Jackson was an Irish Protestant from County Londonderry, Ireland. While living in London, England, he was convicted of the capital crime of larceny for stealing £170. Elizabeth, a strong, blonde woman over 6 feet tall, born in London, was convicted of felony larceny in an unrelated case for stealing 19 pieces of silver and fine lace, received a similar sentence, they both were transported on the merchant ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts. John and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their bond service, the couple married in July 1755; the family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia in 1758. In 1770, they moved farther west to the Tygart Valley, they began to acquire large parcels of virgin farming land near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres in Elizabeth's name. John and his two teenage sons, were early recruits for the American Revolutionary War, fighting in the Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780.
While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, "Jackson's Fort", for refugees from Indian attacks. John and Elizabeth had eight children, their second son was Edward Jackson, Edward's third son was Jonathan Jackson, Thomas's father. Jonathan's mother died on April 17, 1796. Three years on October 13, 1799, his father married Elizabeth Wetherholt, they had nine more children. Thomas Jackson was the third child of an attorney. Both of Jackson's parents were natives of Virginia; the family had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia, when Thomas was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather. There is some dispute about the actual location of Jackson's birth. A historical marker on the floodwall in
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing - used for affection. The term hypocoristic is used to refer to a nickname of affection between those in love or with a close emotional bond, compared with a term of endearment, it is a form of amusement. As a concept, it is distinct from both pseudonym and stage name, from a title, although there may be overlap in these concepts. "Moniker" means a nickname or personal name.. The compound word ekename meaning "additional name", was attested as early as 1303; this word was derived from the Old English phrase eaca "an increase", related to eacian "to increase". By the 15th century, the misdivision of the syllables of the phrase "an ekename" led to its rephrasing as "a nekename". Though the spelling has changed, the pronunciation and meaning of the word have remained stable since. To inform an audience or readership of a person's nickname without calling them by their nickname, English nicknames are represented in quotes between the bearer's first and last names.
However, it is common for the nickname to be identified after a comma following the full real name or in the body of the text, such as in an obituary. The middle name is eliminated in speech. Like English, German uses quotation marks between the last names. Other languages may use other conventions; the latter may cause confusion because it resembles an English convention sometimes used for married and maiden names. In Viking societies, many people had heiti, viðrnefni, or kenningarnöfn which were used in addition to, or instead of the first name. In some circumstances, the giving of a nickname had a special status in Viking society in that it created a relationship between the name maker and the recipient of the nickname, to the extent that the creation of a nickname often entailed a formal ceremony and an exchange of gifts known in Old Norse as nafnfestr. Slaves have used nicknames, so that the master who heard about someone doing something could not identify the slave. In capoeira, a Brazilian martial art, the slaves had nicknames to protect them from being caught, as practising capoeira was illegal for decades.
In Anglo-American culture, a nickname is based on a shortening of a person's proper name. However, in other societies, this may not be the case. For example: "my nickname is farmer Phil" In Indian society, for example people have at least one nickname and these affection names are not related to the person's proper name. Indian nicknames often are a trivial word or a diminutive. In Hispanic culture, a nickname is used for a term of endearment and family love, for example: "Papi", it is a colloquial term for “daddy” in Spanish, but in many Spanish-speaking cultures in the Caribbean, it is used as a general term of affection for any man, whether it's a relative, friend, or love. In Australian society, Australian men will give ironic nicknames. For example, a man with red hair will be given the nickname'Blue' or'Bluey'. A tall man will be called ` an obese person ` Slim' and so on. In England, some nicknames are traditionally associated with a person's surname. A man with the surname'Clark' will be nicknamed'Nobby': the surname'Miller' will have the nickname'Dusty': the surname'Adams' has the nickname'Nabby'.
There are several other nicknames linked traditionally with a person's surname, including Chalky White, Bunny Warren, Tug Wilson, Spud Baker. Other English nicknames allude to a person's origins. A Scotsman may be nicknamed'Jock', an Irishman'Paddy' or'Mick', a Welshman may be nicknamed'Taffy'; some nicknames referred to a person's physical characteristics, such as'Lofty' for a short person, or'Curly' for a bald man. Traditional English nicknaming - for men rather than women - was common through the first half of the 20th century, was used in the armed services during World War I and World War II, but has become less common since then. In Chinese culture, nicknames are used within a community among relatives and neighbors. A typical southern Chinese nickname begins with a "阿" followed by another character the last character of the person's given name. For example, Taiwanese politician Chen Shui-bian is sometimes referred as "阿扁". In many Chinese communities of Southeast Asia, nicknames may connote one's occupation or status.
For example, the landlord might be known as Towkay to his tenants or workers while a bread seller would be called "Mianbao Shu" 面包叔. Among Cantonese-speaking communities, the character "仔" may be used in a similar context of "Junior" in Western naming practices. Many writers, performing artists, actors have nicknames, which may
Germania was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited by Germanic peoples. It extended from the Danube and Main in the south to the Baltic Sea, from the Rhine in the west to the Vistula; the Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior to the north, Germania Superior to the south. Germania was inhabited by Germanic tribes, but Celts, Scythians and on Early Slavs; the population mix changed over time by assimilation, by migration. The ancient Greeks were the first to mention the tribes in the area. Julius Caesar wrote about warlike Germanic tribesmen and their threat to Roman Gaul, there were military clashes between the Romans and the indigenous tribes. Tacitus wrote the most complete account of Germania; the origin of the term "Germania" is uncertain, but was known by Caesar's time, may be Gaulish in origin. The ethnonym Germani is most Gallic in origin. Jacob Grimm derived it from a Celtic term for "shouting. Johann Kaspar Zeuss derived the name from the Celtic word for "neighbour".
Germani enters into Latin use following Julius Caesar. Caesar in De Bello Gallico reports hearing from his Remi allies that the term Germani was for a group that had come from across the Rhine, named Germani Cisrhenani. By extension, Germani was understood to include similar tribes still living beyond the Rhine. Tacitus, writing in AD 98, reports that the Tungri of his time, who lived in the area, home to the Germani Cisrhenani, had changed their name, but had once been the original Germani: For the rest, they affirm Germania to be a recent word bestowed. For those who first passed the Rhine and expulsed the Gauls, are now named Tungrians, were called Germani, and thus by degrees the name of a tribe prevailed, not that of the nation. Names of Germany in English and some other languages are derived from "Germania", but German speakers call it "Deutschland", Dutch speakers call it "Duitsland", both from *þeudō "people or nation". Several modern languages use the name "Germania", including Hebrew, Albanian, Maltese, Romanian, Russian and Georgian.
Germania extended from the Rhine eastward to the Vistula river, from the Danube and Main river northward to the Baltic Sea. The areas west of the Rhine were Celtic and became part of the Roman Empire in the first century BC; the Roman parts of Germania, "Lesser Germania" formed two provinces of the empire, Germania Inferior, "Lower Germania" and Germania Superior. Important cities in Lesser Germania included Besançon, Strasbourg and Mainz; the geography of Magna Germania was comprehensively described in Ptolemy's Geography of around 150 AD via geographical coordinates of the main cities. By means of a geodetic deformation analysis carried out by the Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformation Science at the Technical University of Berlin as part of a project of the German Research Association under the direction of Dieter Lelgemann in 2007–2010, many historical place names have been localized and associated with place names of the present day. Germania was inhabited by different tribes, most of them Germanic but some Celtic, proto-Slavic and Scythian peoples.
The tribal and ethnic makeup changed over the centuries as a result of assimilation and, most migrations. The Germanic people spoke several different dialects. Classical records show little about the people who inhabited the north of Europe before the 2nd century BC. In the 5th century BC, the Greeks were aware of a group. Herodotus mentioned the Scythians but no other tribes. At around 320 BC, Pytheas of Massalia sailed around Britain and along the northern coast of Europe, what he found on his journeys was so strange that writers refused to believe him, he may have been the first Mediterranean to distinguish the Germanic people from the Celts. Contact between German tribes and the Roman Empire did was not always hostile. Recent excavations of the Waldgirmes Forum show signs that a civilian Roman town was established there, interpreted to mean that Romans and Germanic tribesmen were living in peace, at least for a while. Caesar described the cultural differences between the Germanic tribesmen, the Romans, the Gauls in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, where he recalls his defeat of the Suebi tribes at the Battle of Vosges.
He describes them at length at the beginning of Book IV and the middle of Book VI. He states that the Gauls, although warlike, had a functional society and could be civilized, but that the Germanic tribesmen were far more savage and were a threat to Roman Gaul and Rome itself. Caesar said the Germanic tribes were nomadic, with a primitive culture, he used this as one of his justifications for. Hi
Caligae are heavy-soled hobnailed military sandal-boots known for being issued to Roman legionary soldiers and auxiliaries throughout the Roman Republic and Empire. Caligae were thick-soled openwork boots, with hobnailed soles. Caliga comes from the Latin callus meaning hard, as hobnails were hammered into hard leather soles before being sewn onto a softer leather lattice, they were worn by the lower ranks of Roman cavalrymen and foot-soldiers, by some centurions. A durable association of caligae with the common soldiery is evident in the latter's description as caligati. In the early first century AD, the soldiery affectionately nicknamed the two or three-year-old Gaius "Caligula", because he wore a diminutive soldier's outfit, complete with small caligae. Hobnailed caligae must have proved inconvenient on hard surfaces; the design of the caliga allowed for its adjustment, which would have helped reduce chafing. In warm, Mediterranean climates, this may have been an advantage. In northern Britain's cold, wet climate, additional woven socks or raw wool wadding in winter may have helped insulate the feet.
By the late 4th century, this seems to have applied throughout the Empire. The emperor Diocletian's Edict on Prices includes set prices for caligae with no hobnails, made for civilian men and children; the caliga's midsole and the openwork upper were cut from a single piece of high quality cow or ox-hide. An outsole was fastened to the mid-sole, using clinched hobnails of iron but bronze; the clinched hobnail ends were covered by an insole. Like all Roman footwear, the caliga was flat-soled, it was laced onto the top of the ankle. Isidore of Seville believed that the name "caliga" derived from the Latin callus, or else from the fact that the boot was laced or tied on. Strapwork styles varied from maker to region to region; the placement of hobnails is less variable. At least one provincial manufacturer of army caligae has been identified by name. Calceus Carbatina Soccus Solea http://www.legiotricesima.org/campusMartis/MakingCaligae/MakingAuthenticCaligae.html http://s2.hubimg.com/u/345765_f520.jpg
Tiberius was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus. Born to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla in a Claudian family, he was given the personal name Tiberius Claudius Nero, his mother divorced Nero and married Octavian—later to ascend to Emperor as Augustus—who became his stepfather. Tiberius would marry Augustus' daughter, Julia the Elder, later be adopted by Augustus. Through the adoption, he became a Julian, assuming the name Tiberius Julius Caesar; the emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years. His relationship to the other emperors of this dynasty was as follows: Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, great-grand uncle of Nero, his 22-and-a-half-year reign would be the longest after Augustus's until Antoninus Pius, who surpassed his reign by a few months. Tiberius was one of the greatest Roman generals. So, he came to be remembered as a dark and sombre ruler who never desired to be emperor.
After the death of his son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, Tiberius became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD he removed himself from Rome and left administration in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro; when Tiberius died, he was succeeded by Caligula. Tiberius was born in Rome on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Livia. In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus shortly thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius Nero's son. In 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born. Little is recorded of Tiberius' early life. In 32 BC Tiberius, at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his biological father at the rostra. In 29 BC, he rode in the triumphal chariot along with his adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. In 23 BC Emperor Augustus became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again.
Historians agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, while Augustus had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem. In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother Drusus. In 24 BC, at the age of seventeen, Tiberius entered politics under Augustus' direction, receiving the position of quaestor, was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law. Similar provisions were made for Drusus. Shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate, it is here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent East under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa; the Parthian Empire had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Decidius Saxa, Mark Antony. After a year of negotiation, Tiberius led a sizable force into Armenia with the goal of establishing it as a Roman client state and ending the threat it posed on the Roman-Parthian border.
Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, Armenia remained a neutral territory between the two powers. Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, he was appointed to the position of praetor, was sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis and along the German frontier, Tiberius combated the tribes in the Alps and within Transalpine Gaul, conquering Raetia. In 15 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube, soon afterwards the bend of the middle course. Returning to Rome in 13 BC, Tiberius was appointed as consul, around this same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar, was born. Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus’ request in 11 BC, Tiberius divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow. Tiberius was reluctant to do this, as Julia had made advances to him when she was married and Tiberius was married.
His new marriage with Julia turned sour. Tiberius once ran into Vipsania again, proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness. Tiberius continued to be elevated by Augustus, after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus' death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession; as such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Germania. In 6 BC, Tiberius launched a pincer movement against the Marcomanni. Setting out northwest from Carnuntum on the Danube with four legions, Tiberius passed through Quadi territory in order to invade Marcomanni territory from the east. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum on the Rhine with two or three legions, pass through newly annexed Hermundur