Norbrook is a United Kingdom-based pharmaceutical company. It was founded in 1969 by Lord Ballyedmond as Norbrook Laboratories Ltd in Northern Ireland, in 1970, Norbrook began manufacturing of veterinary pharmaceuticals. Closamectin – Closamectin is a drug developed by Norbrook for the treatment of fluke, worms. Carprieve – A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs, loxicom oral Suspension – A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of pain in cats and dogs. Loxicom Injectable – A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for the treatment of pain in cats and dogs, scour in cattle, musculo-skeletal and locomotary conditions in horses, noroclav Flunixin – A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in horses and swine in different parts of the world. Peptizole - First generic omeprazole for Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in the UK
Faccenda Group is a privately owned UK business established in 1962 by Robin Faccenda, which supplies fresh chicken products. It is the second-largest chicken processing company in the UK, capable of processing 2 million chickens per week, the group is owned by Hillesden Investments Ltd. In 2007-2008 the Faccenda Group had suffered a loss of £5 million, Robin Faccenda, Chairman of the Faccenda Group, has invested £300,000 in a new student centre at Harper Adams, which will bear his name when it opens in 2010. A further £200,000 will fund a programme of student financial support. In 2014, Robin Faccenda and his family were listed by Farmers Weekly as the richest within the UK poultry industry. The purchase of the loss making Webbs Country Foods in December 2000, required the closure of the most underinvested site at the Lymington, however,850 jobs were saved across the remaining 3 production facilities. As part of a major business consolidation exercise, Faccenda closed the factory in Sutton Benger, Wiltshire in 2008, with the loss of 450 jobs, in 2012 Faccenda bought Cranberry Foods, a turkey business.
In 2002, the company was fined £75,000 for polluting the River Avon from its Sutton Benger plant. It was fined a further £14,000 after 17-year-old Martin Major lost his little finger, in 2003, police arrested 20 Brazilians working illegally at the plant in 2003. The Environment Agency found in 2006 that the smell from the Brackley plant fell outside limits under the Pollution Prevention, in 2009, the company was fined £5000 under the Environmental Protection Act for incorrectly disposing of waste at Lyneham Farm, near Chippenham. The court heard that, in April 2008, a visit to the poultry unit by Environment Agency inspectors found that hazardous waste was being bought from other sites. A further inspection in October showed that the waste, including fluorescent light tubes, was still being stored, mixed with other waste. A case brought by Faccenda against a former manager, Faccenda Chicken v Fowler, is a key legal case in confidentiality
Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is any of various types of agriculture that involve higher levels of input and output per unit of agricultural land area. It is characterised by a low ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour. This is in contrast to agriculture in which the inputs per unit land are lower. The term intensive has various senses, some of which refer to organic farming methods and others of which refer to nonorganic, both increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to traditional animal husbandry. In CAFO, feed is brought to the animals, while in MIRG the animals are repeatedly moved to fresh forage. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways, forms that rely especially heavily on industrial methods are often called industrial agriculture, which is characterised by innovations designed to increase yield. Techniques include planting multiple crops per year, reducing the frequency of fallow years, intensive farms are widespread in developed nations and increasingly prevalent worldwide.
Most of the meat, eggs and vegetables available in supermarkets are produced by such farms, smaller intensive farms usually include higher inputs of labor and more often use sustainable intensive methods. The farming practices commonly found on farms are referred to as appropriate technology. These farms are widespread in both developed countries and worldwide, but are growing more rapidly. Most of the food available in specialty markets such as farmers markets is produced by these smallholder farms, agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. This in turn supported unprecedented population growth, freeing up a significant percentage of the workforce, historians cited enclosure, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding as the most important innovations. Industrial agriculture arose along with the Industrial Revolution, by the early 19th century, agricultural techniques, seed stocks and cultivars had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages.
The industrialization phase involved a process of mechanization. Horse-drawn machinery such as the McCormick reaper revolutionized harvesting, while inventions such as the cotton gin reduced the cost of processing, during this same period, farmers began to use steam-powered threshers and tractors, although they were expensive and dangerous. Mechanical harvesters, planters and other equipment were developed and these inventions increased yields and allowed individual farmers to manage increasingly large farms. The identification of nitrogen and phosphorus as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of synthetic fertilizers, in 1909 the Haber-Bosch method to synthesize ammonium nitrate was first demonstrated. Farmers adopting this approach were initially referred to as humus farmers, chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to synthetic pesticides
The sheep is a quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, a male as a ram or occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether. Sheep are most likely descended from the wild mouflon of Europe, one of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleece and milk. A sheeps wool is the most widely used animal fiber, and is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones, Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, and are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science. Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, in the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, and the British Isles are most closely associated with sheep production.
Sheepraising has a lexicon of unique terms which vary considerably by region. Use of the sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a flock, herd or mob, many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist, generally related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a deeply entrenched place in human culture, as livestock, sheep are most often associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions, in both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals. Domestic sheep are relatively small ruminants, usually with a crimped hair called wool, domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only.
Most horned breeds have a pair, but a few breeds may have several. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their variation in color. Wild sheep are largely variations of brown hues, and variation within species is extremely limited, colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, and even spotted or piebald
The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats. The wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop. Genetic evidence shows the forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Domesticated oats appear relatively late, and far from the Near East, like rye, are usually considered a secondary crop, i. e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates wheat and barley. As these cereals spread westwards into cooler, wetter areas, this may have favored the oat weed component, oats are best grown in temperate regions. Oats are a plant, and can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. Oats have numerous uses in foods, most commonly, they are rolled or crushed into oatmeal, oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli, historical attitudes towards oats have varied.
Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899, in Scotland, they were, and still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off and eaten. Oats are used there as a thickener in soups. Oats are used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to easily digest the grain. They may be given alone or as part of a food pellet. Cattle are fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a mill, burr mill. Winter oats may be grown as a groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer. They can be used for pasture, they can be grazed a while, allowed to head out for grain production, Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft, relatively dust-free, and absorbent nature
Bernard Matthews Ltd
Founded by Bernard Matthews in 1950, it has 56 farms throughout Norfolk and Lincolnshire farming nearly 7 million turkeys each year. It has production operations in Germany and Hungary. The company breeds and rears both indoor and free range turkeys on its farms, and is an agricultural business. 1950 – Company founded by Bernard Matthews from his home with his wife, twenty turkey eggs,1955 – Headquarters were moved to its present location, Great Witchingham Hall near Norwich. 1960 – Bernard Matthews entered the Guinness Book of Records as the biggest turkey farmer in Europe,1971 – The company was publicly listed. 1980 – The company launched its first TV commercial featuring Turkey Breast Roast,2000 – Bernard Matthews successfully fought off a take-over bid from US food giant Sara Lee. 2001 – The company was back by the Matthews family. 2006 – Two contract workers were convicted of cruelty for playing baseball with live turkeys. 2007 – The companys farm in Holton suffers an outbreak of the H5N1 strain of avian influenza,2007 – The companys factory B plant closes and staff moved to A plant causing many to leave or be relocated at its parent plant up the road.
2008 – In July, the company re-branded from Bernard Matthews Foods to Bernard Matthews Farms,2010 – In January, Bernard Matthews resigned from the post of Chairman, coinciding with his 80th Birthday. 2010 – In April, Bernard Matthews began a new advertising campaign,2010 –25 November, the founder, Bernard Matthews, dies. 2013 – September, business is bought out by turnaround experts, Bernard Matthews has three main operating companies, the United Kingdom-based Bernard Matthews Limited, the Germany-based Bernard Matthews Oldenburg, and the Hungary-based SáGa Foods. Bernard Matthews Limited is based in the East of England and produces a range of fresh, cooked and it employs around 2,200 staff and farms around 7 million turkeys per annum. It has 56 turkey farms and two sites located in Norfolk and Suffolk. Bernard Matthews Limited is Assured Food Standards accredited and its production sites have ISO14001 accreditation, jeff Halliwell has been Managing Director of Bernard Matthews Limited since June 2009.
Bernard Matthews Oldenburg is based in the north of Germany and employs around 130 staff and it produces a range of fresh and frozen poultry products which it sells across Germany and northern Europe. SáGa Foods is based in northwest Hungary and employs around 800 staff and it produces a range of poultry products which it sells across Central Europe. Bernard Matthews produces products which are made with meat sourced from partners in South America
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and most of the important technological innovations were British, aided by these legal and cultural foundations, an entrepreneurial spirit and consumer revolution drove industrialisation in Britain, which would be emulated in countries around the world. A change in marrying patterns to getting married made able to accumulate more human capital during their youth. The Industrial Revolution marks a turning point in history, almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth, mechanised textile production spread from Great Britain to continental Europe in the early 19th century, with important centres of textiles and coal emerging in Belgium, and in France. Since industrialisation has spread throughout much of the world, the precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes.
Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants. The term Industrial Revolution applied to change was becoming more common by the late 1830s. Friedrich Engels in The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844 spoke of an industrial revolution, although Engels wrote in the 1840s, his book was not translated into English until the late 1800s, and his expression did not enter everyday language until then. Credit for popularising the term may be given to Arnold Toynbee, some historians, such as John Clapham and Nicholas Crafts, have argued that the economic and social changes occurred gradually and the term revolution is a misnomer. This is still a subject of debate among some historians, the commencement of the Industrial Revolution is closely linked to a small number of innovations, beginning in the second half of the 18th century. By the 1830s the following gains had been made in important technologies, Textiles – mechanised cotton spinning powered by steam or water greatly increased the output of a worker, the power loom increased the output of a worker by a factor of over 40.
The cotton gin increased productivity of removing seed from cotton by a factor of 50, large gains in productivity occurred in spinning and weaving of wool and linen, but they were not as great as in cotton. Steam power – the efficiency of steam engines increased so that they used between one-fifth and one-tenth as much fuel, the adaptation of stationary steam engines to rotary motion made them suitable for industrial uses. The high pressure engine had a power to weight ratio. Steam power underwent an expansion after 1800. Iron making – the substitution of coke for charcoal greatly lowered the fuel cost for pig iron, using coke allowed larger blast furnaces, resulting in economies of scale. The cast iron blowing cylinder was first used in 1760 and it was improved by making it double acting, which allowed higher furnace temperatures
Dairy Crest Group plc is a leading British dairy products company. Its brands include Cathedral City Cheddar cheese, Country Life butter, Utterly Butterly, Vitalite and it is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE250 Index. Until December 2015, the used to process and sell milk - in wholesale and via doorstep deliveries -. These were sold to Germanys Müller for £80 million, Dairy Crest was established in 1981 as the milk processing arm of the Milk Marketing Board. In 1983 the company launched Clover, its dairy spread, in 1995 it bought the Cathedral City brand of cheese from Mendip Foods Ltd. The business was privatised in August 1996 and Dairy Crest was listed on the London Stock Exchange. In July 2000 it acquired the dairy and cheese products division of Unigate in London, in September 2004 it went on to acquire the Country Life butter brand from the English Butter Marketing Company. In July 2006 it acquired Express Dairies from Arla Foods for £33m, in October 2006, it sold the majority of its own label cheese business to First Milk, its Scottish equivalent, along with the creameries and factory that produce most of the products concerned.
On 6 November 2014, Dairy Crest announced a big slump in profits, the sale was approved by the Competition and Markets Authority on 19 October 2015, and the sale was completed on 26 December 2015. The sale included the Frijj brand, and four dairies, the company supplies cheese and drinks. Cheese brands include Cathedral City, Davidstow Cheddar and Wexford, spread brands include Clover, Country Life, St. Hubert, Utterly Butterly and Willow. Drink brands include Country Life Milk, spread production is consolidated at Kirkby
Rare Breeds Survival Trust
The Rare Breeds Survival Trust is a conservation charity whose purpose is to secure the continued existence and viability of the native farm animal genetic resources of the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1973 by Joe Henson to preserve native breeds, since and it maintains a watch list of rare native breeds of cattle, pigs, horses and poultry, and an approved list of farm parks. Projects have included the collection of material to ensure the future of rare breeds in a farm animal gene bank. This project received publicity in the wake of the foot-and-mouth disease crisis in the UK and was supported by the Prince of Wales, RBST supports the marketing of meat from rare breeds through the Traditional Breeds Meat Marketing Company, founded in 2003. Rare Breeds Survival Trust, registered charity no.269442
British Agricultural Revolution
The British Agricultural Revolution was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the century to 1770, historians continue to dispute when exactly such a revolution took place and of what it consisted. Rather than an event, G. E. This has led more recent historians to argue that any statements about the Agricultural Revolution are difficult to sustain. One important change in farming methods was the move in rotation to turnips. Turnips can be grown in winter and are rooted, allowing them to gather minerals unavailable to shallow rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser and this permitted the intensive arable cultivation of light soils on enclosed farms and provided fodder to support increased livestock numbers whose manure added further to soil fertility. The British Agricultural Revolution was the result of the interaction of social, economic.
Major developments and innovations include, Norfolk four-course crop rotation, Fodder crops, particularly turnips and clover, the Dutch improved the Chinese plough so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses. Rotation can improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants, turnip roots, for example, can recover nutrients from deep under the soil. The Norfolk System, as it is now known, rotates crops so that different crops are planted with the result that different kinds, an important feature of the Norfolk four-field system was that it used labor at times when demand was not at peak levels. Planting cover crops such as turnips and clover was not permitted under the field system because they interfered with access to the fields. Besides, other livestock could graze the turnips. Normally from 10–30% of the land in a three crop rotation system is fallow. Each field was rotated into a different crop nearly every year, over the following two centuries, the regular planting of legumes such as peas and beans in the fields that were previously fallow slowly restored the fertility of some croplands.
The planting of legumes helped to plant growth in the empty field due to the bacteria on legume roots ability to fix nitrogen from the air into the soil in a form that plants could use. Other crops that were grown were flax and members of the mustard family. Convertible husbandry was the alternation of a field between pasture and grain, because nitrogen builds up slowly over time in pasture, ploughing up pasture and planting grains resulted in high yields for a few years
Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago, Barley has been used as animal fodder, as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures, Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation. In 2014, barley was ranked fourth among grains in quantity produced behind corn, the Old English word for barley was bære, which traces back to Proto-Indo-European and is cognate to the Latin word farina flour. The direct ancestor of modern English barley in Old English was the derived adjective bærlic, the first citation of the form bærlic in the Oxford English Dictionary dates to around 966 CE, in the compound word bærlic-croft. The underived word bære survives in the north of Scotland as bere, the word barn, which originally meant barley-house, is rooted in these words.
Barley is a member of the grass family and it is a self-pollinating, diploid species with 14 chromosomes. The wild ancestor of domesticated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp, spontaneum, is abundant in grasslands and woodlands throughout the Fertile Crescent area of Western Asia and northeast Africa, and is abundant in disturbed habitats and orchards. Outside this region, the barley is less common and is usually found in disturbed habitats. However, in a study of genome-wide diversity markers, Tibet was found to be a center of domestication of cultivated barley. Wild barley has a spike, upon maturity, the spikelets separate. Domesticated barley has nonshattering spikes, making it easier to harvest the mature ears. The nonshattering condition is caused by a mutation in one of two linked genes known as Bt1 and Bt2, many cultivars possess both mutations. The nonshattering condition is recessive, so varieties of barley that exhibit this condition are homozygous for the mutant allele, spikelets are arranged in triplets which alternate along the rachis.
In wild barley, only the central spikelet is fertile, while the two are reduced. This condition is retained in certain cultivars known as two-row barleys, a pair of mutations result in fertile lateral spikelets to produce six-row barleys. Recent genetic studies have revealed that a mutation in one gene, two-row barley has a lower protein content than six-row barley, thus a more fermentable sugar content. High-protein barley is best suited for animal feed, Malting barley is usually lower protein which shows more uniform germination, needs shorter steeping, and has less protein in the extract that can make beer cloudy
Economy of the United Kingdom
It is the second-largest economy in the European Union by both metrics. The UK is one of the strongest EU countries in regards to GDP growth, job creation and it is one of the most globalised economies, and is composed of the economies of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Britains aerospace industry is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry depending on the method of measurement and its pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the economy and the UK has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical research and development. Of the worlds 500 largest companies,26 are headquartered in the UK, the British economy is boosted by North Sea oil and gas production, its reserves were estimated at 2.9 billion barrels in 2015, although it has been a net importer of oil since 2005. There are significant regional variations in prosperity, with South East England, the size of Londons economy makes it the largest city by GDP in Europe. In the 18th century the UK was the first country to industrialise, from the late 19th century the Second Industrial Revolution was taking place rapidly in the United States and the German Empire, this presented an increasing economic challenge for the UK.
The costs of fighting World War I and World War II further weakened the UKs relative position, in the 21st century, however, it remains a great power and has an influential role in the world economy. Since 1979 management of the economy has followed a broadly laissez-faire approach, the Bank of England is the UKs central bank and its Monetary Policy Committee is responsible for setting interest rates, quantitative easing, and forward guidance. 5% until the early 1970s. According to the OECD, the rate of growth between 1960 and 1973 averaged 2. 9%, although this figure was far behind the rates of other European countries such as France, West Germany. Deindustrialization meant the closure of operations in mining, heavy industry and manufacturing. A certain amount of turnover had always taken place, with older businesses shutting down, the post-1973 scene was different, with a worldwide energy crisis, and a dramatic influx of low-cost manufactured goods from Asia. Coal mining quickly collapsed, and practically disappeared in the 21st century, the consumption of coal--mostly for electricity--plunged from 157 million tonnes in 1970 to 37 million tonnes in 2015, nearly all of it imported.
Employment in the mines fell from a peak of 1,191,000 in 1920 to 695,000 in 1956,247,000 in 1976,44,000 in 1993. The railways were decrepit, more textile mills closed than opened, steel employment fell sharply, popular responses varied a great deal. Tim Strangleman et al. found a range of responses from the affected workers, some nostalgically invoked a glorious industrial past or the bygone British Empire to cope with their newfound personal economic insecurity. Others looked to the EU for help, some turned to exclusionary Englishness as the solution to current grievances. By the 21st century, grievances accumulated enough to have a political impact, the United Kingdom Independence Party, based in white working-class towns, gained increasing share of the vote while warning against the dangers of immigration. The political reverberations came to a head in the vote in favor of Brexit in 2016