Argos is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It is a major center for the area. Since the 2011 local government reform it has been part of the municipality of Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit; the municipal unit has an area of 138.138 km2. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, its historic harbour. A settlement of great antiquity, Argos has been continuously inhabited as at least a substantial village for the past 7,000 years; the city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. A resident of the city of Argos is known as an Argive. However, this term is used to refer to those ancient Greeks who assaulted the city of Troy during the Trojan War. Numerous ancient monuments can be found in the city today. Agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy; the name of the city is ancient and several etymological theories have been proposed as an explanation to its meaning. The most popular one maintains that the name of the city is a remainder from the Pelasgian language, i.e. the one used by the people who first settled in the area, in which Argos meant "plain".
Alternatively, the name is associated with Argos, the third king of the city in ancient times, who renamed it after himself, thus replacing its older name Phoronikon Astu. It is believed that "Argos" is linked to the word "αργός", which meant "white". According to Strabo, the name could have originated from the word "αγρός" by antimetathesis of the consonants. Argos is traditionally considered to be the origins of the ancient Macedonian royal Greek house of the Argead dynasty; the most celebrated members were Philip II of Alexander the Great. As a strategic location on the fertile plain of Argolis, Argos was a major stronghold during the Mycenaean era. In classical times Argos was a powerful rival of Sparta for dominance over the Peloponnese, but was shunned by other Greek city-states after remaining neutral during the Greco-Persian Wars. There is evidence of continuous settlement in the area starting with a village about 7000 years ago in the late Neolithic, located on the foot of Aspida hill.
Since that time, Argos has been continually inhabited at the same geographical location. Its creation is attributed to Phoroneus, with its first name having been Phoronicon Asty, or the city of Phoroneus; the historical presence of the Pelasgian Greeks in the area can be witnessed in the linguistic remainders that survive up to today, such as the name of the city and "Larisa", the name of the city's castle located on the hill of the name. The city is located at a rather propitious area, among Nemea and Arcadia, it benefitted from its proximity to lake Lerna, which, at the time, was at a distance of one kilometre from the south end of Argos. Argos was a major stronghold of Mycenaean times, along with the neighbouring acropolis of Mycenae and Tiryns became a early settlement because of its commanding positions in the midst of the fertile plain of Argolis. Argos experienced its greatest period of expansion and power under the energetic 7th century BC ruler King Pheidon. Under Pheidon, Argos regained sway over the cities of the Argolid and challenged Sparta’s dominance of the Peloponnese.
Spartan dominance is thought to have been interrupted following the Battle of Hyssiae in 669-668 BC, in which Argive troops defeated the Spartans in a hoplite battle. During this time of its greatest power, the city boasted a pottery and bronze sculpturing school, pottery workshops and clothes producers. Moreover, at least 25 celebrations took place in the city, in addition to a regular local products exhibition. A sanctuary dedicated to Hera was found at the same spot where the monastery of Panagia Katekrymeni is located today. Pheidon extended Argive influence throughout Greece, taking control of the Olympic Games away from the citizens of Elis and appointing himself organizer during his reign. Pheidon is thought to have introduced reforms for standard weight and measures in Argos, a theory further reinforced with the unearthing of six "spits" of iron in an Argive Heraion remainders of a dedication from Pheidon. Argos remained neutral or the ineffective ally of Athens during the 5th century BC struggles between Sparta and Athens.
This, led to its weakening and loss of power, which in turn led to the shift of commercial focus from the Ancient Agora to the eastern side of the city, delimited by Danaou and Agiou Konstadinou streets. Argos played a minor role in the Corinthian Wars against Sparta, for a short period of time considered uniting with Corinth to form an expanded Argolid state. However, this plan never came to fruition, Argos continued to remain a minor power in Greek affairs. Argos was a democracy for most of the classical period, with only a brief hiatus between 418 and 416. Democracy was first established after a disastrous defeat by the Spartans at the Battle of Sepeia in 494. So many Argives were killed in the battle that a revolution ensued, in which disenfranchised outsiders were included in the state for the first time. Argive democracy included an Assembly, a Council, another body called'The Eighty,' whose precise responsibilities are obscure. Magistrates served six-month terms of office, with few exceptions, were audited at the end of their terms.
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Greece is one of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world and among the first wine-producing territories in Europe. The earliest evidence of Greek wine has been dated to 6,500 years ago where wine was produced on a household or communal basis. In ancient times, as trade in wine became extensive, it was transported from end to end of the Mediterranean. In the medieval period, wines exported from Crete and other Greek ports fetched high prices in northern Europe; the origins of wine-making in Greece go back 6,500 years and evidence suggesting wine production confirm that Greece is home to the second oldest known grape wine remnants discovered in the world and the world’s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. The spread of Greek civilization and their worship of Dionysus, the god of wine, spread Dionysian cults throughout the Mediterranean areas during the period of 1600 BC to the year 1. Hippocrates used wine for medicinal purposes and prescribed it. Greek wines and their varieties were well traded throughout the Mediterranean.
The Ancient Greeks introduced vines such as Vitis vinifera and made wine in their numerous colonies in Italy, southern France, Spain. The Vitis vinifera grape which thrives in temperate climates near coastal areas with mild winters and dry summers adapted well and flourished in the Northern Mediterranean areas; the most reputable wines of ancient Greece were Chian, Corcyraean, Euboean, Leucadian, Peparethan wine and Thasian. Wine was important for ancient Macedonia. Two other names may or may not be regional: Bibline wine and Pramnian wine are named in the earliest Greek poetry, but without any reliable geographical details. In 1937, a Wine Institute was established by the Ministry of Agriculture. During the 1960s, retsina became the national beverage. With growing tourism, retsina became associated worldwide with Greece and Greek wine. Greece’s first Cabernet Sauvignon vineyard was planted in 1963. In 1971 and 1972, legislation established appellation laws. A system of appellations was implemented to assure consumers the origins of their wine purchases.
The appellation system categorizes wines as: Protected Geographical Origins, i.e. an Appellation of Origin of Superior Quality Protected Geographical Identification, i.e. a Quality wines of Origin Epitrapezios Oinos, i.e. a Vin de table Not certified wine in a region of greece Epitrapezios Oinos, regular table wine which comes in screw-top containers Cava, more prestigious, aged "reserve" blends Retsina, a traditional wine, flavored with pine resinThe main wine growing regions - so called appellations of Greece are: Lemnos Paros Rhodes Samos Santorini Archanes Dafnes Peza Sitia Zitsa Kefalonia Corfu zakynthos Lefkada Amynteo Epanomi Goumenissa Naoussa Mantineia Nemea Monemvassia-Malvasia Patras Nea Anchialos Rapsani Messenikola Red Wine Agiorgitiko is a variety native to Nemea that grows in the Peloponnese area, producing a soft, fruity red in many styles. Its sensory attributes are similar to Beaujolais Nouveau but, unlike its French counterpart, the St. George ages well for about 5 years.
Kotsifali is a variety grown on Crete. It is blended with Syrah to enhance its color. Limnio, or Kalambaki is an important red grape variety, indigenous to the Aegean island of Lemnos and has been used in red wine production for more than 2000 years; as a varietal wine Limnio is full-bodied, high in alcohol and herbaceous, with a distinctive taste of bay leaves. Mandilaria known as amorgiano, is cultivated on the islands of Rhodes and Crete. Wine from this grape is very tannic and blended with other grapes to soften the mouthfeel. Mavrodaphne, or "black laurel", is a variety that grows in the Ionian Islands, it is blended with the Black Corinth currant grape to produce a prized fortified dessert wine made in the Solera style. Negoska is found in Northern Greece and produces rose and red wines of carbonic maceration worth mentioning, with the expected aromas. Blended into the PDO Goumenissa wine. Romeiko is a red grape found on Crete, most prominently in the region of Chania. Vertzami is a thick, dark-skinned grape variety, best known for single-varietal wines produced on the Ionian island of Lefkada.
It is grown in central Greece and Peloponnese, where it is blended with other Greek wines, Cyprus, where it is known as "Lefkas". Xinomavro is the predominant grape variety in Macedonia, centered on the town of Naousa; this variety has great aging potential with a palate reminiscent of tomatoes and olives, a rich tannic character. It is compared to Nebbiolo. White Wine Assyrtiko is a multi-purpose variety, it is similar in character to Riesling, is island-based, being a native variety of the island of Santorini, whose old vines have been resistant to Phylloxera. Athiri is one of the most ancient. From Santorini, it is now planted in Macedonia and Rhodes. Debina is a white Greek wine grape in the Zitsa region of Epirus; the grape's high acidity lends itself to sparkling wine production. Lagorthi is a variety cultivated on high slopes in the Peloponnese; the grape produces a malic and fruity wine. Malagousia is a grape growing in Macedonia, with a special aroma leading to elegant full bodied wines, with medium-plus acidity and exciting perfumed aromas.
Moschofilero is a Blanc de gris variety from the AOC region of
Greek government-debt crisis
The Greek government-debt crisis is the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08. Known in the country as The Crisis, it reached the populace as a series of sudden reforms and austerity measures that led to impoverishment and loss of income and property, as well as a small-scale humanitarian crisis. In all, the Greek economy suffered the longest recession of any advanced capitalist economy to date, overtaking the US Great Depression; as a result, the Greek political system has been upended, social exclusion increased, hundreds of thousands of well-educated Greeks have left the country. The Greek crisis started in late 2009, triggered by the turmoil of the world-wide Great Recession, structural weaknesses in the Greek economy, lack of monetary policy flexibility as a member of the Eurozone,and revelations that previous data on government debt levels and deficits had been underreported by the Greek government; this led to a crisis of confidence, indicated by a widening of bond yield spreads and rising cost of risk insurance on credit default swaps compared to the other Eurozone countries Germany.
The government enacted 12 rounds of tax increases, spending cuts, reforms from 2010 to 2016, which at times triggered local riots and nationwide protests. Despite these efforts, the country required bailout loans in 2010, 2012, 2015 from the International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank, negotiated a 50% "haircut" on debt owed to private banks in 2011, which amounted to a €100bn debt relief. After a popular referendum which rejected further austerity measures required for the third bailout, after closure of banks across the country, on June 30, 2015, Greece became the first developed country to fail to make an IMF loan repayment on time. At that time, debt levels had reached some € 30,000 per capita. Between 2009 and 2017 the Greek government debt rose from €300 bn to €318 bn, i.e. by only about 6%. Greece, like other European nations, had faced debt crises in the 19th century, as well as a similar crisis in 1932 during the Great Depression. In general, during the 20th century it enjoyed one of the highest GDP growth rates in the world.
Average Greek government debt-to-GDP for the entire century before the crisis was lower than that for the UK, Canada or France, while for the 30-year period until its entrance into the European Economic Community, the Greek government debt-to-GDP ratio averaged only 19.8%. Between 1981 and 1993 it rose, surpassing the average of what is today the Eurozone in the mid-1980s. For the next 15 years, from 1993 to 2007, Greece's government debt-to-GDP ratio remained unchanged, averaging 102% – a value lower than that for Italy and Belgium during the same 15-year period, comparable to that for the U. S. or the OECD average in 2017. During the latter period, the country's annual budget deficit exceeded 3% of GDP, but its effect on the debt-to GDP ratio was counterbalanced by high GDP growth rates; the debt-to GDP values for 2006 and 2007 were established after audits resulted in corrections according to Eurostat methodology, of up to 10 percentage points for the particular years. These corrections, although altering the debt level by a maximum of about 10%, resulted in a popular notion that "Greece was hiding its debt".
The 2001 introduction of the euro reduced trade costs between Eurozone countries, increasing overall trade volume. Labour costs increased more in peripheral countries such as Greece relative to core countries such as Germany without compensating rise in productivity, eroding Greece's competitive edge; as a result, Greece's current account deficit rose significantly. A trade deficit means that a country is consuming more than it produces, which requires borrowing/direct investment from other countries. Both the Greek trade deficit and budget deficit rose from below 5% of GDP in 1999 to peak around 15% of GDP in the 2008–2009 periods. One driver of the investment inflow was Greece's membership in the Eurozone. Greece was perceived as a higher credit risk alone than it was as a member of the Eurozone, which implied that investors felt the EU would bring discipline to its finances and support Greece in the event of problems; as the Great Recession spread to Europe, the amount of funds lent from the European core countries to the peripheral countries such as Greece began to decline.
Reports in 2009 of Greek fiscal mismanagement and deception increased borrowing costs. A country facing
The Kalamata olive is a large black or brown olive with a smooth, meaty texture named after the city of Kalamata in the southern Peloponnese, Greece. Used as table olives, they are preserved in wine vinegar or olive oil. Kalamata olives in the European Union are protected with PDO status. Olives of the same variety grown elsewhere are marketed as Kalamon olives. Kalamata olives are grown in Kalamata in Messinia and in nearby Laconia, both located on the Peloponnese peninsula, they are almond-shaped, dark purple olives from a tree distinguished from the common olive by the size of its leaves, which grow to twice the size of other olive varieties. The trees are intolerant of cold and are susceptible to Verticillium wilt but are resistant to olive knot and to the olive fruit fly. Kalamata olives, which can not be harvested green, must be hand-picked. Aetonychalea:, Aetonychi:, Aetonycholia:, Calamata (Agrínio, Aitolokón, Iznik, Kalámai, Messíni, Pelopónnisos, Spárti, Western Cape, California, Calamon: California, Kalámai, Kríti, Lamia, Messíni, Pátrai, Pelopónnisos, Tunisie, Western Australia, Chondrolia: Kalámai, Messíni, Pátrai, Kalamata Jumbo and Kalamata Tiny, Western Australia, Kalamataiani: Pelopónnisos, Kalamon: Greece, Cyprus, Kríti, Pelopónnisos and South Africa, Nychati: Kalámai and Pelopónnisos, Nychati di Kalamata: Aitolokón, Kalámai, Lakonia, Tsigeli:, Karamursel Su Kalamata: Bursa, Gebze, Gölcük, Karamürsel, the Marmara region, the variety of Su Zeytini of Turkey.
There are two methods of preparing Kalamata olives, known as the short methods. The short method debitters the olives by packing them in water or weak brine, changed daily, for around a week. Once complete, they are packed in brine and wine vinegar with a layer of olive oil and slices of lemon on top; the olives are slit to decrease the processing time. The long method involves slitting the olives, placing them in strong brine for up to three months in order to debitter them. Levels of polyphenol remain in the olives after processing, giving them their bitter taste