The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after British scientist James Smithson. Organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967. Termed "the nation's attic" for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items, the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, zoo include historical and architectural landmarks located in the District of Columbia. Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Massachusetts, New York City, Texas and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, Panama are Smithsonian Affiliates; the Institution's thirty million annual visitors are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with two-thirds coming from annual federal appropriations. Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment and corporate contributions, membership dues, earned retail and licensing revenue.
Institution publications include Air & Space magazines. The British scientist James Smithson left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford; when Hungerford died childless in 1835, the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will. Congress accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836; the American diplomat Richard Rush was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns. Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge." The money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas, which soon defaulted.
After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning. On August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian. Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research, it became the depository for various Washington and U. S. government collections. The United States Exploring Expedition by the U. S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842; the voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.
These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections, as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens. In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; the Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club. The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U. S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba. Construction began on the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr. its interiors were completed by general contractor Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855; the Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income.
It did, the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs of the United States Army Corps of Engineers, it opened in 1881. The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals; the park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The National Museum of Natural History opened in June 1911 to accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, housed in the Castle and the Arts and Industries Building; this structure was designed by the D. C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall. When Detroit philanthropist Charles Lang Freer donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it, it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual; the gallery opened in 1923. More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology, opened in 1964.
It was designed by the world-renowned firm of Mead & White. The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia neighborhood of
Kapitaï and Koba
Kapitaï and Koba were two areas on the coast of West Africa which were the object of German colonial initiatives in 1884 and 1885. They lay between the Dubréka rivers, south of Senegal and Gambia in modern Guinea; the short-lived German colony there was known as Colinsland. The Stuttgart businessman Friedrich Colin had been trading in West Africa since 1870 on behalf a French company. In 1882, France claimed the region as part of its Rivières du Sud territory, although it did not act to obtain effective control; as a result of this claim Colin broke away from his French partners and set up his own concern, although the Deutscher Kolonialverein declined to give him any support. In 1883 and 1884, with the support of his brother Ludwig, a director of the Württembergische Vereinsbank in Stuttgart, Colin established trading posts of his own in the unclaimed areas of Baga und Sousou and along the Dubreka river, including one at Bramaia, signed agreements with the local rulers. In the same region there were a French trading post and a British one, with German employees.
At a meeting of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck with businessmen trading in Africa on April 28, 1884, Colin first called on the government to protect his possessions by annexing territory in Rivières du Sud. On 9 March 1885, together with partners from Hamburg, Colin founded the firm Fr. Colin, Deutsch-Afrikanisches Geschäft in Frankfurt am Main, to explore and develop trade with West Africa and in particular to reach the source of the Niger in the Fouta Djallon mountains; the founding capital was 600,000 marks of which 420,000 marks was directly subscribed in Frankfurt, with shares at a face value of 10,000 marks. Colin’s trading posts in Africa were brought under the new company. Through his brother, Colin was able to bring on board as partners and sponsors Prince Hermann zu Hohenlohe-Langenburg, Count Friedrich von Frankenberg und Ludwigsdorf, Freiherr Karl von Varnbüler, the bankers Albert Andreae de Neufville and Julius Stern, as well as businessmen Adolf von Brüning, Gustav Godeffroy, Leopold Schoeller and Gustav Siegle.
These names assured him of the goodwill of the Foreign Office. The land Colin was claiming consisted of five petty kingdoms Kapitaï, Bramaia, Dubréka and Sumbuja, of which only the first two were to come under Imperial protection; the hilly and wooded Kapitaï lay between the Dembiah and Dubréka rivers around 400–500 metres above sea level. And covered around 1,650km² in today’s Dubréka Prefecture; the main town was Iatia. The smaller kingdom of Koba lay to the North on a plain between the Dembiah and Pongo Rivers, covering some 660km² in modern Boffa Prefecture, with its main town at Taboria. At the time Koba was rich in palm, kola and other trees. Kapitaï had rubber trees but was more noted for its iron ore, on account of which its local name translated as "land of the smiths". Both were suitable for the establishment of cotton plantations. Together, Kapitaï and Koba had around 30-40,000 inhabitants. Kapitaï comprise around 48 villages, Koba 45. Overseas trade was conducted by barter, exchanging rubber and copal for cotton cloth, liquor and flintlocks.
To the south, the kingdom of Sumbuja in the modern Coyah Prefecture, with its centre at Wonkifong, had been thrown into disorder in 1884 following the death of its ruler. Colin’s local agents Louis Baur, Eduard Schmidt and Johannes Voss signed an agreement with one of the pretenders to the throne, Mory Fode, on 11 July 1884, on 13 July signed another with Alkali Bangali, ruler of Kapitaï. After signing an identical agreement with Allie Te Uri of Koba on 10 October 1884, Colin proposed in a letter to Bismarck on 12 October that the German Empire should assume the status of protector of these territories. King Bala Demba of Dubréka, father of the king of Kapitaï sent a letter, forwarded to Berlin by Colin, in which he asked Kaiser Wilhelm I to send traders and promised to protect them; the somewhat ambiguous agreements with King Mory and King Alkali each guaranteed, in return for an annual salary of $200 that Sumbuja and Kapitaï would not enter into agreements with other powers without the approval of Germany, would leave trading arrangements to Colin.
The royal families, their subjects and the whole countries were to be placed under German "protection", with disputes between Europeans and Africans governed by German law. Mory and Alkali were to make grants of land to Colin at no charge for the erection of roads, bridges and German mission schools, to provide the workers necessary for construction and maintenance; as early as 1880, French colonial agents from Senegal had been signing agreements with other chiefs and kings of the region. The French Government therefore laid claim to the entire territory between the Pongo River to the north and Sierra Leone in the south. France imposed customs duties on goods brought into the region from Europe and required health certificates and anchorage fees from visiting ships. In June 1884 the Imperial Commissioner for German West Africa, Gustav Nachtigal, his representative, Max Buchner arrived on board the warships SMS Möwe and SMS Elisabeth with the aim of testing the new German claims against those of France.
Nachtigal presented Bala Demba with a reply from the German Emperor Wilhelm I and a gilded Renaissance sword as a gift.. However, th
Miscanthus floridulus, Pacific Island silvergrass, is a species of perennial grass in the Poaceae family. In the Highlands Region of Papua New Guinea, this grass is locally known as pit pit grass, grows naturally; the local communities use the stem of this grass for several purposes. The matured stem is used to make fences around gardens, it is used to construct the outer wall of traditional houses. The third important use is. Children who walk to school carry torches from the burning stem of this grass until they reach their destination. A torch is about 1–2 m long and it takes quite a while to burn it down; the walking distance is. Chou, Chang-Hung. "Population study of Miscanthus floridulus 11. Ecotypic variation of M. floridulus and M. transmorrisonensis as affected by altitude in Nantou". Taiwan's Bot. Bull. Academia Sinica. 29: 301–314
A stratovolcano known as a composite volcano, is a conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra and ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile with a summit crater and periodic intervals of explosive eruptions and effusive eruptions, although some have collapsed summit craters called calderas; the lava flowing from stratovolcanoes cools and hardens before spreading far, due to high viscosity. The magma forming this lava is felsic, having high-to-intermediate levels of silica, with lesser amounts of less-viscous mafic magma. Extensive felsic lava flows have travelled as far as 15 km. Stratovolcanoes are sometimes called "composite volcanoes" because of their composite stratified structure built up from sequential outpourings of erupted materials, they are in contrast to the less common shield volcanoes. Two famous examples of stratovolcanoes are Krakatoa, known for its catastrophic eruption in 1883 and Vesuvius, whose eruption in AD79 caused destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum in 79 AD.
Both eruptions claimed thousands of lives. In modern times, Mount St. Helens and Mount Pinatubo have erupted catastrophically, with lesser losses of lives; the possible existence of stratovolcanoes on other terrestrial bodies of the Solar System has not been conclusively demonstrated. The one feasible exception are the existence of some isolated massifs on Mars, for example the Zephyria Tholus. Stratovolcanoes are common at subduction zones, forming chains and clusters along plate tectonic boundaries where oceanic crust is drawn under continental crust or another oceanic plate; the magma forming stratovolcanoes rises when water trapped both in hydrated minerals and in the porous basalt rock of the upper oceanic crust is released into mantle rock of the asthenosphere above the sinking oceanic slab. The release of water from hydrated minerals is termed "dewatering", occurs at specific pressures and temperatures for each mineral, as the plate descends to greater depths; the water freed from the rock lowers the melting point of the overlying mantle rock, which undergoes partial melting and rises due to its lighter density relative to the surrounding mantle rock, pools temporarily at the base of the lithosphere.
The magma rises through the crust, incorporating silica-rich crustal rock, leading to a final intermediate composition. When the magma nears the top surface, it pools in a magma chamber within the crust below the stratovolcano. There, the low pressure allows water and other volatiles dissolved in the magma to escape from solution, as occurs when a bottle of carbonated water is opened, releasing CO2. Once a critical volume of magma and gas accumulates, the plug of the volcanic vent is broken, leading to a sudden explosive eruption. In recorded history, explosive eruptions at subduction zone volcanoes have posed the greatest hazard to civilizations. Subduction-zone stratovolcanoes, such as Mount St. Helens, Mount Etna and Mount Pinatubo erupt with explosive force: the magma is too stiff to allow easy escape of volcanic gases; as a consequence, the tremendous internal pressures of the trapped volcanic gases remain and intermingle in the pasty magma. Following the breaching of the vent and the opening of the crater, the magma degasses explosively.
The magma and gases blast out with full force. Since 1600 CE, nearly 300,000 people have been killed by volcanic eruptions. Most deaths were caused by pyroclastic flows and lahars, deadly hazards that accompany explosive eruptions of subduction-zone stratovolcanoes. Pyroclastic flows are swift, avalanche-like, ground-sweeping, incandescent mixtures of hot volcanic debris, fine ash, fragmented lava and superheated gases that can travel at speeds in excess of 160 km/h. Around 30,000 people were killed by pyroclastic flows during the 1902 eruption of Mount Pelée on the island of Martinique in the Caribbean. In March to April 1982, three explosive eruptions of El Chichón in the State of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico, caused the worst volcanic disaster in that country's history. Villages within 8 km of the volcano were destroyed by pyroclastic flows, killing more than 2,000 people. Two Decade Volcanoes that erupted in 1991 provide examples of stratovolcano hazards. On June 15, Mount Pinatubo spewed an ash cloud 40 km into the air and produced huge pyroclastic surges and lahar floods that devastated a large area around the volcano.
Pinatubo, located in Central Luzon just 90 km west-northwest from Manila, had been dormant for 6 centuries before the 1991 eruption, which ranks as one of the largest eruptions in the 20th century. In 1991, Japan's Unzen Volcano, located on the island of Kyushu about 40 km east of Nagasaki, awakened from its 200-year slumber to produce a new lava dome at its summit. Beginning in June, repeated collapse of this erupting dome generated ash flows that swept down the mountain's slopes at speeds as high as 200 km/h. Unzen is one of more than 75 active volcanoes in Japan; the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 smothered the nearby ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum with thick deposits of pyroclastic surges and lava flows. Although death toll is estimated between 13,000 and 26,000 remains, the exact number still remains unknown. Vesuvius is recognized as one of the most dangerous volcanoes, due to its
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti