Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder referred to as "Agrippina the Elder", was a prominent member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was born in c. 14 BC the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a close supporter of Rome's first emperor Augustus, Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder. At the time of her birth, her brothers Lucius and Gaius were the adoptive sons of Augustus and were his heirs until their deaths in AD 2 and 4, respectively. Following their deaths, her cousin Germanicus was made the adoptive son of Tiberius as part of Augustus' succession scheme in the adoptions of AD 4 in which Tiberius was adopted by Augustus; as a corollary to the adoption, Agrippina was wed to Germanicus in order to bring him closer to the Julian family. She is known to have traveled with him throughout his career, taking her children everywhere they went. In AD 14, Germanicus was deployed in Gaul as general. While there, the late Augustus sent her son Gaius to her unspecified location, she liked to dress him in a little soldiers' outfit complete with boots for which Gaius earned the nickname "Caligula".
After three years in Gaul they returned to Rome and her husband was awarded a triumph on 26 May AD 17 to commemorate his victories. The following year, Germanicus was sent to govern over the eastern provinces. While Germanicus was active in his administration, the governor of Syria Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso began feuding with him. During the feud, her husband died of illness on 10 October AD 19. Germanicus was cremated in Antioch and she transported his ashes to Rome where they were interred at the Mausoleum of Augustus. Agrippina was vocal in claiming her husband was murdered to promote Tiberius' son Drusus Julius Caesar as heir. Following the model of her grandmother Livia, she spent the time following Germanicus' death supporting the cause of her sons Nero and Drusus Caesar; this put her and her sons at odds with the powerful Praetorian prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus who would begin eliminating their supporters with accusations of treason and sexual misconduct in AD 26. Her family's rivalry with Sejanus would culminate with her and Nero's exile in AD 29.
Nero was exiled to Pontia and she was exiled to the island of Pandateria, where she would remain until her death by starvation in AD 33. Following the Roman custom of parents and children sharing the same nomen and cognomen, women in the same family would share the same name. Accordingly, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa had many relatives who shared the name "Vipsania Agrippina". To distinguish Marcus Agrippa's daughter from his granddaughter, historians refer to his daughter as Latin "Agrippina Maior" "Agrippina the Elder". Agrippina's daughter is referred to as "Agrippina Minor" "Agrippina the Younger". Like her father, Agrippina the Elder avoided her cognomen and was never called "Vipsania". Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was an early supporter of Augustus during the Final War of the Roman Republic that ensued as a result of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, he was a key general in Augustus' armies, commanding troops in pivotal battles against Mark Antony and Sextus Pompeius. From early in the emperor's reign, Agrippa was trusted to handle affairs in the eastern provinces and was given the signet ring of Augustus, who appeared to be on his deathbed in 23 BC, a sign that he would become princeps were Augustus to die.
It is probable that he was to rule until the emperor's nephew, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, came of age. However, Marcellus died that year of an illness. Now, with Marcellus dead, Augustus arranged for the marriage of Agrippa to his daughter Julia the Elder, the wife of Marcellus. Agrippa was given tribunicia potestas in 18 BC, a power that only the emperor and his immediate heir could hope to attain; the tribunician power allowed him to control the Senate, it was first given to Julius Caesar. Agrippa acted as tribune in the Senate to pass important legislation and, though he lacked some of the emperor's power and authority, he was approaching the position of co-regent. After the birth of Agrippa's second son, Lucius, in 17 BC, Lucius and his brother Gaius were adopted together by Augustus. Around the time of their adoption in the summer, Augustus held the fifth Ludi Saeculares. Cassius Dio says the adoption of the boys coupled with the games served to introduce a new era of peace – the Pax Augusta.
It is not known. Agrippina was born in 14 BC to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, before their return to Rome in 13 BC, she had five siblings: three brothers. She was a prominent member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. On her mother's side, she was the younger granddaughter of Augustus, she was the sister-in-law of Tiberius by her half-sister's marriage to him, of Claudius, the brother of her husband Germanicus. Her son Gaius, better known as "Caligula", would be the fourth emperor, her grandson Nero would be the last emperor of the dynasty. In 13 BC, her father was promptly sent to Pannonia to suppress a rebellion. Agrippa arrived there that winter. Agrippa returned to Campania in Italy, where he died soon after. After her fat
Julia the Younger
Julia the Younger or Julilla, Vipsania Julia Agrippina, Augustus' granddaughter, or Julia Minor, was a Roman noblewoman of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. She was the first daughter and second child of Julia the Elder. Along with her sister Agrippina the Elder, Julia was raised and educated by her maternal grandfather Augustus and her maternal step-grandmother Livia Drusilla. Julia the Younger was the elder granddaughter of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law and daughter-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, maternal aunt of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, second cousin of the Emperor Claudius, maternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero. About 5 BC or 6 BC, Augustus arranged her to marry Lucius Aemilius Paullus. Paullus had a family relation to her as her first half-cousin, as both had Scribonia as grandmother: Julia's mother was a daughter of Scribonia by Augustus. Paullus and Julia had a daughter, Aemilia Lepida and a son, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (although the latter may have been the son to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.
According to Suetonius, she built a large pretentious country house. Augustus had it demolished. In 8, according to ancient historians, Julia was exiled for having an affair with Decimus Junius Silanus, a Roman Senator, she was sent to a small Italian island, where she gave birth to a child. Augustus ordered it to be exposed, or left on a mountainside to die. Silanus returned under Tiberius' reign. Sometime between 1 and 14, her husband Paullus was executed as a conspirator in a revolt. Modern historians theorize that Julia's exile was not for adultery but for involvement in Paullus' revolt. Livia ruined them, according to some; this led to open compassion for the fallen family. In 29 AD, Julia died on the same island. Due to the adultery that Julia committed, Augustus stated in his will that she would never be buried in Rome, she was survived by a daughter a son, by several grandchildren. Julia the Younger was not a member of the Julian gens by birth: being the daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa made her a Vipsania Agrippina by birth, although there are no contemporary sources that show that that name was used for her.
She came to belong to the household of the Julio-Claudian dynasty as she was raised and instructed by her maternal grandfather Augustus. Further, Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son. Augustus became something of a paternal grandfather to Julia the Elder's children, including Julia the Younger. A formal adoption "in the family of the Caesars" among the offspring of Agrippa and Julia the Elder is however only recorded regarding Vipsania Julia's brothers Gaius Vipsanius Agrippa — hence Gaius Julius Caesar — and Lucius Vipsanius Agrippa — hence Lucius Julius Caesar, her younger sister Agrippina the Elder and youngest full brother, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, were named after their natural father only until Agrippa Postumus was adopted by Augustus as Marcus Julius Caesar Agrippa Postumus. Her eldest half-sisters, Vipsania Agrippina and Vipsania Marcella, were named after their father, her younger half-brother, unnamed in contemporary sources, was sometimes dubbed "Tiberillus," after his father Tiberius, died young.
Julia Julio-Claudian family tree The Archeological museum of the University of Innsbruck displays a sculpted head, Vipsania Julia's: Inv. Nr. I/506 – Image at the university's website
Agrippina the Younger
Agrippina the Younger referred to as Agrippina Minor was a Roman empress and one of the more prominent women in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Her father was Germanicus, a popular general and one-time heir apparent to the Roman Empire under Tiberius, she was the younger sister of Caligula, as well as the niece and fourth wife of Claudius. Both ancient and modern sources describe Agrippina's personality as ruthless, ambitious and domineering. Physically she was a reputable woman. Many ancient historians accuse Agrippina of poisoning her husband Claudius. In AD 59 Agrippina was executed on the orders of the emperor Nero. Agrippina was the first daughter and fourth living child of Germanicus, she had three elder brothers, Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar and the future Emperor Caligula, two younger sisters, Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla. Agrippina's two elder brothers and her mother were victims of the intrigues of the Praetorian Prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus, she was the namesake of her mother. Agrippina the Elder was remembered as a modest and heroic matron, the second daughter and fourth child of Julia the Elder and the statesman Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
The father of Julia the Elder was the Emperor Augustus, Julia was his only natural child from his second marriage to Scribonia, who had close blood relations with Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. Maternally, Agrippina descended directly from Augustus. Germanicus, Agrippina's father, was a popular general and politician, his mother was Antonia Minor and his father was the general Nero Claudius Drusus. He was Antonia Minor's first child. Germanicus had two younger siblings. Claudius was third husband. Antonia Minor was a daughter to Octavia the Younger by her second marriage to triumvir Mark Antony, Octavia was the second eldest sister and full-blooded sister of Augustus. Germanicus' father, Drusus the Elder, was the second son of the Empress Livia Drusilla by her first marriage to praetor Tiberius Nero, was the Emperor Tiberius's younger brother and Augustus's stepson. In the year 9, Augustus ordered and forced Tiberius to adopt Germanicus, who happened to be Tiberius's nephew, as his son and heir.
Germanicus was a favorite of his great-uncle Augustus, who hoped that Germanicus would succeed his uncle Tiberius, Augustus's own adopted son and heir. This in turn meant that Tiberius was Agrippina's adoptive grandfather in addition to her paternal great-uncle. Agrippina was born on 6 November in AD 15, or 14, at Oppidum Ubiorum, a Roman outpost on the Rhine River located in present-day Cologne, Germany. A second sister Julia Drusilla was born on 16 September 16 in Germany; as a small child, Agrippina travelled with her parents throughout Germany until she and her siblings returned to Rome to live with and be raised by their maternal grandmother Antonia. Her parents departed for Syria in 18 to conduct official duties, according to Tacitus, the third and youngest sister was born en route on the island of Lesbos, namely Julia Livilla in March 18. In October of AD 19, Germanicus died in Antioch. Germanicus' death caused much public grief in Rome, gave rise to rumors that he had been murdered by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso and Munatia Plancina on the orders of Tiberius, as his widow Agrippina the Elder returned to Rome with his ashes.
Agrippina the Younger was thereafter supervised by her mother, her paternal grandmother Antonia Minor, her great-grandmother, all of them notable and powerful figures from whom she learnt how to survive. She lived on the Palatine Hill in Rome, her great-uncle Tiberius had become emperor and the head of the family after the death of Augustus in 14. After her thirteenth birthday in 28, Tiberius arranged for Agrippina to marry her paternal first cousin once removed Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and ordered the marriage to be celebrated in Rome. Domitius came from a distinguished family of consular rank. Through his mother Antonia Major, Domitius was a great nephew of Augustus, first cousin to Claudius, first cousin once removed to Agrippina and Caligula, he had two sisters. Domitia Lepida the Younger was the mother of the Empress Valeria Messalina. Antonia Major was the elder sister to Antonia Minor, the first daughter of Octavia Minor and Mark Antony. According to Suetonius, Domitius was a wealthy man with a despicable and dishonest character, according to Suetonius, was "a man, in every aspect of his life detestable" and served as consul in 32.
Agrippina and Domitius lived between Rome. Not much is known about the relationship between them. Tiberius died on March 16, AD 37, Agrippina's only surviving brother, became the new emperor. Being the emperor's sister gave Agrippina some influence. Agrippina and her younger sisters Julia Drusilla and Julia Livilla received various honours from their brother, which included but were not limited to: They were given the rights of the Vestal Virgins like the freedom to view public games from the upper seats in the stadium. Coins were issued depicting images of his sisters. Roman coins like these were never issued beforehand; the coins depicted Caligula on one side and his sisters on the oppos
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
Agrippina is an opera seria in three acts by George Frideric Handel with a libretto by Cardinal Vincenzo Grimani. Composed for the 1709–10 Venice Carnevale season, the opera tells the story of Agrippina, the mother of Nero, as she plots the downfall of the Roman Emperor Claudius and the installation of her son as emperor. Grimani's libretto, considered one of the best that Handel set, is an "anti-heroic satirical comedy", full of topical political allusions; some analysts believe that it reflects Grimani's political and diplomatic rivalry with Pope Clement XI. Handel composed Agrippina at the end of a three-year sojourn in Italy, it premiered in Venice at the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo on 26 December 1709. It proved an unprecedented series of 27 consecutive performances followed. Observers praised the quality of the music—much of which, in keeping with the contemporary custom, had been borrowed and adapted from other works, including the works of other composers. Despite the evident public enthusiasm for the work, Handel did not promote further stagings.
There were occasional productions in the years following its premiere but Handel's operas, including Agrippina, fell out of fashion in the mid-18th century. In the 20th century Agrippina premiered in Britain and America. Performances of the work have become more common, with innovative stagings at the New York City Opera and the London Coliseum in 2007. Modern critical opinion is that Agrippina is Handel's first operatic masterpiece, full of freshness and musical invention which have made it one of the most popular operas of the ongoing Handel revival. Handel's earliest opera compositions, in the German style, date from his Hamburg years, 1704–06, under the influence of Johann Mattheson. In 1706 he traveled to Italy, he first settled in Florence where he was introduced to Domenico Scarlatti. His first opera composed in Italy, though still reflecting the influence of Hamburg and Mattheson, was Rodrigo, was presented there, it was not successful, but was part of Handel's process of learning to compose opera in the Italian style and to set Italian words to music.
Handel spent time in Rome, where the performance of opera was forbidden by Papal decree, in Naples. He applied himself to the composition of oratorios. Works from this period include Dixit Dominus and the dramatic cantata Aci, Galatea e Polifemo, written in Naples. While in Rome through Alessandro Scarlatti, Handel had become acquainted with Cardinal Grimani, a distinguished diplomat who wrote libretti in his spare time, acted as an unofficial theatrical agent for the Italian royal courts, he was evidently asked him to set his new libretto, Agrippina. Grimani intended to present this opera at his family-owned theatre in Venice, the Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo, as part of the 1709–10 Carnevale season. Grimani's libretto is based on much the same story used as the subject of Monteverdi's 1642 opera L'incoronazione di Poppea. Grimani's libretto centres on Agrippina, a character who does not appear in Monteverdi's darker version. Grimani avoids the "moralizing" tone of the opera seria libretti written by such acknowledged masters as Metastasio and Zeno.
According to the critic Donald Jay Grout, "irony and intrigue pervade the humorous escapades of its well-defined characters." All the main characters, with the sole exception of Claudius's servant Lesbus, are historical, the broad outline of the libretto draws upon Tacitus's Annals and Suetonius' Life of Claudius. It has been suggested that the comical, amatory character of the Emperor Claudius is a caricature of Pope Clement XI, to whom Grimani was politically opposed. Certain aspects of this conflict are reflected in the plot: the rivalry between Nero and Otho mirror aspects of the debate over the War of the Spanish Succession, in which Grimani supported the Habsburgs and Pope Clement XI France and Spain. According to John Mainwaring, Handel's first biographer, Agrippina was composed in the three weeks following Handel's arrival in Venice in November 1709, a theory supported by the autograph manuscript's Venetian paper. In composing the opera Handel borrowed extensively from his earlier oratorios and cantatas, from other composers including Reinhard Keiser, Arcangelo Corelli and Jean-Baptiste Lully.
This practice of adapting and borrowing was common at the time but is carried to greater lengths in Agrippina than in all of Handel's other major dramatic works. The overture, a French-style two-part work with a "thrilling" allegro, all but five of the vocal numbers, are based on earlier works, though subject in many cases to significant adaptation and reworking. Examples of recycled material include Pallas's "Col raggio placido", based on Lucifer's aria from La resurrezione, "O voi dell'Erebo", itself adapted from Reinhard Keiser's 1705 opera Octavia. Agrippina's aria "Non ho cor che per amarti" was taken entirely unchanged, from "Se la morte non vorrà" in Handel's earlier dramatic cantata Qual ti reveggio, oh Dio; some of Agrippina's music was used by Handel in his London operas Rinaldo and the 1732 version of Acis and Galatea
Agrippina of Mineo
Agrippina of Mineo known as Saint Agrippina was venerated as a virgin martyr in the Catholic Church and Orthodox Christianity. The Italian community of the North End of Boston celebrates a festival in her honor annually during the first week of August, her legend states that she was a blonde princess born of a noble Roman family, that she was martyred during the reign of Roman Emperors Valerian. She was either scourged to death, her body was said to have been taken to Mineo, Sicily, by three devout Christian women named Bassa and Agatonica, their travels aided by angels. Alban Butler says that the reputed acts in the Greek Menaia are quite unreliable and no evidence is forthcoming of any cultus of early date. Saint Agrippina is honored in Sicily and, to a lesser degree, in Greece, where it is said that her relics were translated from Sicily to Constantinople, her tomb became a popular pilgrimage destination, she was invoked as a patron saint against evil spirits and thunderstorm. Her feast day is no longer celebrated in the Catholic Church, however it is celebrated in the Orthodox Church on June 23.
There are two Catholic Churches named after Saint Agrippina. One church called Church of Saint Agrippina is located in Mineo and the Chapel of Saint Agrippina di Mineo in Boston. Immigrants from Mineo to Boston's North End have celebrated their patron saint since 1914 on the first week of August. Santa Agrippina
Agrippina Yakovlevna Vaganova was a Russian ballet teacher who developed the Vaganova method – the technique which derived from the teaching methods of the old Imperial Ballet School under the Premier Maître de Ballet Marius Petipa throughout the mid to late 19th century, though throughout the 1880s and 1890s. It was Vaganova who perfected and cultivated this form of teaching the art of classical ballet into a workable syllabus, her Fundamentals of the Classical Dance remains a standard textbook for the instruction of ballet technique. Her technique is one of the most popular techniques today. Vaganova was born in Saint Petersburg to Akop Vaganov, an Armenian from Astrakhan, who worked as an usher at the Mariinsky Theatre, a Russian mother. Vaganova's whole life was connected with the Imperial Ballet of the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, she was accepted into the Imperial Ballet School in 1888, the great institution of classical dance founded by Anna of Russia and funded by the Tsars.
She graduated from the Classe de Perfection of the former Prima Ballerina Eugeniia Sokolova. Ballet did not come to Vaganova in her first years as a student, but through the efforts of her own will power, she was able to join the illustrious Imperial Ballet upon her graduation. By the time she attained the rank of soloist, Saint Petersburg balletomanes dubbed her queen of variations, for her unlimited virtuosity and level of technique; the old Maestro Petipa cared little for Vaganova as a dancer – any mention of her performances in his diaries was followed by such comments as "awful" or "dreadful". In 1915 the Ballet Master Nikolai Legat cast Vaganova as the Goddess Niriti in his revival of Petipa's 1889 grand ballet The Talisman. Vaganova's portrayal was a great success, won her promotion to the rank of Prima, she chose to retire one year to concentrate on teaching. She started to teach ballet in 1916 at the School of the Baltic Fleet, founded and led by Akim Volynsky. In 1921 Vaganova began teaching at the Choreographic College, so at that time was called the former Imperial Theater School situated on Rossi street.
Though she did have a respectable career as a dancer, her leadership in teaching classical dance was what gave her one of the most respected places in the history of ballet. Her own early struggle with deciphering ballet technique had taught her much, she taught students. After the Revolution of 1917 the future of ballet in Russia looked grim because of its tradition as court entertainment. Vaganova "fought tooth and nail", as she put it, for the preservation of the legacy of Marius Petipa and the Imperial Ballet. From 1931 to 1937 she was an artistic director of the ballet of the Leningrad Opera and Ballet Theater. In 1933, she staged the classical version of Swan Lake by Lev Ivanov and Marius Petipa with Galina Ulanova as Odette, Olga Jordan as Odile and Konstantin Sergeyev as Prince Siegfried. In 1935 she revived La Esmeralda with her own choreography. In 1934 she published her famous book Fundamentals of Classical Dance: it has withstood at least six editions in Russia and was translated into many languages.
The same year Vaganova initiated the establishing at the Leningrad Conservatory of pedagogic department for training of future ballet teachers which she began to manage. There, some of her dance school alumni became her students. Most important names for the dance teaching are Vera Kostrovitskaya, Nadezhda Bazarova and Varvara P. Mey. Among Vaganova's dance alumnae were the distinguished Soviet ballerinas Marina Semenova, Olga Jordan, Galina Ulanova, Tatiana Vecheslova, Feya Balabina, Natalia Dudinskaya, Galina Kirillova, Alla Shelest, Ninel Petrova, Nonna Yastrebova, Olga Moiseeva, Ludmilla Safronova, Ninel Kurgapkina, Alla Ossipenko and Irina Kolpakova among many others, her teaching combined the elegant, refined style of the old French School which Vaganova had been taught by Christian Johansson, the beauty and smoothness of the arms movements of old Russian School and masterly feet technique of Italian School with more vigorous dancing developed in the Soviet Union. Her last school graduation was in 1951 — not long before her death.
She taught the class of perfection for the female dancers of the Kirov Ballet for many years till 1951, when Natalia Dudinskaya succeed her as teacher. Shortly after her death, on 1 November 1957, the Choreographic College on Rossi Street was renamed in her honor. List of Russian ballet dancers Agrippina Vaganova at Find a Grave The Ballerina Gallery – Agrippina Vaganova