Nancy is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, the French province of the same name. The metropolitan area of Nancy had a population of 434,565 inhabitants at the 2011 census, making it the 20th largest urban area in France; the population of the city of Nancy proper was 104,321 in 2014. The motto of the city is Non inultus premor, Latin for "I'm not touched with impunity"—a reference to the thistle, a symbol of Lorraine. Place Stanislas, a large square built between March 1752 and November 1755 by Stanislaus I of Poland to link the medieval old town of Nancy and the new town built under Charles III in the 17th century, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first place in France and in the top four in the world; the earliest signs of human settlement in the area date to 800 BC. Early settlers were attracted by mined iron ore and a ford in the Meurthe River. A small fortified town named Nanciacum was built by Gérard, Duke of Lorraine around 1050.
Nancy was burned in 1218 at the end of the War of Succession of Champagne, conquered by Emperor Frederick II. It was rebuilt in stone over the next few centuries as it grew in importance as the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine. Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, was defeated and killed in the Battle of Nancy in 1477. Following the failure of both Emperor Joseph I and Emperor Charles VI to produce a son and heir, the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713 left the throne to the latter's next child; this turned out to be Maria Theresa of Austria. In 1736 Emperor Charles arranged her marriage to Duke François of Lorraine, who reluctantly agreed to exchange his ancestral lands for the Grand Duchy of Tuscany; the exiled Polish king Stanislaus Leszczyński, father-in-law of the French king Louis XV, was given the vacant duchy of Lorraine. Under his nominal rule, Nancy experienced growth and a flowering of Baroque culture and architecture. Stanislaus oversaw the construction of Place Stanislaus, a major square and development connecting the old medieval with a newer part of the city.
After Stanislaus' death in 1766, the duchy of Lorraine returned to the status of a regular French province. Nancy lost its position as a residential capital city with patronage; as unrest surfaced within the French armed forces during the French Revolution, a full-scale mutiny, known as the Nancy affair, took place in Nancy in the latter part of summer 1790. A few units loyal to the government shot or imprisoned the mutineers. In 1871, Nancy remained French; the flow of refugees reaching Nancy doubled its population in three decades. Artistic, academic and industrial excellence flourished, establishing what is still the Capital of Lorraine's trademark to this day. Nancy and other areas of France were occupied by German forces from 1940. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, Nancy was liberated from Nazi Germany by the U. S. Third Army in September 1944, at the Battle of Nancy. In 1988, Pope John Paul II visited Nancy. In 2005, French President Jacques Chirac, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, Polish President Aleksander Kwaśniewski inaugurated the renovated Place Stanislas.
It is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Nancy is situated on the left bank of the river Meurthe, about 10 km upstream from its confluence with the Moselle; the Marne–Rhine Canal runs through the city, parallel to the Meurthe. Nancy is surrounded by hills that are about 150 m higher than the city center, situated at 200 m above mean sea level; the area of Nancy proper is small: 15 km2. Its built-up area is continuous with those of its adjacent suburbs; the neighboring communes of Nancy are: Jarville-la-Malgrange, Malzéville, Maxéville, Saint-Max, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy and Villers-lès-Nancy. The oldest part of Nancy is the quarter Vieille Ville – Léopold, which contains the 14th century Porte de la Craffe, the Palace of the Dukes of Lorraine, the Porte Désilles and the 19th century St-Epvre basilica. Adjacent to its south is the quarter Charles III – Centre Ville, the 16th–18th century "new town"; this quarter contains the famous Place Stanislas, the Nancy Cathedral, the Opéra national de Lorraine and the main railway station.
The population of the city proper experienced a small decrease in population from 2009 to 2014, placing it behind Metz as the second largest city in the Lorraine. However, the urban area of Metz experienced population decline from 1990 to 2010 while the urban area of Nancy grew over the same period, becoming the largest urban area in Lorraine and second largest in the "Grand Est" region of northeastern France. Within the Nancy metropolitan area in recent years, the city population declined at the same time as a small increase in the population of its urban area. Nancy has an oceanic climate, although a bit more extreme than most of the larger French cities. By the standards of France it is a "continental" climate with a certain degree of maritimy; the temperatures have a distinct variation of the temperate zone, both during the day and between seasons but without being different. Winters are dry in freezing climates. Summers are not warm enough. Mists are frequent in autumn and the winds are light and not too violent.
Precipitation tends to be less abundant than in the west of the country. Sunshine hours are identical to Paris and the snowy days are the same as Stra
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
École centrale de Lyon
The École centrale de Lyon is a research university in greater Lyon, France. Founded in 1857 by François Barthélemy Arlès-Dufour in response to the increasing industrialization of France, it is one of the oldest graduate schools in France; the university is part of the Grandes Écoles, a prestigious group of French institutions dedicated to engineering, scientific research, business education. The current 45-acre campus is located in the city of Ecully; the École centrale de Lyon is traditionally known for its research and education in applied science and engineering. It excels in the research fields of acoustics and nanotechnology, is continuously ranked in the top five Grandes Écoles for the quality of its engineering graduate programs; the school is well-reputed for educating and training skilled engineers through many specialized graduate programs with a strong emphasis on laboratory instruction. Students graduate with a degree known as the diplôme d'ingénieur, an academic title protected by the French government and equivalent to a Master of Science, or with a Ph.
D. upon completion of their doctoral studies. The École centrale de Lyon has strong ties with top institutions in Europe including Imperial College London and Darmstadt University of Technology; the university is one of the founding members of the Centrale Graduate School network. It is a founding member of University of Lyon's center for Research and Higher Education, which has over 120,000 students. Thus, it shares many of its Ph. D. programs with other institutions part of University of Lyon such as INSA Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1. It was founded in 1857 on a private initiative by Désiré Girardon, its first president; the founding vision was to educate multidisciplinary engineers for the emerging industry. The institution was given to the French State Ministry of Education in 1947. Located downtown Lyon, it was transferred to Écully, its current location. 1857: Birth of the Lyons Central School for Industry and Commerce, on the initiative of Desire Girardon, a professor at La Martiniere School, an institution for the teaching of advanced industrial science and based on the methods of La Martiniere school.
The school was located at the course of Bourbon. 3 November 1857: Opening of the school with 14 students, who are promoting an issue, that of 1860. 1860: The first class graduated, it will be followed by a promotion of 17 students. 1869: Transfer of School Augagneur dock. 1887: The school was placed under the patronage of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyon. 1901: Transfer street Chevreul on land donated by the city of Lyon in the person of its mayor, Edouard Herriot. 1930: First woman in a promotion. 1947: Assignment of the school to the state. 1949: Creation of the student association. 1963: Establishment of joint competition with the Ecole centrale de Paris. 1967: Transfer in Ecully, creation of a campus in the "American". 1968: First agreement with the School of Darmstadt. 1970: New name: École centrale de Lyon and first class of over 100 engineering students. 1980: First agreements with Japan and the United States. 1983: First batch of over 200 engineering students. 1990: Creation of the Intergroup schools "Central", the first agreement with China.
1992: School is a Public Establishment Scientific and Cultural Professional, the first agreement with the countries of Central and Eastern. 1996: Creation of the European university network for dual degrees. 2000: First agreements with countries in South America. 2001: First batch of over 300 students. 2002: Opening an office in Shenzhen, China. 2003: Opening of the Franco-Russian center for technology transfer. 2005: Creation of central Beijing. 2007: Intergroup is the group of central cchools with Lille, Marseille and Paris. 2006-2007-2008: 150th anniversary of the Ecole centrale de Lyon. 2009: Yin Yang - Alliance project between Central and Lyon Business School EM LYON. 2011: Agreement with France AEROTECH The centralien program is the main academic program offered by the École centrale de Lyon, as a Centrale Graduate School. It is quite different from typical college studies; the engineering degree of École centrale de Lyon is a Master of Science degree. The defining characteristic of the curriculum is that it is multidisciplinary, with studies focusing on all math and physics derived engineering specialties: mechanics, materials, fluid mechanics, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, civil engineering, computer science, telecommunications and micro-nano-biotechnology.
The large majority of the students are admitted after two to three years of classes préparatoires, known as "mathematics superior" and "mathematics special", which are an undergraduate courses with exclusive emphasis on math and physics. These undergraduate students must take a nationwide competitive entrance examination to enter a Centrale Graduate School, including Ecole centrale de Lyon. Ecole centrale de Lyon recruits among the top 6% of the students in classes preparatoires, who represent themselves 7% of higher education students, which makes it a selective and prestigious institution. A few seats are available each year to select students from French universities after completion of three or four years of post high-school education. A significant contingent
Institut national de la recherche agronomique
The Institut national de la recherche agronomique is a French public research institute dedicated to agricultural science. It was founded in 1946 and is a Public Scientific and Technical Research Establishment under the joint authority of the Ministries of Research and Agriculture. INRA leads projects of targeted research for a sustainable agriculture, a safeguarded environment and a healthy and high quality food. Based on the number of publications in agricultural sciences/crops and animal sciences, INRA is the first institute for agricultural research in Europe, the second in the world, it belongs to the top 1% most cited research institutes. INRA main tasks are: to disseminate knowledge. INRA is a research institute with 1,840 researchers, 1,756 research engineers and 4,694 lab workers/field workers/administrative staff. In addition, 510 PhD students are trained, 2,552 interns are employed every year. INRA is composed of 13 scientific departments: Environment and Agronomy Biology and crop breeding Plant health and environment Ecology of forests and aquatic environments Animal genetics Animal physiology and animal production systems Animal health Characterization and processing of agricultural products Microbiology and food processing Human nutrition Sciences for action and development Social sciences and food, territories and environment Applied mathematics and computer sciencesMoreover, INRA provides tools and support to the scientific community: databases, environmental research observatories, genetic resources centers, experimental platforms, etc.
In 2014, INRA has 17 regional centres in France, including in the French overseas territories. Most laboratories and facilities located in Paris region are to be moved to the Paris-Saclay research-intensive cluster. INRA develops partnerships with: universities and French top schools in agricultural/veterinary sciences French research institutes of fundamental and targeted research. Notably, CNRS and INSERM are INRA first two partners. French research institutes of agricultural applied research the main agricultural research institutes in the world, it has scientific collaborations and exchanges with many countries in Europe and Asia. Nearly half of the publications are co-authored by foreign scientists. INRA maintains a collection of vines at Domaine de Vassal, in Marseillan near Sète, a site where phylloxera cannot survive. Gouais blanc can be found there. Researches on vine cultivation are conducted in Gruissan. INRA owns the Château Couhins wine-producing estate near Bordeaux. Many wine grapes have been created at INRA stations including Ederena.
INRA was a member of the consortium for the genome sequencing of Vitis vinifera in 2007. Animal Agronomy Agroecology Biotechnology CIRADVeterinary Research Official website
The École Navale is the French naval academy, in charge of the education of the officers of the French Navy. They are educated at the academy for responsibilities onboard surface ships and submarines, in French Naval Aviation, with the fusiliers marins and commandos, on the general staff; the École Navale and its research institute are in Lanvéoc-Poulmic, south of the roadstead of Brest. The academy was founded by order of King Louis-Philippe; the academy was based on ships, anchored in the harbour of Brest, such as the Borda, hence the nickname of "Bordache" given to the students. In 1914, the École Navale was transferred ashore in Brest; the school was destroyed by Allied bombing raids during World War II, was moved to nearby Lanvéoc-Poulmic, on the opposite side of the bay of Brest. The academy remained in this location after the war, was inaugurated by Charles de Gaulle in 1965; the École Navale, created in 1830, was located onboard vessels harboured in Brest all of which were nicknamed Borda.
The first vessel to house the École Navale was named Orion. This ship had an inappropriate name for a naval academy, so it was renamed Borda. In 1863, the academy was transferred to the Valmy in 1890, to the Intrépide, in 1913, to the Duguay-Trouin, a school vessel for those applying to the Navy between 1900 and 1912. With the exceptions of the Orion and the Duguay-Trouin, each of these vessels was still christened as Borda; the new pupils are boarded from one day before the others. Crammed like sheep in a gunboat, they were bouncy and happy while launching a goodbye to their families; as soon as arrived, they were sorted, undressed in order to give them the white blouse and linen trousers. Their hair was shorn. Two days the parents were authorised onboard for the opening mass for the new cadets. Flags were placed around the altar, a single seat was reserved for the "Pope", the nickname of the captain commanding the academy; the parents took place on bench, the pupils entered, the senior ones first, tiding themselves on the sides, the new cadets in their new suit under the quip of the others who were screaming "Caillou!
Caillou!" to recognize the new cadets. This was followed by the first formal dinner of the new students. A traditional ceremony onboard the Borda was the presentation and delivery of the sword to the son by his "baille" father, for the first day of outing. In the spring, when the first outing in dinghy occurred, another consecration took place, this of baptism of the new cadets by the senior cadets of the academy, as the latter throw water buckets upon the former; the École Navale is traditionally called "La Baille". Its jargon comes principally from maritime slang. Like every "Grande Ecole", the jargon is wide-used among its student body. For example, the commander in second is the "widow"; the elephants, or the "pékins", are the civilians. The "chafustard" is the mechanic; the songs of the board are crude, but of high musical and literary standard. Nowadays, the student body uses some expressions coming from other military academies and from military high schools; the standard reference book about the jargon at "La Baille" was written by Commander Roger Coindeau, illustrated by Luc-Marie Bayle.
All this will not impede the future Navy officers to work hard. It is the first step. Comes the climbing of the second hune, little by little, everyone gets accustomed not to have dizziness, but to run on the footboard stretched beneath each yardarm, to unfurl the sail. All this is commanded by a whistle. If the job of topsman had become unuseful with the modern war boats, it was still taught to the student-officers, in order for them to be able to bring back a catch in time of war with its sails, because it was part of the old traditions of the French Navy; the two years of school were well filled up with everything that a Navy officer had to learn: rowing, the machines, armed drill and weapons instruction, combat training aboard or onshore, signal flags, vessel maintenance, superior mathematics, hydrography, English language, a lot more. At the 3rd year of studies, the 2nd classmen left the Borda for their training cruises to various parts of the world. In the beginning of the 20th century, a project to move the Ecole Naval, to the ground, had made its way.
The chosen place was in the district of Recouvrance. The project failed due to a lack of money; however the school settled in 1915 in buildings built in Laninon situated in Recouvrance, as the First World War was raging. Work for the campus began November 14, 1929 and was presided by Georges Leygues, minister of the Navy, the school was inaugurated on 30 May 1936 by Albert Lebrun, President of the Republic. Regardless of the grounding of the school, the final year of formation and training at sea has been preserved in the form of traditional cruisi
Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public, it was founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution. It was first proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, tools, drawings and books in all the areas of the arts and trades"; the deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory was selected as the site of collection, which formally opened in 1802. Charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known as a continuing education school for adults seeking engineering and business degrees, proposing evening classes in a variety of topics; the collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
It was reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010, the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum; the novel Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco deals with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during museum reconstruction; the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is located at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is a public institution of the French government, in the scientific and professional fields, with the status of "Grand Etablissement". Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, it has 3 missions: Training throughout life, it is implemented in more than 150 cities in France and abroad. Cnam's motto is "Omnes docet ubique", which means "He teaches everyone everywhere."
Since July 2010, Cnam has been organized in two distinct "Schools", each one with seven departments: Industrial Sciences and Information Technology, directed by William Dab: Chemicals, Health, Risk. Mechanical and electrotechnical systems engineering; the CNAM supports continuing education. Multidisciplinary programs. All teachings are formatted to comply with the CNAM LMD, thus respecting the European Credit Transfer System. Léon Bourgeois, Nobel Peace Prize, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Sadi Carnot, alumnus of the École Polytechnique and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, physicist. Paul Doumer, alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, President of the French Republic. Louis Pasteur, alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers and biologist. From 1995 to 2009, the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers hosted the weekly seminar of psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller.
Jean Ferrat, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, singer-songwriter. Abbé Grégoire, founder of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Jean-Baptiste Say, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, classical economist, professor with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and the Collège de France. Alexandre Vandermonde, mathematician. From 1794 on, Vandermonde was member of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, examiner with the École polytechnique, professor with the École Normale Supérieure. Jacques de Vaucanson, famous engineer, gave his personal collection to the CNAM as well as his name to an adjacent street. Léon Vaudoyer, architecte of the CNAM building during the nineteenth century, together with the Institut de France building. Jean Prouvé, French metal worker, self-taught architect and designer, CNAM professor from 1957 to 1970. Alain Wisner Vandermonde: secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Écoles de l'an III scientifiques Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 Official website Official website Official website CNAM lebanon
Classe préparatoire aux grandes écoles
The classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles called classes prépas or prépas, are part of the French post-secondary education system. They consist of two years of study which act as a preparatory course with the main goal of training students for enrolment in one of the grandes écoles; the workload is one of the highest in Europe. Unlike most students in France who enroll in public universities directly after receiving a high school diploma, students from CPGE have to take national competitive exams to be allowed to enrol in one of the Grandes Écoles; these Grandes Écoles are higher education establishments delivering master's degrees and/or doctorates. They include science and engineering schools, business schools, the four veterinary colleges and the four écoles normales supérieures but do not include medical or law schools, nor architecture schools, their competitive entrance exams make having attended one of the grandes écoles being regarded as a status symbol as they have traditionally produced most of France's scientists and intellectuals.
Hence, there are three kinds of different prépas: scientific and literary CPGE. Each of them prepare to pass the competitive exams of those grandes écoles; the CPGE are located within high schools for historical reasons but pertain to tertiary education, which means that each student must have passed their baccalauréat to be admitted to CPGE. Moreover, the admission to the CPGE is based on performance during the last two years of high school, called première and terminale. Thus, each CPGE receives hundreds of applications from around the world every April and May, selects its new students under its own criteria. A few CPGE programmes the private CPGEs have an interview process or look at a student's involvement in the community. In June 2007, 534,300 students passed the "Baccalauréat", 40,000 of them were admitted to CPGE. On a given class at one of the prep schools listed above, around 1500 application files will be examined for only 40 places. Students are selected according to their grades in High school and the first part of "Baccalauréat".
Preparatory classes are not authorized to deliver any degrees, but they give ECTS credits that can be used to fulfill university degree requirements since the 2009-2010 academic year, students who decide to can carry on their studies at a public university. However, many prépas establish conventions with universities to validate a full 2nd or 3rd year degree upon graduation for CPGE students who perform well in literary prépas. Most of the students in these classes receive part of their education at a public university, so that the teachers' council can deliver them the corresponding grade in one or two disciplines at the end of the year. CPGE exist in three different fields of study: science & engineering and humanities. All CPGE programs have a nominal duration of two years, but the second year is sometimes repeated once; the oldest CPGEs are the scientific ones. The different tracks are the following: MPSI, Mathématiques, Sciences de l'Ingénieur in the first year, followed by either MP or PSI PCSI, chimie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PC or PSI PTSI, technologie, sciences de l'ingénieur in the first year, followed by PT or PSI TPC1, physique et chimie in the first year, followed by TPC2 TSI1, Technologie, sciences industrielles in the first year, followed by TSI2 BCPST1, Chimie, sciences de la terre in the first year, followed by BCPST2 TB1, biologie in the first year, followed by TB2The classes that train students for admission to the elite schools, such as Écoles Normales Supérieures or ParisTech schools, have an asterisk added to their name.
For example, MP*, are called MP étoile. Both the first and second year programmes include as much as ten to twelve hours of mathematics teaching per week, ten hours of physics, two hours of literature and philosophy, two to four hours of foreign language teaching and two to eight hours of minor options: either SI, engineering industrial science, chemistry or theoretical computer science, biology-geology, biotechnologies. Added to this are several hours of homework, which can amount to as much as the official hours of class; the BCPST classes prepare for exams of engineering sc