Vilsbiburg is a town on the river Große Vils, 18 km southeast of Landshut, in the district of Landshut, in Bavaria, Germany. Vilsbiburg has 11,000 inhabitants. Vilsbiburg is part of the Alpine foothills; the river Vils runs through the town center. Vilsbiburg is about 55 miles northeast of Munich; the first mention of a village named Pipurch is found around 1000 AD. In records dating back to 1308, Vilsbiburg is mentioned as a market and as a town, having a court and municipal powers. Vilsbiburg acquired the status of a town in 1929. On July 1, 1972 the administrative district of Vilsbiburg was merged into Landshut; the former municipalities of Frauensattling, Haarbach and Wolferding became part of the town of Vilsbiburg in 1978. Since 1996 Helmut Haider is the mayor. Former mayors: 1960–1990: Josef Billinger, SPD 1990–1996: Peter Barteit, SPD Vilsbiburg is twinned with: Buja, since 2001 Florian Gruber, racing driver Markus Karl, footballer SV Sandhausen Gisela Stuart, British MP 1997-2017 Official website Unofficial website
Aham is a 1992 Indian Malayalam tragedy film directed and produced by Rajeevnath, written by Venu Nagavally from a story by Rajeevnath. The film stars Mohanlal and Ramya Krishna; the soundtrack cinematography was handled by Santhosh Sivan and Venu. Aham is the story of Sidharthan, who grew up in a disciplined and strict environment and tries to lead his family life along similar lines, but his wife is not able to adjust with his crazy lifestyle. She wants to become self-reliant but this creates suspicion in Siddharthan's mind. In a resulting argument and physical struggle, she gets pushed from the balcony and goes into a coma; this makes Siddharthan lose his mental balance. He ends up in a mental asylum and leads a spiritual life there. Mohanlal as Sidharthan Urvasi as Renjini Pilla Ramya Krishna as Mariyana Varghese Neena Gupta as Mother Nobble Suresh Gopi as Capt. Mahedran Nedumudi Venu as Keshavan Pilla Joy Badlani as Shivam Jagathy Sreekumar as M. P Kidappadam Vaishnavi as Vimala MathewsManiyanpilla Raju as Marfee Markose Adoor Pankajam as Mariyamma Karamana Janardanan Nair as Kutti Sahib Vijayaraghavan as PathrosePujappura Ravi as Warrier Kunchan as Judy Fernadez Rajeev Nath as Dr.
Menon Swapna Ravi as Usha Usharani as Achamma Tharakan K. P. A. C. Sunny as Tharakan M. G. Soman as K. P Pilla Rajeev Rangan as Mathews T. P. Madhavan as Cameo Appearance Nandhu as Cameo Appearance Jagannathan as Cameo Appearance Raveendran composed the film's original soundtrack, the lyrics were written by Kavalam Narayana Panicker and Konniyoor Das. All songs was sung by K. J. Yesudas; the soundtrack which consists of 5 songs was released by the music label Ranjini Cassettes on 25 September 1992. Kerala State Film AwardBest Cinematography - Santhosh Sivan, Venu Best Processing Lab - Vijaya Colur Lab Aham on IMDb
Pfeffenhausen is a municipality in the district of Landshut in Bavaria in Germany. It is contained within the Administrative Region of the Niederbayern Region; the municipality's website is www.markt-pfeffenhausen.de
Christian Social Union in Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union, operates in the other fifteen states of Germany, it differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party. At the federal level, the CSU forms a common faction in the Bundestag with the CDU, referred to as the Union Faction; the CSU has had 46 seats in the Bundestag since the 2017 federal election, making it the smallest of the seven parties represented. The CSU is a member of the International Democrat Union; the CSU has three ministers in the cabinet of Germany of the federal government in Berlin, including party leader Horst Seehofer, Federal Minister of the Interior while party member Markus Söder serves as Minister-President of Bavaria, a position that CSU representatives have held from 1946 to 1954 and again since 1957.
Franz Josef Strauß had left behind the strongest legacy as a leader of the party, having led the party from 1961 until his death in 1988. His political career in the federal cabinet was unique in that he had served four ministerial posts in the years between 1953 and 1969. From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauß served as the Minister-President of Bavaria. Strauß was the first leader of the CSU to be a candidate for the German chancellery in 1980. In the 1980 federal election, Strauß ran against the incumbent Helmut Schmidt of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but lost thereafter as the SPD and the Free Democratic Party managed to secure an absolute majority together, forming a social-liberal coalition; the CSU has led the Bavarian state government since it came into existence in 1946, save from 1954 to 1957 when the SPD formed a state government in coalition with the Bavaria Party and the state branches of the GB/BHE and FDP. Before the 2008 elections in Bavaria, the CSU perennially achieved absolute majorities at the state level by itself.
This level of dominance is unique among Germany's 16 states. Edmund Stoiber took over the CSU leadership in 1999, he ran for Chancellor of Germany in 2002, but his preferred CDU/CSU–FDP coalition lost against the SPD candidate Gerhard Schröder's SPD–Green alliance. In the 2003 Bavarian state election, the CSU won 60.7% of the vote and 124 of 180 seats in the state parliament. This was the first time; the Economist suggested that this exceptional result was due to a backlash against Schröder's government in Berlin. The CSU's popularity declined in subsequent years. Stoiber stepped down from the posts of Minister-President and CSU chairman in September 2007. A year the CSU lost its majority in the 2008 Bavarian state election, with its vote share dropping from 60.7% to 43.4%. The CSU remained in power by forming a coalition with the FDP. In the 2009 general election, the CSU received only 42.5% of the vote in Bavaria in the 2009 election, which constitutes its weakest showing in the party's history.
The CSU made gains in the 2013 Bavarian state election and the 2013 federal election, which were held a week apart in September 2013. The CSU remained in government in Berlin, they have three ministers in Angela Merkel's current cabinet, namely Horst Seehofer, Andreas Scheuer and Gerd Müller. The CSU forms after Bavarian state election, 2018 on October 14, 2018 a new government with partner Free Voters of Bavaria; the CSU is the sister party of the Christian Democratic Union. Together, they are called The Union; the CSU operates only within Bavaria and the CDU operates in all other states, but not Bavaria. While independent, at the federal level the parties form a common CDU/CSU faction. No Chancellor has come from the CSU, although Strauß and Edmund Stoiber were CDU/CSU candidates for Chancellor in the 1980 federal election and the 2002 federal election which were both won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Below the federal level, the parties are independent. Since its formation, the CSU has been more conservative than the CDU.
The CSU and the state of Bavaria decided not to sign the Grundgesetz of the Federal Republic of Germany as they could not agree with the division of Germany into two states after World War II. Although Bavaria like all German states has a separate police and justice system, the CSU has participated in all political affairs of the German Parliament, the German government, the German Bundesrat, the parliamentary elections of the German President, the European Parliament and meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia; the CSU has contributed eleven of the twelve Ministers-President of Bavaria since 1945, with only Wilhelm Hoegner of the SPD holding the office. List of Christian Social Union of Bavaria politicians Politics of Germany Alf Mintzel. Die CSU. Anatomie einer konservativen Partei 1945-1972. Opladen. Christlich-Soziale Union – official site Christian-Social Union Christian-Social Union of Bavaria
Vehicle registration plate
A vehicle registration plate known as a number plate or a license plate, is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes. All countries require registration plates for road vehicles such as cars and motorcycles. Whether they are required for other vehicles, such as bicycles, boats, or tractors, may vary by jurisdiction; the registration identifier is a numeric or alphanumeric ID that uniquely identifies the vehicle owner within the issuing region's vehicle register. In some countries, the identifier is unique within the entire country, while in others it is unique within a state or province. Whether the identifier is associated with a vehicle or a person varies by issuing agency. There are electronic license plates. Most governments require a registration plate to be attached to both the front and rear of a vehicle, although certain jurisdictions or vehicle types, such as motorboats, require only one plate, attached to the rear of the vehicle.
National databases relate this number to other information describing the vehicle, such as the make, colour, year of manufacture, engine size, type of fuel used, mileage recorded, vehicle identification number, the name and address of the vehicle's registered owner or keeper. In the vast majority of jurisdictions, the government holds a monopoly on the manufacturing of vehicle registration plates for that jurisdiction. Either a government agency or a private company with express contractual authorization from the government makes plates as needed, which are mailed to, delivered to, or picked up by the vehicle owners. Thus, it is illegal for private citizens to make and affix their own plates, because such unauthorized private manufacturing is equivalent to forging an official document. Alternatively, the government will assign plate numbers, it is the vehicle owner's responsibility to find an approved private supplier to make a plate with that number. In some jurisdictions, plates will be permanently assigned to that particular vehicle for its lifetime.
If the vehicle is either destroyed or exported to a different country, the plate number is retired or reissued. China requires the re-registration of any vehicle that crosses its borders from another country, such as for overland tourist visits, regardless of the length of time it is due to remain there. Other jurisdictions follow a "plate-to-owner" policy, meaning that when a vehicle is sold the seller removes the current plate from the vehicle. Buyers must either obtain new plates or attach plates they hold, as well as register their vehicles under the buyer's name and plate number. A person who sells a car and purchases a new one can apply to have the old plates put onto the new car. One who sells a car and does not buy a new one may, depending on the local laws involved, have to turn the old plates in or destroy them, or may be permitted to keep them; some jurisdictions permit the registration of the vehicle with "personal" plates. In some jurisdictions, plates require periodic replacement associated with a design change of the plate itself.
Vehicle owners may or may not have the option to keep their original plate number, may have to pay a fee to exercise this option. Alternately, or additionally, vehicle owners have to replace a small decal on the plate or use a decal on the windshield to indicate the expiration date of the vehicle registration, periodic safety and/or emissions inspections or vehicle taxation. Other jurisdictions have replaced the decal requirement through the use of computerization: a central database maintains records of which plate numbers are associated with expired registrations, communicating with automated number plate readers to enable law-enforcement to identify expired registrations in the field. Plates are fixed directly to a vehicle or to a plate frame, fixed to the vehicle. Sometimes, the plate frames contain advertisements inserted by the vehicle service centre or the dealership from which the vehicle was purchased. Vehicle owners can purchase customized frames to replace the original frames. In some jurisdictions registration plate frames have design restrictions.
For example, many states, like Texas, allow plate frames but prohibit plate frames from covering the name of the state, district, Native American tribe or country that issued of license plate. Plates are designed to conform to standards with regard to being read by eye in day or at night, or by electronic equipment; some drivers purchase clear, smoke-colored or tinted covers that go over the registration plate to prevent electronic equipment from scanning the registration plate. Legality of these covers varies; some cameras incorporate filter systems that make such avoidance attempts unworkable with infra-red filters. Vehicles pulling trailers, such as caravans and semi-trailer trucks, are required to display a third registration plate on the rear of the trailer. An engineering study by the University of Illinois published in 1960 recommended that the state of Illinois adopt a numbering system and plate design "composed of combinations of characters which can be perceived and are legible at a distance of 125 feet under daylight conditions, are adapted to filing and administrative procedures".
It recommended that a standard plate size of 6 inches by 14 inches be adopte
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are translated into English as mayor. In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was held by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. Präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts. In an important city in a city state, where one of the Bürgermeister has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president, there can be several posts called Bürgermeister in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate, such as: Regierender Bürgermeister in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term Bürgermeister without attribute – English Mayor – refers to his deputies, while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called Bezirksbürgermeister, English borough mayor.
Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats in Bremen Amtsbürgermeister can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 Bürgermeister, in German: in Germany, South Tyrol, in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany; the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world; however the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister. Borgmester Borgarstjóri Borgermester Börgermester Burgomaestre Purkmistr Burgumaisu Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro: in few communes of Lombardy Burgemeester in Dutch: in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and the province.
Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. Bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Buergermeeschter Polgármester, derived from German. Burmistrz, a mayoral title, derived from German; the German form Oberbürgermeister is translated as Nadburmistrz. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare. Boargemaster Pormestari In the Netherlands and Belgium, the mayor is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality. In the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of the municipal council, they are members of the council of mayor and aldermen and have their own portfolios, always including safety and public order. They have a representative role for the municipal government, both to its civilians and to other authorities on the local and national level.
A large majority of mayors are members of a political party. This can be the majority party in the municipal council. However, the mayors are expected to exercise their office in a non-partisan way; the mayor is appointed by the national government for a renewable six-year term. In the past, mayors for important cities were chosen after negotiations between the national parties; this appointment procedure has been criticised. The party D66 had a direct election of the mayor as one of the main objectives in its platform. In the early 2000s, proposals for change were discussed in the national parliament. However
The Ahom kingdom was a kingdom originating in Medieval India, in the Brahmaputra Valley in Assam, India. It is well known for maintaining its sovereignty for nearly 600 years and resisting Mughal expansion in Northeast India. Established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, it began as a mong in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra based on wet rice agriculture, it expanded under Suhungmung in the 16th century and became multi-ethnic in character, casting a profound effect on the political and social life of the entire Brahmaputra valley. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion, subsequently fell to repeated Burmese invasions of Assam. With the defeat of the Burmese after the First Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandabo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into East India Company hands. Though it came to be called the Ahom kingdom in the colonial and subsequent times, it was multi-ethnic, with the ethnic Ahom people constituting less than 10% of the population toward the end.
The 1901 census of India enumerated 179,000 people identifying as Ahom. The latest available census records over 2 million Ahom individuals, estimates of the total number of people descended from the original Tai-Ahom settlers are as high as 8 million; the total population of Assam being at 31 million according to the 2011 census, they presently constitute over 25%. The Ahoms called their kingdom Mong Dun Shun Kham; the British-controlled province after 1838 and the Indian state of Assam came to be known by this name. The Ahom kingdom was established in 1228 when the first Ahom king Sukaphaa came from Mong Mao and entered the Brahmaputra valley, crossing the rugged Patkai mountain range, he was accompanied by his three queens, two sons, several nobles and officials and their families, soldiers totaling more than nine thousand persons. He crossed the Patkai and reached Namruk on 2 December 1228 and occupied a region on the south bank with the Burhidihing river in the north, the Dikhau river in the south and the Patkai mountains in the east.
He befriended the local groups, the Barahi and the Marans settled his capital at Charaideo and established the offices of the Dangarias— the Burhagohain and the Borgohain. In the 1280s, these two offices were given independent regions of control and the check and balance that these three main offices accorded each other was established; the Ahoms brought with them the technology of wet rice cultivation that they shared with other groups. The people that took to the Ahom way of life and polity were incorporated into their fold in a process of Ahomization; as a result of this process the Barahi people, for instance, were subsumed, some of the other groups like some Nagas and the Maran peoples became Ahoms, thus enhancing the Ahom numbers significantly. This process of Ahomization was significant till the 16th century when under Suhungmung, the kingdom made large territorial expansions at the cost of the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms; the expansion was so large and so rapid that the Ahomization process could not keep pace and the Ahoms became a minority in their kingdom.
This resulted in a change in the character of the kingdom and it became multi-ethnic and inclusive. Hindu influences, which were first felt under Bamuni Konwar at the end of the 14th century, became significant. Rudra Singha introduced Islamic prayers in the court; the Assamese language entered the Ahom court and co-existed with the Tai language for some time in the 17th century before replacing it. The rapid expansion of the state was accompanied by the installation of a new high office, the Borpatrogohain, at par with the other two high offices and not without opposition from them. Two special offices, the Sadiakhowa Gohain, the Marangikowa Gohain were created to oversee the regions won over from the Chutiya and the Kachari kingdoms respectively; the subjects of the kingdom were organized under the Paik system based on the phoid or kinship relations, which formed the militia. The kingdom came under attack from Turkic and Afghan rulers of Bengal. On one occasion, the Ahoms under Ton Kham Borgohain pursued the invaders and reached the Karatoya river, the Ahoms began to see themselves as the rightful heir of the erstwhile Kamarupa kingdom.
The Ahom kingdom took many features of its mature form under Pratap Singha. The Paik system was reorganized under the professional khel system, replacing the kinship-based phoid system. Under the same king, the offices of the Borphukan, the Borbarua were established along with other smaller offices. No more major restructuring of the state structure was attempted until the end of the kingdom; the kingdom came under repeated Mughal attacks in the 17th century, on one occasion in 1662, the Mughals under Mir Jumla occupied the capital, Garhgaon. The Mughals were unable to keep it, in at the end of the Battle of Saraighat, the Ahoms not only fended off a major Mughal invasion but extended their boundaries west, up to the Manas river. Following a period of confusion, the kingdom got itself the last set of kings, the Tungkhungia kings, established by Gadadhar Singha; the rule of Tungkhungia kings was marked by peace and achievements in the Arts and engineering constructions. The phase of the rule was marked by increasing social conflicts, leading to the Moamoria rebellion.
The rebels were able to capture and maintain power at the capital Rangpur for some years but were removed with the help of the British under Captain Welsh. The following repr