Lucius Caesar was the grandson of Augustus. The son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder, Augustus' only daughter, Lucius was adopted by his grandfather along with his older brother, Gaius Caesar; as the emperor's adopted sons and joint-heirs to the Roman Empire and Gaius had promising political and military careers. However, Lucius died of a sudden illness on 20 August AD 2, in Massilia, while traveling to meet the Roman army in Hispania, his brother Gaius died at a young age on 21 February, AD 4. The untimely loss of both heirs compelled Augustus to redraw the line of succession by adopting Lucius' younger brother, Agrippa Postumus as well as his stepson, Tiberius on 26 June AD 4. Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was an early supporter of Augustus during the Final War of the Roman Republic that ensued as a result of the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC, his father was a key general in Augustus' armies, commanding troops in pivotal battles against Mark Antony and Sextus Pompeius. From early in the emperor's reign, Agrippa was trusted to handle affairs in the eastern provinces and was given the signet ring of Augustus, on his deathbed in 23 BC, a sign that he would become princeps were Augustus to die.
It is probable that he was to rule until the emperor's nephew, Marcus Claudius Marcellus, came of age. However, Marcellus died of an illness. With Marcellus gone, Augustus arranged for the marriage of Agrippa to his daughter Julia the Elder, the wife of Marcellus. Agrippa was given tribunicia potestas in 18 BC, a power that only the emperor and his immediate heir could hope to attain; the tribunician power allowed him to control the Senate, it was first given to Julius Caesar. Agrippa acted as tribune in the Senate to pass important legislation and, though he lacked some of the emperor's power and authority, he was approaching the position of co-regent. Lucius was born in Rome in 17 BC to Marcus Vipsanius Julia, he was part of the imperial family of Augustus, known as the Julio-Claudian dynasty, was related to all the Julio-Claudian emperors. On his mother's side, he was the second oldest grandson of emperor Augustus after his brother Gaius, he was the brother-in-law of Tiberius by his half-sister Vipsania Agrippina, Claudius by his sister Agrippina the Elder's marriage to Germanicus.
Lucius' nephew was the future emperor Caligula, Germanicus' son. Having no heir since the death of Marcellus, Augustus adopted Lucius and his brother from their father by a symbolic sale following Lucius' birth, named the two boys his heirs, it is unknown. Shortly after their adoption in the summer, Augustus held the fifth Ludi Saeculares; the adoption of the boys coupled with the games served to introduce a new era of peace – the Pax Augusta. Augustus by himself, taught Gaius and Lucius how to read and swim, as well as how to imitate his own handwriting, he insisted. Their adoptive father initiated them into administrative life when they were still young, sent them to the provinces as consuls-elect; that year Lucius' family left for the province of Syria, because his father was given command of the eastern provinces with proconsular authority. In 13 BC, his father was promptly sent to Pannonia to suppress a rebellion. Agrippa arrived there that winter. Agrippa returned to Campania in Italy, where he died soon after.
The death of Lucius' father made succession a pressing issue. The aurei and denarii issued in 13–12 BC made clear the Emperor's dynastic plans for Lucius and Gaius, their father was no longer available to assume the reins of power if the Emperor were to die, Augustus had to make it clear who his intended heirs were in case anything should happen. Augustus brought Lucius to the Forum Romanum in 2 BC to enroll him as a citizen; the event was made into a ceremony the same. Lucius assumed the toga virilis, marking the beginning of his adulthood, he too was made princeps iuventutis. Like Gaius, he was elected consul designatus, with the intent that he assume the consulship at the age of nineteen. There was only one difference in his titles from those of Gaius: that he was made a member of the college of augurs whereas Gaius was made a pontifex. Augustus distributed 60 denarii to each Roman citizen to mark the occasion; that same year, before his brother Gaius left for the east and Gaius were given the authority to consecrate buildings, they did, with their management of the games held to celebrate the dedication of the Temple of Mars Ultor.
Their younger brother, participated in the Trojan games with the rest of the equestrian youth. 260 lions were slaughtered in the Circus Maximus, there was gladiatorial combat, a naval battle between the "Persians" and the "Athenians", 36 crocodiles were slaughtered in the Circus Flaminius. While Gaius was in Armenia, Lucius had been sent by Augustus to complete his military training in Hispania. While on the way to his post, he died on 20 August AD 2 in Massalia, Gaul, his death was followed by that of Gaius on 21 February AD 4. In the span of 18 months, the succession of Rome was shaken; the death of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, led Augustus to adopt his stepson and his sole remaining grandson, Postumus Agrippa as his n
Marcus Antonius known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire. Antony was a supporter of Julius Caesar, served as one of his generals during the conquest of Gaul and the Civil War. Antony was appointed administrator of Italy while Caesar eliminated political opponents in Greece, North Africa, Spain. After Caesar's death in 44 BC, Antony joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another of Caesar's generals, Octavian, Caesar's great-nephew and adopted son, forming a three-man dictatorship known to historians as the Second Triumvirate; the Triumvirs defeated Caesar's murderers, the Liberatores, at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, divided the government of the Republic between themselves. Antony was assigned Rome's eastern provinces, including the client kingdom of Egypt ruled by Cleopatra VII Philopator, was given the command in Rome's war against Parthia.
Relations among the triumvirs were strained. Civil war between Antony and Octavian was averted in 40 BC, when Antony married Octavian's sister, Octavia. Despite this marriage, Antony carried on a love affair with Cleopatra, who bore him three children, further straining Antony's relations with Octavian. Lepidus was expelled from the association in 36 BC, in 33 BC disagreements between Antony and Octavian caused a split between the remaining Triumvirs, their ongoing hostility erupted into civil war in 31 BC, as the Roman Senate, at Octavian's direction, declared war on Cleopatra and proclaimed Antony a traitor. That year, Antony was defeated by Octavian's forces at the Battle of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. With Antony dead, Octavian became the undisputed master of the Roman world. In 27 BC, Octavian was granted the title of Augustus, marking the final stage in the transformation of the Roman Republic into an empire, with himself as the first Roman emperor. A member of the plebeian Antonia gens, Antony was born in Rome on 14 January 83 BC.
His father and namesake was Marcus Antonius Creticus, son of the noted orator by the same name, murdered during the Marian Terror of the winter of 87–86 BC. His mother was a distant cousin of Julius Caesar. Antony was an infant at the time of Lucius Cornelius Sulla's march on Rome in 82 BC. According to the Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero, Antony's father was incompetent and corrupt, was only given power because he was incapable of using or abusing it effectively. In 74 BC he was given military command to defeat the pirates of the Mediterranean, but he died in Crete in 71 BC without making any significant progress; the elder Antony's death left Antony and his brothers and Gaius, in the care of their mother, who married Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, an eminent member of the old Patrician nobility. Lentulus, despite exploiting his political success for financial gain, was in debt due to the extravagance of his lifestyle, he was a major figure in the Second Catilinarian Conspiracy and was summarily executed on the orders of the Consul Cicero in 63 BC for his involvement.
Antony's early life was characterized by a lack of proper parental guidance. According to the historian Plutarch, he spent his teenage years wandering through Rome with his brothers and friends gambling and becoming involved in scandalous love affairs. Antony's contemporary and enemy, claimed he had a homosexual relationship with Gaius Scribonius Curio. There is little reliable information on his political activity as a young man, although it is known that he was an associate of Publius Clodius Pulcher and his street gang, he may have been involved in the Lupercal cult as he was referred to as a priest of this order in life. By age twenty, Antony had amassed an enormous debt. Hoping to escape his creditors, Antony fled to Greece in 58 BC, where he studied philosophy and rhetoric at Athens. In 57 BC, Antony joined the military staff of Aulus Gabinius, the Proconsul of Syria, as chief of the cavalry; this appointment marks the beginning of his military career. As Consul the previous year, Gabinius had consented to the exile of Cicero by Antony's mentor, Publius Clodius Pulcher.
Hyrcanus II, the Roman-supported Hasmonean High Priest of Judea, fled Jerusalem to Gabinius to seek protection against his rival and son-in-law Alexander. Years earlier in 63 BC, the Roman general Pompey had captured him and his father, King Aristobulus II, during his war against the remnant of the Seleucid Empire. Pompey had deposed Aristobulus and installed Hyrcanus as Rome's client ruler over Judea. Antony achieved his first military distinctions after securing important victories at Alexandrium and Machaerus. With the rebellion defeated by 56 BC, Gabinius restored Hyrcanus to his position as High Priest in Judea; the following year, in 55 BC, Gabinius intervened in the political affairs of Ptolemaic Egypt. Pharaoh Ptolemy XII Auletes had been deposed in a rebellion led by his daughter Berenice IV in 58 BC, forcing him to seek asylum in Rome. During Pompey's conquests years earlier, Ptolemy had received the support of Pompey, who named him an ally of Rome. Gabinius' invasion sought to restore Ptolemy to his throne.
This was done against the orders of the Senate but with the approval of Pompey Rome's leading politician, only after the deposed king provided a 10,000 talent bribe. The Greek historian Plutarch records it was Antony who convinced Gabinius to act. After defeating the frontier forces of the Egyptian kingdom, Gabinius's army proceeded to attack the palace guards but they surrendered before a battle commenced
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 162 BC)
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, son of the Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in 192 BC, was chosen pontifex in 172 BC, when still a young man, in 169 BC was sent with two others as commissioners into Macedonia. In 167 BC he was one of the ten commissioners for arranging the affairs of Macedonia in conjunction with Aemilius Paulus, he was the father of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, consul in 122 BC. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Ahenobarbus". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. P. 84
Julia the Elder
Julia the Elder, known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia, was the daughter of Augustus Caesar, the first Roman Emperor, his second wife, Scribonia. Julia was stepsister and second wife of the Emperor Tiberius. At the time of Julia's birth, 39 BC, Augustus had not yet received the title "Augustus" and was known as "Gaius Julius Caesar Divi Filius," though historians refer to him as "Octavian" until 27 BC, when Julia was 11. Octavian took Julia from her soon thereafter. Octavian, in accordance with Roman custom, claimed complete parental control over her, she was sent to live with her stepmother Livia when she was old enough and learn how to be an aristocrat. Her education appears to have been somewhat old-fashioned. Thus, in addition to her studies, Suetonius informs us, she was taught weaving. Macrobius mentions "her love of literature and considerable culture, a thing easy to come by in that household". Julia's social life was controlled, she was allowed to talk only to people whom her father had vetted.
However, Octavian had a great affection for his daughter and made sure she had the best teachers available. Macrobius preserves a remark of Augustus: "There are two wayward daughters that I have to put up with: the Roman commonwealth and Julia."In 37 BC, during Julia's early childhood, Octavian's friends Gaius Maecenas and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa concluded an agreement with Octavian's great rival Mark Antony. It was sealed with an engagement: Antony's ten-year-old son Marcus Antonius Antyllus was to marry Julia two years old; the engagement never led to a marriage. In 31 BC, at the Battle of Actium and Agrippa defeated Antony and his wife, Cleopatra. In Alexandria, they both committed suicide, Octavian became sole ruler of the Roman Empire; as with most aristocratic Roman women of the period, expectations of Julia focused on marriage and on the resulting family alliances. Moreover, Augustus desired a male issue. In 25 BC, at the age of fourteen, Julia married her first cousin Marcus Claudius Marcellus, the son of her father's sister Octavia, some three years older than her.
Augustus himself was not present for the wedding as he was fighting a war in Spain and had fallen ill. Instead, he commissioned Agrippa to hold the festival in his absence; the decision to marry Marcellus to Julia, Augustus's choice to raise Marcellus to the pontificate and curule aedileship, was perceived to be an indication that he would be Augustus' successor in power, despite his youth. This put him at odds with Agrippa. However, Marcellus died in September 23 BC; the union produced no children. In 21 BC, having now reached the age of 18, Julia married Agrippa, a man from a modest family who had risen to become Augustus' most trusted general and friend; this step is said to have been taken on the advice of Maecenas, who in counseling him remarked: "You have made him so great that he must either become your son-in-law or be slain." Since Agrippa was nearly 25 years her elder, it was a typical arranged marriage, with Julia functioning as a pawn in her father's dynastic plans. There is from this period the report of an infidelity with one Sempronius Gracchus, with whom Julia had a lasting liaison.
This was the first of a series of alleged adulteries. According to Suetonius, Julia's marital status did not prevent her from conceiving a passion for Augustus' stepson, thus her stepbrother, Tiberius, so it was rumoured; the newlyweds lived in a villa in Rome that has since been excavated near the modern Farnesina in Trastevere. Agrippa and Julia's marriage resulted in five children: Gaius Caesar, Julia the Younger, Lucius Caesar, Agrippina the Elder, Agrippa Postumus. From June 20 BC to the spring of 18 BC, Agrippa was governor of Gaul, it is that Julia followed him across the Alps. Shortly after their arrival, their first child Gaius was born, in 19 BC, Julia gave birth to Vipsania Julia. After their return to Italy, a third child followed: a son named Lucius. In 17 BC, Augustus adopted the three-year-old Gaius, he took care of their education personally. Although Agrippa died in 12 BC, Augustus did not adopt the third brother, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Posthumus, until AD 4, after the exile of Julia - and after the deaths of both Gaius and Lucius.
Nicolaus and Josephus mention that during Julia's marriage to Agrippa, she travelled to meet Agrippa where he was campaigning. She was caught up in a flash flood in Ilium, drowned. Agrippa was furious, in his anger he fined the locals 100,000 drachmae; the fine was a heavy blow but no one would face Agrippa to request an appeal. Only after Herod, king of Judaea, went to Agrippa to request a pardon did he withdraw the fine. In the spring of 16 BC, Agrippa and Julia started a tour through the eastern provinces, where they visited Herod. In October 14 BC, the couple traveled to Athens, where Julia gave birth to her fourth child, Agrippina. After the winter, the family returned to Italy. Julia
Aemilia Lepida is the name of several ancient Roman women belonging to the gens Aemilia. The name was given to daughters of men belonging to the Lepidus branch of the Aemilius family; the first Aemilia Lepida to be mentioned by Roman historians was the former fiancée of the younger Cato. Subsequent Aemiliae are known because of their marriages; this Aemilia was daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus, wife of Metellus Scipio and former fiancée of Cato. Her daughter was last wife and widow of Pompey the Great. Although Aemilia Lepida was engaged to be married to Cato the Younger, she in fact married someone else, leaving Cato to marry Atilia. In the words of Plutarch's Parallel Lives, Life of Cato the Younger, 7: When he thought that he was old enough to marry,— and up to that time he had consorted with no woman,— he engaged himself to Lepida, betrothed to Metellus Scipio, but was now free, since Scipio had rejected her and the betrothal had been broken. However, before the marriage Scipio changed his mind again, by dint of every effort got the maid.
Cato was exasperated and inflamed by this, attempted to go to law about it. Lepida and Cato were first cousins with Cato's mother being blood siblings. Aemilia Lepida was a Roman noble woman who lived in the 1st century BC, she was the first wife of Lucius Cornelius Sulla Faustus, consul in 5 BC. She bore him several children including her son, suffect consul of 31, Faustus Cornelius Sulla Lucullus. One of her daughters-in-law was Domitia Lepida a great niece of Emperor Augustus and a granddaughter of triumvir Mark Antony. One of her grandchildren was consul Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix. Aemilia Lepida may have been the name of the wife of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, due to the name of Ahenobarbus's granddaughter, Domitia Lepida, her only child was her son Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus. Her son married Antonia Major, a niece of Roman Emperor Augustus and a daughter to Augustus' sister Octavia Minor and Mark Antony, their children were Domitia Lepida the Elder, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Domitia Lepida the Younger.
Aemilia died before 31 BC. Aemilia Lepida was his wife Julia the Younger, she was the first great-grandchild of the Emperor Augustus, at one time was a fiancée of the future Emperor Claudius. Lepida had several children with her husband, Marcus Junius Silanus, two of her sons became consuls. Aemilia Lepida was the daughter to Lepidus the sister to Manius Aemilius Lepidus, she married the wealthy Roman Governor Publius Sulpicius Quirinius. In her younger years, she was engaged to Emperor Augustus’ heir Lucius Caesar, she had borne a daughter to senator Mamercus Aemilius Scaurus. In 20, she was charged with adultery, consulting astrologers, falsely to claim to bear a son to her ex-husband and attempting to poison her ex-husband. At her trial her brother defended her. During her trial, the Games were held. Other distinguished ladies, accompanied her into the theatre and protested her innocence to Emperor Tiberius, she was exiled. Aemilia Lepida was daughter of Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, consul in 6 and niece to the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus.
Despite her uncle's disgrace, due to her father's high standing with the Roman emperors and the Senate, she married her second cousin Drusus Caesar. Tacitus reports that during their marriage "she had pursued her husband with ceaseless accusations". In 36, she was charged with adultery with a slave and committed suicide, "since there was no question about her guilt". Aemilia Lepida was daughter of Manius Aemilius Lepidus, consul in AD 11; this Aemilia Lepida is identified with Lepida, wife of the short-lived Roman Emperor Galba. She bore him two sons before her death, she died young, their sons died young. Galba never remarried; when Lepida lived, Agrippina the Younger tried to make shameless advances to Galba, devoted to his wife and thus uninterested. On one occasion Lepida's mother gave Agrippina the Younger, while in the company of a whole bevy of married women, a public reprimand and slapped her in the face
Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux were twin half-brothers in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri. Their mother was Leda. Though accounts of their birth are varied, they are sometimes said to have been born from an egg, along with their twin sisters Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. In Latin the twins are known as the Gemini or Castores, as well as the Tyndaridae or Tyndarids; when Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, they were associated with horsemanship, due to the idea that they rode the'white horses' of foam that were formed by curling ocean waves. There is much contradictory information regarding the parentage of the Dioscuri. In the Homeric Odyssey, they are the sons of Tyndareus alone, but they were sons of Zeus in the Hesiodic Catalogue; the conventional account combined these paternities so that only Pollux was fathered by Zeus, while Leda and her husband Tyndareus conceived Castor.
This explains. The figure of Tyndareus may have entered their tradition to explain their archaic name Tindaridai in Spartan inscriptions, or Tyndaridai in literature, in turn occasioning incompatible accounts of their parentage, their other sisters were Timandra and Philonoe. Castor and Pollux are sometimes both mortal, sometimes both divine. One consistent point is. In Homer's Iliad, Helen looks down from the walls of Troy and wonders why she does not see her brothers among the Achaeans; the narrator remarks that they are both dead and buried back in their homeland of Lacedaemon, thus suggesting that at least in some early traditions, both were mortal. Their death and shared immortality offered by Zeus was material of the lost Cypria in the Epic cycle; the Dioscuri were regarded as helpers of humankind and held to be patrons of travellers and of sailors in particular, who invoked them to seek favourable winds. Their role as horsemen and boxers led to them being regarded as the patrons of athletes and athletic contests.
They characteristically intervened at the moment of crisis, aiding those who honoured or trusted them. Ancient Greek authors tell a number of versions of the story of Pollux. Homer portrays them as ordinary mortals, treating them as dead in the Iliad, but in the Odyssey they are treated as alive though "the corn-bearing earth holds them"; the author describes them as "having honour equal to gods", living on alternate days because of the intervention of Zeus. In both the Odyssey and in Hesiod, they are described as the sons of Leda. In Pindar, Pollux is the son of Zeus; the theme of ambiguous parentage is not unique to Pollux. The Dioscuri are invoked in Alcaeus' Fragment 34a, though whether this poem antedates the Homeric Hymn to the twins is unknown, they appear together in two plays by Euripides and Elektra. Cicero tells the story of how Simonides of Ceos was rebuked by Scopas, his patron, for devoting too much space to praising Castor and Pollux in an ode celebrating Scopas' victory in a chariot race.
Shortly afterwards, Simonides was told. Both Dioscuri were excellent horsemen and hunters who participated in the hunting of the Calydonian Boar and joined the crew of Jason's ship, the Argo. During the expedition of the Argonauts, Pollux took part in a boxing contest and defeated King Amycus of the Bebryces, a savage mythical people in Bithynia. After returning from the voyage, the Dioscuri helped Jason and Peleus to destroy the city of Iolcus in revenge for the treachery of its king Pelias; when their sister Helen was abducted by Theseus, the half-brothers invaded his kingdom of Attica to rescue her. In revenge they abducted Theseus's mother Aethra and took her to Sparta while setting his rival, Menestheus, on the throne of Athens. Aethra was forced to become Helen's slave, she was returned to her home by her grandsons Demophon and Acamas after the fall of Troy. Castor and Pollux aspired to marry the Leucippides and Hilaeira, whose father was a brother of Leucippus. Both women were betrothed to cousins of the Dioscuri, the twin brothers Lynceus and Idas of Thebes, sons of Tyndareus's brother Aphareus.
Castor and Pollux carried the women off to Sparta. This began a family feud among the four sons of the brothers Aphareus; the cousins carried out a cattle-raid in Arcadia together but fell out over the division of the meat. After stealing the herd, but before dividing it, the cousins butchered and roasted a calf; as they prepared to eat, the gigantic Idas suggested that the herd be divided into two parts instead of four, based on which pair of cousins finished their meal first. Castor and Pollux agreed. Idas ate both his portion and Lynceus' portion. Castor and Pollux had been duped, they allo