Time in the Republic of Ireland
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period. In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 established that the time for general purposes in the State shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; this act was amended by the Standard Time Act 1971, which established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, reverts to standard time in the summer months; this is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result. The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October, ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March; the following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time: Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March.
The Statutes Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time, defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. Summer time had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party. T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness".
After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925; the 1925 act provided a default summer time period. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. From 1968 standard time was observed all year round, with no winter time change; this was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, was undone in 1971. In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time. One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" refers to summer time. From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union; the statutory instruments that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI.
Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 are "Winter Time Order <year>". 1926/, 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232, 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506 Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice and Equality in November 2011, but the government stated it had no plans to change. In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill.
On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal; the United Kingdom is due to have left the EU by and, if the UK does not follow the reform and contin
Daphne Pochin Mould
Dr Daphne Desiree Charlotte Pochin Mould was a photographer, geologist, traveller and Ireland's first female flight instructor. She had a strong interest in archaeology and took thousands of oblique aerial photos across most of southern Ireland; the collection created is private but is catalogued and some photos may be available. Pochin Mould was born in Salisbury in England near Stonehenge in 1920, she studied geology in Edinburgh during the war. In 1946 she received her Ph. D. in geology from the University of Edinburgh for her thesis entitled'The Geology of the Foyers Plutonic Complex and the surrounding country'. Born into an Anglican family Pochin Mould first became agnostic, determined to attack religion in the name of truth. However, during the writing of one of her early books she converted to Catholicism and became Catholic on 11 November 1950, she moved to Ireland following her conversion and an interest in the Celtic saints and lived in Aherla, Co Cork, Ireland subsequently. Pochin Mould learned to drive at 17 and always had an interest in machinery.
She learned to fly and found it useful for cataloguing archaeological sites in fields that could be seen from the air. She was known for being a skilled pilot. In 1993 she received an honorary doctorate from University College Cork when she was described as "a scientist and a free spirit, a courageous pioneer and an outstanding woman warrior". According to the late Professor Colm Ó hEocha, President of University College Galway there are three criteria for honorary doctorates from the National University of Ireland: The person's achievement must be outstanding Irish life must have been enriched by it and The conferring of the honorary degree must honour the university as well as the person. Daphne Pochin Mould died at Aherla, County Cork, on 29 April 2014. Discovering Cork Valentia: Portrait of an Island Aran Islands Mountains of Ireland The Monasteries of Ireland: An Introduction Ireland. A Short Guide The Irish saints: Short biographies of the principal Irish saints from the time of St. Patrick to that of St. Laurence O'Toole The Second Vatican Council Angels of God: their rightful place in the modern world The Lord is Risen: The Liturgy of Paschal Time Peter's boat: A convert's experience of Catholic living The Irish Dominicans: The Friars Preachers in the History of Catholic Ireland Irish pilgrimage The Celtic saints, our heritage.
Mountains of Ireland Ireland of the Saints West Over Sea, The Rock of Truth Scotland of the Saints The Roads From the Isles: a Study of the North-West Highland Tracks Wooden ships and iron men Timber Brother Gerard of Taizé Miscellany of Creative Writings. IRELAND OF THE WELCOMES MAGAZINE Monte Sant'Angelo perched between rock and sky The Geology of the Foyers “Granite” and the Surrounding Country Geological Magazine / Volume 83 / Issue 06 / December 1946, pp 249–265 M. J. O'K. "Rev. of Irish Pilgrimage, by Daphne D. D. C. Pochin Mould." Blarney Magazine. 10. 70-71. Spray, Glenys, "A Magnificent Woman in her Flying Machine," in Wise Women: A Portrait. Cork: Bradshaw Books, 129-137. Review of a short biography of Pochin Mould
Ballincollig is a satellite town to Cork city and the largest town in County Cork, Ireland. It is located 9 km west of Cork city, beside the River Lee on the R608 regional road. In 2016 the population of the Ballincollig Electoral Division was 18,621; the nearest towns include Ballinora, Kilnaglory, Killumney, Inniscarra and Tower. It is located beyond the green belt from the Cork city suburbs of Wilton. Many people from Ballincollig commute to the city for work, it is a residential town. The Barrett family built Ballincollig Castle during the reign of Edward III; the castle was taken from Andrew Barrett by rebels in 1641, but they were expelled by English Parliamentary forces under Murrough O'Brien, Earl Inchiquinn, in 1645. It was garrisoned for James II in 1689, during the Williamite war in Ireland remained unoccupied after his defeat, fell into decay; the Ballincollig Royal Gunpowder Mills were opened in 1794 by Charles Henry Leslie, a prominent Cork businessman. Eleven years the mills were bought by the British, who were preparing for war with Napoleon, the barracks were built to protect the supply of gunpowder.
It was one of the largest gunpowder mills in the British Isles. In 1837, the mill employed several hundred workers, by 1880, Ballincollig was one of the largest industrial establishments in Cork, with the mill employing many men and boys from the area. With the closure of the Gunpowder Mills in the early 1900s, Ballincollig became little more than a small village on the road from Cork city to the larger market town of Macroom; the 3rd Royal Munster Fusiliers Battalion were stationed there during the Great War. Other Regiments stationed in the Barracks before it was decommissioned were 1st Field Artillery Regiment and 8th Field Artillery Regiment; the decommissioned Murphy Barracks was a major source of employment. In the 1970s, Ballincollig developed as much more of a satellite town, with many housing developments constructed around the old village, housing people who worked in Cork city or its suburbs; this expansion continued through the late 90s. The town's population has risen particularly with the westward expansion of the town.
Ballincollig has grown to be largest town in the county. Two Catholic churches are located in the town; the modern'Church of Christ Our Light' is located on the west side of the town, while the old'Church of St Mary and St John' is located near the centre of the town, on Station Road. The Bible Baptist Church meets in the Westgate Foundation on the west end of town; the church is associated with other Gospel ministries. Other religious groups including Hindus and Greek Orthodox have services at various locations in Ballincollig; as of the 2011 census, Ballincollig was 87% Catholic, 7% other religions, 5% no religion, with 1% not stated. Ethnically, the town is 83% white Irish, 10% other white, 3% black, 2% Asian, 1% other, 1% not stated; the amenities located in Ballincollig include a library, a multiplex cinema, shopping centres and the Ballincollig Regional Park. The recreational park, Ballincollig Regional Park, includes the former gunpowder mill and measures 135 acres, with 52 structures in varying stages of decay surviving from the gunpowder manufacturing process.
The site is 2.4 kilometres in length and the River Lee runs the northern length of the site. The site contains a system of canals used during the manufacturing process connecting all the process areas in a single flat system without locks; the canals are fed from the River Lee at the western end of the site. The park contains soccer pitches, a rugby pitch, walkways, a skateboard facility, free-to-use outdoor fitness equipment - the latter installed on the park's western end in November 2011; as a result of a 2012 development plan, which outlined the future of the Regional Park by the Recreation & Amenity section of the local authority, planning was approved for multi-use games areas and a children's playground. This work is now completed. An eighty plot allotment scheme was identified within the development plan, was opened in November 2013 at the Innishmore entrance to the Regional Park. A series of marked trails were laid-out in 2014, consist of four looped walks, colour-coded according to length.
The Military Trail begins at the Shopping Centre Square and continues to the Regional Park by a westerly route. Three other trails of varying lengths begin and end at the western end of the park - at Inniscarra Bridge. There is another playground near the Lidl on the western side of the town. Ballincollig is home to several crèches, four primary schools, two secondary schools; the two secondary schools in Ballincollig are Ballincollig Community School. Ballincollig Community School is located in West Ballincollig and is next to the'Church of Christ Our Light' and Scoil Barra. Coláiste Choilm is located in East Ballincollig and is near a doctor's practice and the town centre of Ballincollig. Scoil Eoin and Scoil Mhuire are located near St John's church. A new three-storey building was opened for Gaelscoil Uí Riordáin in 2012; this is one of two primary and secondary Gaelscoileanna in the area, providing for a large number of pupils who learn through the Irish language in the area. It is one the eastern side of the town.
There is a family entertainment center in the town, which has skating on a plastic surface and play areas. There are shops, a shopp
Church of Ireland
The Church of Ireland is a Christian church in Ireland and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion. It is organised on an all-Ireland basis and is the second largest Christian church on the island after the Roman Catholic Church. Like other Anglican churches, it has retained elements of pre-Reformation practice, notably its episcopal polity, while rejecting the primacy of the Bishop of Rome. In theological and liturgical matters, it incorporates many principles of the Reformation those espoused during the English Reformation; the church self-identifies as being both Reformed. Within the church, differences exist between those members who are more Catholic-leaning and those who are more Protestant-leaning. For historical and cultural reasons, the Church of Ireland is identified as a Protestant church; the Church of Ireland describes itself as that part of the Irish Church, influenced by the Reformation, has its origins in the early Celtic Church of St Patrick. The Church of Ireland considers itself Catholic because it is in possession of a continuous tradition of faith and practice, based on scripture and early traditions, enshrined in the Catholic creeds, together with the sacraments and apostolic ministry.
However, the Church of Ireland is Protestant, or Reformed, since it opposes doctrines and ways of worshipping that it considers contrary to scripture and which led to the Reformation. The Church of Ireland, as a Reformed and Protestant Church, doth hereby re-affirm its constant witness against all those innovations in doctrine and worship whereby the Primitive faith hath been from time to time defaced or overlaid, which at the Reformation this Church did disown and reject; when the English Parliament declared that the Holy See had no power over the Church in England, the Church in Ireland conformed, assuming possession of most church property and so retaining a great repository of religious architecture and other items, though some were destroyed. The church explains its possession of so many of the ancient church buildings of Ireland by reference to the precedent set by Emperor Constantine the Great in the 4th century:Since the days of the Emperor Constantine in the 4th century European states saw themselves as having a central role in the government of the Church.
This church-state link was vigorously applied. Bishops were required to do homage to the king for their lands, just like earls and barons, who were vassals of the crown, it was therefore accepted, both during and after the Reformation, that the Crown should continue to exercise that authority over the church, in which it continued to play a central role. In this way, church property that existed at the time of the Reformation, buildings included, was retained by the Reformed, Established Church of Ireland. In Ireland, a considerable majority of the population continued to adhere to Roman Catholicism despite the political and economic advantages of membership in the state church. Despite its numerical minority, the Church of Ireland remained the official state church until the Irish Church Act 1869 disestablished it on 1 January 1871, under Queen Victoria and her Liberal government led by William Ewart Gladstone; the Church of Ireland claimed that in breaking with Rome the reformed established church was reverting to a condition that had obtained in the church in Ireland prior to the 12th century – the independent character of Celtic Christianity.
Modern scholarship, sees the early Irish church as different to but still a part of Roman Christianity, with the result that the Church of Ireland and the Irish Roman Catholic church can both claim descent from St Patrick. Claims of legitimacy for the Norman invasion of Ireland were derived from a Papal Bull of 1155 – Laudabiliter, although the governing structures in Ireland had never acknowledged any external authority over Ireland; the bull claimed to give King Henry II of England the right to invade Ireland, ostensibly as a means of reforming the church in Ireland more directly under the control of the Holy See. The authorisation from the Holy See was based upon the putative Donation of Constantine which claimed to make every Christian island in the western Roman Empire the property of the Papacy, though as Ireland was never a part of the Roman Empire, it had no real relevance. By the time of the English Reformation, the Donation had been exposed as a forgery, Henry VIII sought to undo by enforcing laws regarding praemunire the historic royal homage to the Papacy, delivered by John, King of England before him.
The Church of Ireland is the second largest church in Ireland and the third largest in Northern Ireland, after the Roman Catholic and Presbyterian churches. In 1155, Adrian IV granted Henry II the Lordship of Ireland; the reformed Church of Ireland was founded in 1536 when the Irish Parliament accepted Henry VIII as its head, rather than the Pope, confirmed when Henry became King of Ireland in 1541. The church was restricted to Dublin, driven by its bishop, George Browne; the pace of reform in quickened after 1547 under Edward VI, ended when his sister Mary I restored Catholicism in 1558. When Elizabeth replaced Mary in 1558, only five Irish bishops accepted the 1560 Elizabethan Settlement. Replacing them was complicated by the relative poverty of the Church compared to its Catholic predecessor, its lack of Irish-speaking clergy and the poor reputation of others. For example, Hugh Curwen backed the reforms of Henry and Edward, was appointed Roman Catholic Archbishop of Dublin in 1555 by Mary, became a Protestant
Roman Catholic Diocese of Cork and Ross
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Cork and Ross is a Roman Catholic diocese in southern Ireland. It is one of six suffragan dioceses in the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and is subject to the Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly; the diocese is in the secular province of Munster. The diocese was formed by an ex aequo principaliter union on 19 April 1958, between the Dioceses of Cork and Ross; the incumbent Ordinary is the Most Rev. Dr. John Buckley; the cathedral church of the diocese is Cathedral of St Anne. The diocese incorporates the city of Cork and the southern and western parts of County Cork, including the towns of Bandon, Carrigaline and Kinsale. Bishops of Cork and Cloyne Donagh MacCarthy Thadeus MacCarthy Bishops of Cork Richard Walsh John Butler Francis Moylan John Murphy William Delany Thomas O’Callaghan, OP Daniel Cohalan Cornelius Lucey Bishops of Cork and Ross Cornelius Lucey Michael Murphy John Buckley Fintan GavinThe bishops were Apostolic Administrators of the Diocese of Ross 1693–1747 and 1954–1958.
The Diocese has been split into 16 Pastoral Areas. Bishop Buckley duly offered his resignation on reaching 75 in November 2014. There are several religious orders and female, based in the diocese, predominantly in the city area, they include: Priests: Augustinians Capuchins Carmelites Dominicans Franciscans Missionaries of the Sacred Heart Rosminians Society of African Missionaries Society of St. Columban Vincentians Society of St Pius X Brothers: Christian Brothers Presentation BrothersSisters: Assumption Sisters Bon Secours Sisters Congregation of Our Lady of the Cenacle Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul Daughters of Our Lady of the Sacred Heart Franciscan Missionaries of St. Joseph Good Shepherd Sisters Infant Jesus Sisters La Retraite Sisters Mercy Sisters – Southern Province Missionary Sisters of the Holy Rosary Our Lady of Apostles Sisters Poor Clares Presentation Sisters Sisters of Marie Reparatrice Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary Sisters Sisters of Charity Ursuline Sisters Note: 1.
Some parishes have now been clustered. 2. Parishes with brackets after them indicate parishes run by religious congregations. Diocese of Cork Diocese of Ross, Ireland Diocese of Cork and Ross Bolster, Evelyn. A History of the Diocese of Cork: From the earliest times to the Reformation. Shannon: Irish University Press. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 6 July 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list pp. 211–212. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 6 July 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 6 July 2016. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 6 July 2016. Diocese of Cork and Ross, History of the Diocese of Cork and Ross Diocese of Cork and Ross, Religious Orders Diocese of Cork and Ross, Religious Orders Diocese of Cork and Ross, Religious Orders
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State and coded as "IE-M". Geographically, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,280,020, with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Waterford. In the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches and ordained priests.
During the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty. Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Corcu Loígde overlords. Rulers from the Eóganachta included Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, Déisi Muman. By the 9th century, the Gaels had been joined by Norse Vikings who founded towns such as Cork and Limerick, for the most part incorporated into a maritime empire by the Dynasty of Ivar, who periodically would threaten Munster with conquest in the next century. Around this period Ossory broke away from Munster; the 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond, north of the River Shannon to Munster. Their leaders were the ancestors of the O'Brien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru the most noted High King of Ireland, several of whose descendants were High Kings.
By 1118, Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the O'Briens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the short-lived Kingdom of Ormond under the O'Kennedys. The three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. There was Norman influence from the 14th century, including by the FitzGerald, de Clare and Butler houses, two of whom carved out earldoms within the Lordship of Ireland, the Earls of Desmond becoming independent potentates, while the Earls of Ormond remained closer to England; the O'Brien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, joining the Kingdom of Ireland. The impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed. By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine the west; the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War.
The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel O'Connell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry. Noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth-century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of ancient goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn and Queen Mongfind; the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. Another legendary figure is Donn; the province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe. The tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster; the Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their ceremonial capital at the Rock of Cashel.
The majority of Irish ogham inscriptions are found in Munster, principally in areas occupied by the Iverni the Corcu Duibne. Europe's first linguistic dictionary in any non-Classical language, the Sanas Cormaic, was compiled by Munster scholars, traditionally thought to have been directed by the king-bishop Cormac mac Cuilennáin; the School of Ross in Munster was one of Europe's leading centres of learning in the Early Middle Ages. Several sports in Munster are organised on a provincial basis, or operate competitions along provincial lines; this includes traditionally popular sports such as hurling, Gaelic football, rugby union and soccer, as well as cricket and others. Munster is noted for its tradition of hurling. Three of the four most successful teams in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship are from Munster; the final of the Munster Senior Hurling Championship is one of the most important days in the Irish GAA calendar. Munster is the only province in Ireland that all of its counties have won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.
Traditionally, the dominant teams in Munster football are Kerry GAA and Cork GAA, although Tipperary GAA and Limerick GAA have won All-Ireland Senior Football Championships. Kerry in particular are the most successful county in the history of football. Rugby is a popular game in the cities of Limerick a
Macroom is a market town in County Cork, Ireland which formed in the valley of the River Sullane, about halfway between Cork city and Killarney. Its Irish Gaelic may translate as "meeting place of followers of the god Crom" or "crooked oak", the latter a reference to a large oak tree that grew in the town-square during the reign of the English King John, its population has grown and receded over the centuries as it went through periods of war and workhouses, forced emigration and intermittent prosperity. In a 2011 census, the urban area was recorded as 3,879 people. Macroom began as a meeting place for the Druids of Munster, it is first mentioned is in 6th-century records, the immediate area hosted a major battle c. 987 involving the Irish king Brian Boru. During the middle ages, the town was invaded by a succession of warring clans, including the Murcheatach Uí Briain and Richard de Cogan families. In the early modern period the MacCarthy's took control and the area found prosperity via milling.
The MacCarthys built a series of tower houses. The family lost influence during the Williamite wars of the 1690s, after which authority over the town castle waxed and waned between the MacCarthys and a number of ambitious English families. In the 17th century, Macroom became a central point of conflict in the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland; the population fell in the 1840s during the Great Irish Famine. Evidenced can be found in the former workhouse, now the district hospital at the north side of New Street, the mass graveyard to the west, near Clondrohid. During the late 18th and early 19th century a number of Anglo-Irish families, a branch of the Massey family, settled in the area. From 1976 to 1982 Macroom hosted the Mountain Dew Rock festival, with lineups that included Rory Gallagher, Thin Lizzy and Van Morrison, attended by Sex Pistol John Lydon. Today the town is an economic hub for the mid west Cork region, host to a major Danone milk processing factory, which dries and cans Infant formula, from milk supplied by local dairy farmers.
Until the 1950s New Street was the town's economic hub, contained many small retail outlets. Evidence of the human activity in the area survives from pre-history the many iron age burial monuments. Macroom seems to have been a centre for a base for the Druids of Munster; the first historical reference to Macroom dates from the 6th century, when the townland was known as Achad Dorbchon and held within the kingdom of Muscraighe Mitine. The Eóganachta were the dominant clan of Munster. At some point, they were replaced by the Uí Floinn, who commissioned a castle in Macroom so as to establish Raithleann as capital of Muskerry. Muscraighe Mitine underwent three invasions during the 13th century; the Murcheatach Uí Briain and Richard de Cogan arrived in 1207 respectively. From the 14th century, Macroom became the capital of the Barony of Muskerry and the centre for trade and religious worship, it was one of the earliest Irish milling centres, from the end of the 16th century the town grew from a village to a functionally diverse urban centre.
The locality grew outwards from the castle. The MacCarthys established the town as a centre for markets and fairs, in 1620 a market house was built to the east of and facing the castle; the family introduced a plantation scheme which aimed to attract new agriculture and industrial techniques and methods to the area. By the mid-17th century English families owned one-third of the town in value terms; the Protestant families introduced a labour-intensive industry. A 1750 tenement list details 134 buildings and 300 families, with a population ratio of 6 to 1 between Catholic and Protestants; the town had developed from a locality of mud cabins in the early 1660s to a linear shaped urban settlement of thatched cabins, which were replaced by solid cottages following a campaign by the Irish Land and Labour Association. Macroom Castle was for a period controlled by Admiral Sir William Penn, a British Admiral and father of William Penn, after whom the U. S. state of Pennsylvania is named. The 1650 battle of Macroom was waged as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, when the English Parliamentarian force under Roger Boyle defeated an Irish Confederate force under David Roche.
Bishop Boetius MacEgan, fighting on behalf of the MacCarthys, failed to hold the castle and was taken prisoner by the Cromwellian forces and hanged at Carrigadrohid. Macroom was the main base in Cork for the British Auxiliary Division during the 1919–1921 Irish War of Independence; the Irish Republican Army was active in the county in the areas around Macroom and Dunmanway. Royal Irish Constabulary police in the town described the area as "practically in a state of war". After a series of burnings of local police barracks and courthouses a curfew was imposed on the town, with a ban on public meetings and market fairs. A local IRA member wrote of a "hinterland unpoliced and unwatched"; the local police felt they had lost control and the Auxiliaries were called to intervene. The townspeople treated army personnel with hostility, there were instances of patrols being stoned; the Brits were embroiled in a guerrilla battle in the Muskerry hills, coming under fire from the Ballyvourney IRA cell, lost three men – two of