Gibeah is one of several place names appearing in several books of the Hebrew Bible. In one instance, it is identified with Tell el-Fūl, a hill in the northern reaches of modern Jerusalem, on the outskirts of the Pisgat Ze'ev and Shuafat neighborhoods. However, this identification was challenged by Israel Finkelstein in 2011. In another instance, Conder identifies the Palestinian village of Jab'a with the biblical town of Gibeah, mentioned in Joshua 15:57. Gibeah may be a variation of the Hebrew word meaning "hill". Other names include Gibeah of God, Gibeah of Benjamin for it is in the territory of the Tribe of Benjamin, Gibeah of Saul, where biblical King Saul lived. Gibeah is believed to be located along the Central Benjamin Plateau, 3 miles north of Jerusalem along the watershed ridge at 2,754 feet above sea level. Benjamin allotment - Joshua 18:28 Awarta is the Gibeah of Phinehas and the burial place of his father, the son of Aaron - Joshua 24:33 The Turning Out of the Concubine of Gibeah, the Battle of Gibeah - - Judges 19-21 Israel’s first king, King Saul, reigned from Gibeah for 38 years - 1 Samuel 8-31 Prophetic mention during the period of the Divided Kingdom - Hosea 5:8, 9:9, 10:9.
D. - Josephus, War of the Jews King Hussein of Jordan began construction on his royal palace at Tel el-Ful, but construction was halted when the Six-Day War broke out. Since Israel won the war, King Hussein's palace was never finished and now all that remains is the skeleton of the building; the site was first excavated in 1868 by Charles Warren, while C. R. Conder described the remains in 1874. William F. Albright led his first excavation from 1922 to 1923, returned for a second season in 1923, his work was published in 1960. P. W. Lapp conducted a six-week salvage excavation in 1964. According to Kenneth Kitchen "Upon this strategic point was found an Iron I occupation replaced by a fortress, subsequently refurbished, later in disuse; the oldest level may reflect the Gibeah of Judg 19-20. The excavations by Albright, checked by Lapp, would favor the view that it was Saul who built the first fortress repaired by him or David; the first fort had at least one rectangular corner-tower at its southwest angle.
History of Ancient Israel and Judah W. F. Albright, The Archaeology of Palestine. P. Arnold, Anchor Bible Dictionary. N. Lapp, Tell Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. L. A. Sinclair, An Archaeological Study of Gibeah
Ark of the Covenant
The Ark of the Covenant known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a gold-covered wooden chest with lid cover described in the Book of Exodus as containing the two stone tablets of the Ten Commandments. According to various texts within the Hebrew Bible, it contained Aaron's rod and a pot of manna. Hebrews 9:4 describes: "The ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in, a golden jar holding the manna, Aaron's rod which budded, the tablets of the covenant."The biblical account relates that one year after the Israelites' exodus from Egypt, the Ark was created according to the pattern given to Moses by God when the Israelites were encamped at the foot of biblical Mount Sinai. Thereafter, the gold-plated acacia chest was carried by its staves while en route by the Levites 2,000 cubits in advance of the people when on the march or before the Israelite army, the host of fighting men; when carried, the Ark was always hidden under a large veil made of skins and blue cloth, always concealed from the eyes of the priests and the Levites who carried it.
God was said to have spoken with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. When at rest the tabernacle was set up and the holy Ark was placed in it under the veil of the covering, the staves of it crossing the middle side bars to hold it up off the ground. According to the Book of Exodus, God instructed Moses on Mount Sinai during his 40-day stay upon the mountain within the thick cloud and darkness where God was and he was shown the pattern for the tabernacle and furnishings of the Ark to be made of shittim wood to house the Tablets of Stone. Moses instructed Oholiab to construct the Ark.. In Deuteronomy, the Ark is said to have been built by Moses himself without reference of Bezalel or Oholiab; the Book of Exodus gives detailed instructions on. It is to be 21⁄2 cubits in length, 11⁄2 in breadth, 11⁄2 in height, it is to be gilded with gold, a crown or molding of gold is to be put around it. Four rings of gold are to be attached to its four corners, two on each side—and through these rings staves of shittim-wood overlaid with gold for carrying the Ark are to be inserted.
A golden lid, the kapporet, covered with 2 golden cherubim, is to be placed above the Ark. Missing from the account are instructions concerning the thickness of the mercy seat and details about the cherubim other than that the cover be beaten out the ends of the Ark and that they form the space where God will appear; the Ark is to be placed under the veil of the covering. The biblical account continues that, after its creation by Moses, the Ark was carried by the Israelites during their 40 years of wandering in the desert. Whenever the Israelites camped, the Ark was placed in a separate room in a sacred tent, called the Tabernacle; when the Israelites, led by Joshua toward the Promised Land, arrived at the banks of the Jordan river, the Ark was carried in the lead preceding the people and was the signal for their advance. During the crossing, the river grew dry as soon as the feet of the priests carrying the Ark touched its waters, remained so until the priests—with the Ark—left the river after the people had passed over.
As memorials, twelve stones were taken from the Jordan at the place. In the Battle of Jericho, the Ark was carried round the city once a day for seven days, preceded by the armed men and seven priests sounding seven trumpets of rams' horns. On the seventh day, the seven priests sounding the seven trumpets of rams' horns before the Ark compassed the city seven times and, with a great shout, Jericho's wall fell down flat and the people took the city. After the defeat at Ai, Joshua lamented before the Ark; when Joshua read the Law to the people between Mount Gerizim and Mount Ebal, they stood on each side of the Ark. We next hear of the Ark in Bethel where it was being cared for by the priest Phineas the grandson of Aaron. According to this verse it was consulted by the people of Israel when they were planning to attack the Benjaminites at the battle of Gibeah. However, the Ark was kept at Shiloh, another religious centre some 16 km north of Bethel, at the time of the prophet Samuel's apprenticeship, where it was cared for by Hophni and Phinehas, two sons of Eli.
A few years the elders of Israel decided to take the Ark out onto the battlefield to assist them against the Philistines, after being defeated at the battle of Eben-Ezer. They were, however defeated with the loss of 30,000 men; the Ark was captured by the Philistines and Hophni and Phinehas were killed. The news of its capture was at once taken to Shiloh by a messenger "with his clothes rent, with earth upon his head." The old priest, fell dead when he heard it. The mother of the child Ichabod died at his birth; the Philistines took the Ark to several places in their country, at each place misfortune befell them. At Ashdod it was placed in the temple of Dagon; the next morning Dagon was found prostrate, bowed down, before it. The people of Ashdod were smitten with tumors; the affliction of boi
Easton's Bible Dictionary
The Illustrated Bible Dictionary, better known as Easton's Bible Dictionary, is a reference work on topics related to the Christian Bible compiled by Matthew George Easton. The first edition was published in 1893, a revised edition was published the following year; the most popular edition, was the third, published by Thomas Nelson in 1897, three years after Easton's death. The last contains nearly 4,000 entries relating to the Bible. Many of the entries in Easton's are encyclopedic in nature, although there are short dictionary-type entries; because of its age, it is now a public domain resource. Bauer lexicon Smith's Bible Dictionary, another popular 19th century Bible dictionary Easton, Matthew George, ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... New York: Harper & Bros. Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, M. G. ed. Illustrated Bible Dictionary... London: T. Nelson & Sons Easton, Matthew George. "Table of contents". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons.
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According to the Tanakh, Uzzah or Uzza, meaning strength, was an Israelite whose death is associated with touching the Ark of the Covenant. Uzzah was the son of Abinadab, in whose house the men of Kirjath-jearim placed the Ark when it was brought back from the land of the Philistines. With his brother Ahio, he drove the cart on which the ark was placed when David sought to bring it up to Jerusalem; when the oxen stumbled, Uzzah steadied the ark with his hand, in direct violation of the divine law, he was killed for his error. David, displeased because the Lord had killed Uzzah, called the place where this occurred Perez-uzzah, which means "to burst out against Uzzah". David was afraid to bring the ark any further, placed it in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite for three months; the Lord blessed Obed-edom and David went and brought up the ark of God into the city of David. Uzzah, son of Shimei, was a Merarite; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Matthew George.
"Uzzah". Easton's Bible Dictionary. T. Nelson and Sons
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.