Ahmad Ghazālī was a Persian mystic and eloquent preacher. He is best known in the history of Sufism for his ideas on love, expressed in the celebrated work entitled Sawāneḥ; the younger brother of the celebrated theologian and Sufi, Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad al-Ghazālī, Ahmad Ghazālī was born in a village near Tūs, in Khorasan. Here he was educated in jurisprudence, he turned to Sufism while still young, becoming the pupil first of Abu Bakr Nassaj Tusi and of Abu Ali Farmadi. He was advanced in Sufism by 1095, his brother Abū Ḥāmid asked him to teach in his place in the Nezamiya of Baghdad and assume responsibility during his planned absence. Ahmad Ghazālī’s thought, centered as it was on the idea of love, left a profound mark on the development of Persian mystical literature poetry celebrating love. Many of the topoi used by poets such as ʿAṭṭār, Saʿdī, ʿIrāqī, Ḥāfeẓ, to name but a few, can be traced to his works the Sawāneḥ. Among his predecessors, he was influenced most by Ḥallāj, he made of his idea of essential love the basis of his own thought.
His belief that all created beauty is an emanation of divine beauty was Hallajian or neo-Platonic in origin. Since God is both absolute beauty and the lover of all phenomenal beauty, Ahmad Ghazālī maintained, to adore any object of beauty is to participate in a divine act of love. Hence the practice of naẓar-bāzī or šāhed-bāzī, gazing on young and beautiful faces, a practice for which he became notorious. Ahmad Ghazālī travelled extensively in the capacities of a popular preacher, he visited Nishapur, Maragheh and Isfahan. He initiated and trained eminent masters of Sufism including Ayn al-Quzat Hamadani, Abu al-Najib al-Suhrawardi; the latter was the founder of the Suhrawardiyya Order and its derivatives such as the Kubrawiyya, Mevlevi and Ni'matullāhī orders. He is buried there. Sawāneḥ, a little book comprising some 77 short chapters, it was innovative in form, for at a time when Persian Sufi authors used only prose, Ghazālī had recourse to verse in order to illustrate in metaphorical fashion the themes he expounded more technically in the prose sections of his work.
Risālat al-ṭayr: In this work Ghazālī employs the metaphor of a bird and its journey to speak of the spiritual path to illumination in God. This work set a precedent for the Conference of the Birds by Attar of Nishapur. Al-tajrīd fī kalimat al-tawḥīd, a theological and mystical interpretation of the basic testimony of Islam, Lā ilāha illā Allāh, which reflects his adherence to the Ashʿarite school of theology. Baḥr al-maḥabba fī a Sufi commentary on Sūrat Yūsuf. Bawāriq al-ilmāʾ fī l-radd ‘alā man yuḥarrim al-samāʾ, a description and justification of the Sufi Sama ritual and apology for the compatibility of music and Islam
Beykoz Spor Kulübü Derneği, today known for sponsorship reasons as TTNet Beykoz, is a Turkish sports club based in Beykoz, Istanbul. Their home arena is Beykoz Sport Hall. Beykoz was founded in 1908. Team colours are yellow; the Beykoz football team played in the Turkish First League for eight seasons. The team played in the Third League as Beykozspor 1908 AŞ, the fourth level of Turkish football, were promoted to the Second League in the 2007–08 season as champions; the first American basketball player in Turkey, Clev Cristy, was player of Beykoz in the 1961–62 season. The team is sponsored by Türk Telekom Internet Service; the basketball section of the club have won the Turkish Basketball Championship in 1946. First Level: 1988–1990, 2005–2008 Second Level:?, 2008–2011 Regional Level: 2011– Turkish Super League: 1958–66 TFF First League: 1966–71, 1972–79, 1980–84, 1986–91 TFF Second League: 1971–72, 1979–80, 1984–86, 1991–01, 2007–2009 TFF Third League: 2001–07, 2009–11 Turkish Regional Amateur League: 2011–13 Istanbul Super Amateur League: 2013–Note: Beykozspor finished the Istanbul Super Amateur League 3rd Group in 11th place and relegated to Istanbul First Amateur League.
But, they took place of İstanbul PTT and became Beykozspor 1908. They finished SAL 7th Group as 4th in 2014–15 season Beykoz 1908 Supporters' web site Statistics
Emily Martin is a sinologist and feminist. She is a professor of socio-cultural anthropology at New York University, she received her undergraduate degree from the University of Michigan and her PhD degree from Cornell University in 1971. Before 1984, she published works under the name of Emily Martin Ahern. After earning a Ph. D. in anthropology, Martin was on the faculty of the University of California and Yale University. In 1974, she joined the faculty of Johns Hopkins University, she was a professor at Princeton University from 1994 to 2001 and became a professor at New York University. In 2019, she was awarded the prestigious Vega Medal by the Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography in recognition of her signal contributions to anthropology. Martin's work on sinology focused on topics both in Mainland Taiwan; these topics included Chinese religion and rituals, politics, traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese women's culture, Chinese rural culture, Chinese lineages and genealogies, etc.
Martin focuses the anthropology of science and analyzes science from a feminist perspective. Her work includes detailed analysis on related things. From her feminist perspective, Martin argues that current scientific literature is gender-biased, that such bias has become entrenched in our language. According to Martin, scientific explanations such as “the sperm forcefully penetrates the egg” are presented in a sexist way, to the disadvantage of women. Martin began researching the analogies used in science education starting in 1982. Pregnant with her second child, Martin noticed a pattern in her expecting parents' class how the woman's body and its parts were described and referred to "as if these things weren't a part of us." Martin began with interviews with women regarding their perspective on female reproductive issues and compiled her research of interviews into a book called The Woman in the Body. Martin began to expand on her research by interviewing scientists and including the topic of male reproductive processes.
All of these topics were encompassed under fertilization and elaborated on in Martin's article The Egg and the Sperm: How Science Has Constructed a Romance Based on Stereotypical Male-Female Roles. For example, Martin notes that our perception on menstruation is negative and misogynistic. We tend to think menstruation as a failure, because the egg is not fertilized and the woman's uterine tissues begin to “break down” or “slough off". Martin ascribes this perception to linguistic and cultural gender bias - words used to describe menstruation imply failure, structural breakdown and destruction, wound; this wound perception is reinforced by the fact that, during menstruation, the woman bleeds and may suffer from pain and discomfort. Martin contends that menstruation is a normal physiological function and process, which should be viewed as a success - i.e. the success of the female body in avoiding pregnancy, the success of the female body in ridding itself of harmful material from the uterus.
Yet, our language and culture prevent this. Such gender bias is responsible for our tendency to “praise” males for their “amazing” ability to produce a huge amount of sperm, despite of the fact that the sperm is a lot cheaper, biologically, to produce compared to the egg, the sperm suffer an high mortality in the female reproductive tract. Another example of Martin's feminist analysis of reproduction involves the sperm; the egg, in Martin's view, reinforces our culture's view of passive “damsel in distress” image, while the active sperm races to the egg to penetrate her. The truth is, the egg is not so easy to penetrate as believed. One sperm is not powerful enough to penetrate an egg - the egg's barrier can only be weakened by the collective efforts of a number of sperm. Martin suggests alternative descriptions of fertilization, she notes that research at the Johns Hopkins University has shown that the sperm does not have a powerful thrust, fertilization occurs because the egg traps the sperm.
Furthermore, she notes that work by Paul Wassarman singled out a particular molecule on the egg coat which binds the sperm. This molecule was called a'sperm receptor' which has passive connations, whereas the corresponding molecule on the sperm is the'egg binding protein'. "Usually in biological research, the protein member of the pair of binding molecules is called the receptor, physically it has a pocket in it rather like a lock. As the diagrams that illustrate Wassarman's article show, the molecules on the sperm are proteins and have "pockets." The small, mobile molecules that fit into these pockets are called ligands. As shown in the diagrams, ZP3 on the egg is a polymer of"keys". Molecules on the sperm would be called receptors and molecules on the egg would be called ligands, but Wassarman chose to name ZP3 on the egg the receptor and to create a new term, "the egg-binding protein," for the molecule on the sperm that otherwise would have been called the receptor." Martin sees this as one of many example of sexist language entrenched in the imagery of reproduction, resents the constant role of sperm as aggressor despite research which points otherwises.
Martin's analysis yields four main lessons: 1. We think we know a lot because of science in this age, but the truth is, the way we inte